Work 53
Author 863
Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn Rushd, and Al-Fārābī, 2023
By: G. Hussein Rassool, Mugheera M. Luqman
Title Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn Rushd, and Al-Fārābī
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2023
Published in Foundations of Islāmic Psychology. From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers
Pages 48-55
Categories al-Fārābī, Psychology
Author(s) G. Hussein Rassool , Mugheera M. Luqman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this particular chapter, three physicians Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn Rushd, and Al-Fārābī, who made some contributions, directly and indirectly, to the development of psychology, are presented. Ibn Miskawayh can be regarded as one of the earliest positive, educational, cognitive psychologists for his treatise on Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq. In positive psychology, he showed how to reach supreme happiness and its virtues. To reach such state, psychological conditions and environmental factors can shape the supreme happiness of human being. The development of a theory of psychotherapy has also been attributed to Ibn Miskawayh and introduced what is now known as "self-reinforcement" and response cost. Ibn Rushd's views on psychology are most fully discussed in his Talkhis Kitab al-Nafs as it "surpasses other sciences, except for divine science." Ibn Rushd described three-fold hierarchy of learning. Ibn Rushd argued that we experience health and illness, and that religious texts contain important information as to how we should behave. What is remarkable with Ibn Rushd is that he examined critically diverse views and argued that all these views are acceptable from different perspectives. Al Fārābī in his Ārāʾ Ahl al-Madīnah al-Fāḍilah describes several principles of social psychology using invented exemplars. Al-Fārābī suggested that the perfect human being has both theoretical virtue and practical moral virtues. At the heart of Al-Farabi's political philosophy is the concept of happiness in which people cooperate to gain contentment. Al-Fārābī used observable realities and experimentation based on clear evidence even though relied on scriptural sources for his intellectual discourse. Al-Fārābī wrote on dreams and explained the distinction between dream Interpretation and the nature and trigger of dreams. His writings on the therapeutic effect of music on the soul later influenced modern mental health and treatment.

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Foundations of Islāmic Psychology. From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers, 2023
By: G. Hussein Rassool, Mugheera M. Luqman
Title Foundations of Islāmic Psychology. From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2023
Publication Place London
Publisher Routledge
Categories Psychology, al-Ġazālī, al-Kindī, Avicenna
Author(s) G. Hussein Rassool , Mugheera M. Luqman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Foundations of Islāmic Psychology: From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers examines the history of Islāmic psychology from the Islāmic Golden age through the early 21st century, giving a thorough look into Islāmic psychology’s origins, Islāmic philosophy and theology, and key developments in Islāmic psychology. In tracing psychology from its origins in early civilisations, ancient philosophy, and religions to the modern discipline of psychology, this book integrates overarching psychological principles and ideas that have shaped the global history of Islāmic psychology. It examines the legacy of psychology from an Islāmic perspective, looking at the contributions of early Islāmic classical scholars and contemporary psychologists, and to introduce how the history of Islāmic philosophy and sciences has contributed to the development of classical and modern Islāmic psychology from its founding to the present. With each chapter covering a key thinker or moment, and also covering the globalisation of psychology, the Islāmisation of knowledge, and the decolonisation of psychology, the work critically evaluates the effects of the globalisation of psychology and its lasting impact on indigenous culture. This book aims to engage and inspire students taking undergraduate and graduate courses on Islāmic psychology, to recognise the power of history in the academic studies of Islāmic psychology, to connect history to the present and the future, and to think critically. It is also ideal reading for researchers and those undertaking continuing professional development in Islāmic psychology, psychotherapy, and counselling.

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Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 253–274
Categories Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The most famous, or infamous, proposal in Plato's Republic concerns the rule of philosopher-kings. Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole. Averroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics. The form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as “we said,” and “Plato said.” In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.

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Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics.\r\n\r\nThe form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as \u201cwe said,\u201d and \u201cPlato said.\u201d In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. 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New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat, 2022
By: Joshua Parens
Title Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 233–252
Categories Nicomachean ethics, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Joshua Parens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume—namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions—that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions—form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics—putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10—and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17–74.12).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5357","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5357,"authors_free":[{"id":6208,"entry_id":5357,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1783,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Joshua Parens","free_first_name":"Joshua","free_last_name":" Parens","norm_person":{"id":1783,"first_name":"Joshua","last_name":"Parens","full_name":"Joshua Parens","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/172958881","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Joshua Parens"}}],"entry_title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat"},"abstract":"As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume\u2014namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions\u2014that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions\u2014form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics\u2014putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10\u2014and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17\u201374.12).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.012","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":70,"category_name":"Nicomachean ethics","link":"bib?categories[]=Nicomachean ethics"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1783,"full_name":"Joshua Parens","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5357,"section_of":5346,"pages":"233\u2013252","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”: Method, Motivation, and Context, 2022
By: Michael Engel
Title The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”: Method, Motivation, and Context
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 297–318
Categories Transmission
Author(s) Michael Engel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” was translated twice into Latin; both translations were made from the Hebrew version of Samuel ben Judah of Marseille. The first translation was done by Elijah Del Medigo (ca. 1455–93), a Crete-born Jew, who spent most of his life in northern Italy, Crete being at that time under Venetian rule. Although a devout Jew, Del Medigo's immediate intellectual milieu was Christian, mostly made up of figures related in some way to the university of Padua and to powerful circles in Venice. Most of Del Medigo's literary output was in Latin—including his Hebrew-into-Latin translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic”—and he himself translated some of his own original Latin works into Hebrew. Thematically, Del Medigo focused almost solely on the works of Averroes. His translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” was part of his general endeavour of translating and commenting on the works of Averroes, while working at the service of his Christian patrons—namely, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Domenico Grimani. On his return to Crete, toward the end of his life, Del Medigo composed his Hebrew work Beḥinat haDat, which became his most celebrated work. In that work Del Medigo examines the relation between Judaism and rational thought, determining the rational nature of Judaism as opposed to the irrational character of Christian dogmas. The second translation was by the Jewish physician and translator Jacob Mantino (d. 1549). Mantino, a Jewish physician who lived most of his life in Italy, had close relationships with bishops and cardinals to whom he dedicated several of his translations and he was the personal physician to Pope Paul III. Mantino translated many of Averroes's commentaries, and was, according to Dag Hasse, “the most prolific and most acclaimed among all Renaissance translators of Averroes.” Del Medigo's translation was never printed during the Renaissance; it was discovered by Paul Oscar Kristeller in a Siena manuscript and published as a critical edition in 1992. Mantino's translation, first published in 1539, was printed four times during the Renaissance, yet has never received a modern edition. This chapter begins with a general overview of the two translations, discussing their different nature in light of the different circumstances surrounding their production.

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Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought, 2022
By: Alexander Green
Title Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 277–296
Categories Tradition and Reception, Influence
Author(s) Alexander Green
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The ethical and political writings by late medieval Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Plato's Republic. Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” into Hebrew in the 1320s that gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the central classical text on political philosophy for Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's Republic came to influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted the Republic's core ideas. Samuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into Hebrew The introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the nature of the political community took place after Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” from Arabic into Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and 1322. Samuel came from an established family in Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don) Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and astronomy. The movement of translating the great works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165−1232) in the first decades of the thirteenth century and been furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn Tibbon (ca. 1195−1274), his son-in-law, Jacob Anatoli (1194−1256), and his grandson, Jacob b. Makhir (ca. 1236−1304), was gradually coming to an end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben Qalonimos (ca. 1286−1328) in the first decades of the fourteenth century. It had already begun to transform Judaism into what some have termed a philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model of philosophic religion is that it was overly focused on natural science and mostly ignored practical philosophy.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5359","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5359,"authors_free":[{"id":6210,"entry_id":5359,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Green","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Green","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Three Readings of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d in Medieval Jewish Thought","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Three Readings of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d in Medieval Jewish Thought"},"abstract":"The ethical and political writings by late medieval Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Plato's Republic. Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d into Hebrew in the 1320s that gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the central classical text on political philosophy for Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's Republic came to influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted the Republic's core ideas.\r\n\r\nSamuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into Hebrew\r\n\r\nThe introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the nature of the political community took place after Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d from Arabic into Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and 1322. Samuel came from an established family in Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don) Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and astronomy. The movement of translating the great works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165\u22121232) in the first decades of the thirteenth century and been furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn Tibbon (ca. 1195\u22121274), his son-in-law, Jacob Anatoli (1194\u22121256), and his grandson, Jacob b. Makhir (ca. 1236\u22121304), was gradually coming to an end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben Qalonimos (ca. 1286\u22121328) in the first decades of the fourteenth century. It had already begun to transform Judaism into what some have termed a philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model of philosophic religion is that it was overly focused on natural science and mostly ignored practical philosophy.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"},{"id":24,"category_name":"Influence","link":"bib?categories[]=Influence"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5359,"section_of":5346,"pages":"277\u2013296","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press.
Categories Theology, Politics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this book, Rasoul Namazi offers the first in-depth study of Leo Strauss' writings on Islamic political thought, a topic that interested Strauss over the course of his career. Namazi's volume focuses on several important studies by Strauss on Islamic thought. He critically analyzes Strauss's notes on Averroes' commentary on Plato's Republic and also proposes an interpretation of Strauss' theologico-political notes on the Arabian Nights. Namazi also interprets Strauss' essay on Alfarabi's enigmatic treatise, The Philosophy of Plato and provides a detailed commentary on his complex essay devoted to Alfarabi's summary of Plato's Laws. Based on previously unpublished material from Strauss' papers, Namazi's volume provides new insights into Strauss' reflections on religion, philosophy, and politics, and their relationship to wisdom, persecution, divine law, and unbelief in the works of key Muslim thinkers. His work presents Strauss as one of the most innovative historians and scholars of Islamic thought of all time.

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Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary, 2022
By: Dustin Klinger
Title Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 32
Issue 1
Pages 109–135
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Providence
Author(s) Dustin Klinger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the fresh reading proposed here of the still not satisfactorily interpreted passages in Metaphysics Ε2-3, Aristotle emerges as making a case against determinism based on a robust notion of the accident. Accidental beings are uncaused causes and have their rightful place in Aristotle's ontology. The resulting physical indeterminism is here used as a litmus test for the exegetical practice of the great Commentator, Averroes, whose self-proclaimed, and later proverbial, loyalty to Aristotle's text will be shown to give way to idiosyncratic interpretations at times. His explanations of Metaphysics Ε2-3 are sparse and no less obscure than Aristotle's text. It is only when read together with his commentaries on the Physics, to which he explicitly refers twice in his Long commentary on Metaphysics Ε2-3, that a surprising picture emerges. Averroes recycles the notion of the accident, now reconceptualised in cosmological terms, and – putting it to the opposite use of Aristotle's – weaves it into an original theory of motion that integrates both supra- and sublunar realms into a deterministic framework of uninterrupted causal chains, thus safeguarding the principle of Divine providence.

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Secundum Avenroem: Pico della Mirandola, Elia del Medigo e la «seconda rivelazione» di Averroè, 2022
By: Giovanni Licata
Title Secundum Avenroem: Pico della Mirandola, Elia del Medigo e la «seconda rivelazione» di Averroè
Type Monograph
Language Italian
Date 2022
Publication Place Palermo
Publisher Officina di Studi Medievali
Series Machina philosophorum
Categories Tradition and Reception, Surveys, Renaissance, Latin Averroism
Author(s) Giovanni Licata
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Forse mai come nel Rinascimento vi è stato un interesse così intenso verso la filosofia e la scienza arabe. Ne sono esempio macroscopico le opere di Averroè, oggetto di una seconda massiccia ondata di traduzioni latine tra il 1488 e il 1562, dopo la prima ondata del XIII secolo. Questo volume dimostra come Giovanni Pico della Mirandola - icona mitica dell'Umanesimo e padre della scoperta della qabbalah - fu anche indiscutibile pioniere e sponsor della traduzione di un vasto corpus di opere filosofiche di Averroè (e di altri filosofi islamici ed ebrei), a partire dalle versioni ebraiche medievali. L'analisi minuziosa dei manoscritti "averroistici" posseduti e postillati da Pico ha dato avvio a un'indagine a tutto campo sulle fonti dell'averroismo rinascimentale, all'interno del quale il filosofo e traduttore ebreo-cretese Elia del Medigo (c. 1455-c. 1493) si rivela uno dei protagonisti. Le opere originali e le nuove traduzioni compiute da Del Medigo, su richiesta di Pico, costituiscono infatti l'atto di nascita di quella "seconda rivelazione" di Averroè che culminerà nella pubblicazione della monumentale edizione giuntina (1550-52, 1562) dell'Aristotele e dell'Averroè latino. Questo volume valorizza l’insieme della produzione averroistica di Del Medigo, mostrandone l’indisgiungibile rapporto con le 900 Tesi di Pico (pubblicate nel 1486) e l’importanza che rivestì anche per le successive generazioni di traduttori dall’ebraico. Di alcune opere e traduzioni di Del Medigo si offre qui, per la prima volta, l’edizione critica.

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Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin (Ed.)
Title Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2022
Publisher Boydell & Brewer
Categories al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Logic, Theology, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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, 1999
By: Josep-Ignasi Saranyana
Title
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 1999
Published in Historia de la filosofia medieval
Categories Surveys
Author(s) Josep-Ignasi Saranyana
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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, 2001
By: Josep-Ignasi Saranyana
Title
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 2001
Published in Breve historia de la filosofía medieval
Pages 62–67
Categories Surveys
Author(s) Josep-Ignasi Saranyana
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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, 1996
By: Stefan Wild

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Averroès: Ibn Rochd: philosophe de l´humanité, 2021
By: Abderrahim Bouzelmate
Title Averroès: Ibn Rochd: philosophe de l´humanité
Type Monograph
Language French
Date 2021
Publication Place Paris
Publisher al-Bouraq
Series Figures musulmanes
Categories Biography, Surveys
Author(s) Abderrahim Bouzelmate
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Adressé au grand public, cet ouvrage s'efforce de faire le point sur l'une des figures majeures de la philosophie musulmane, Ibn Rochd (Averroès). Né à Cordoue en 1126, il est avant tout un homme de science. Théologien, philosophe, médecin et juriste : il s'intéresse à tous les domaines de la pensée. Il meurt en 1198 à Marrakech. Après avoir dépeint l'ambiance et l'époque dans lesquelles Averroès voit le jour, Abderrahim Bouzelmate nous offre dans cet essai une perspective originale : Que doit-on tirer des enseignements du philosophe de Cordoue ? Quelle a été sa postérité et comment pourrait-elle nous servir aujourd'hui, huit siècles plus tard ? En réalité, l'élite cultivée et les principales institutions intellectuelles et religieuses du Moyen-Age et de la Renaissance (en Occident) lisent et revisitent sa pensée durant des siècles. Réduit par les uns à un simple transmetteur de l'héritage grec à l'Occident, accusé par les autres d'athéisme, de philosophie dépravée et même de fondamentalisme religieux, Ibn Rochd, esprit libre et homme de foi, a pourtant poursuivi un but cohérent qui fut décisif dans l'histoire de la pensée. Ce livre tend à le démontrer : la raison épouse la foi.

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Commentary on Aristotle’s 'On Generation and Corruption': Critical Edition and Translation with an Introduction and Glossaries, 2021
By: Corrado la Martire (Ed.), Ibn Bāǧǧa
Title Commentary on Aristotle’s 'On Generation and Corruption': Critical Edition and Translation with an Introduction and Glossaries
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Berlin
Publisher De Gruyter
Series Scientia Graeco-Arabica
Volume 29
Categories Aristotle, Commentary
Author(s) Corrado la Martire , Ibn Bāǧǧa
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Bāğğa’s commentary on Aristotle’s On Generation and Corruption (Kitāb al-Kawn wa-l-fasād, Latin De generatione et corruptione) is one of the first commentaries to elaborate on the essential aspect of Aristotle’s text, that is, the analysis of change (μεταβολή, taġayyur). The commentary’s extant parts comprise a consecutive exposition of the contents of Aristotle’s work. However, the commentary may be read more as an introduction or a guide to the topic of generation than as a substitution for the original, as the paraphrases by Averroes seem to have become in the later tradition. The present study provides a new critical edition of the Arabic text and, for the first time, an English translation and a study of the structure of the commentary on the basis of the only two known manuscripts.

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Ibn Rušd al-Ḥafīd (Averroes) y su exilio a Lucena: orígenes judíos, genealogía y conversión forzosa, 2017
By: Maribel Fierro
Title Ibn Rušd al-Ḥafīd (Averroes) y su exilio a Lucena: orígenes judíos, genealogía y conversión forzosa
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 38
Issue 2
Pages 131–152
Categories no categories
Author(s) Maribel Fierro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Irrtum - Error - Erreur, 2018
By: Andreas Speer (Ed.), Maxime Mauriège (Ed.)
Title Irrtum - Error - Erreur
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2018
Publication Place Berlin; Boston
Publisher De Gruyter
Series Miscellanea Mediaevalia
Volume 40
Categories Science, Medicine, Psychology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Andreas Speer , Maxime Mauriège
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The volume is a comprehensive evaluation of epistemic, practical, veridical issues from the perspective of every kind of failure, disruption, or confusion that comes under the general rubric of “error.” The analysis is not limited to the element of negativity, but rather, an inquiry about the extent that error can be transformed into a starting point or precondition for successful epistemic practices.

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Yahyâ ibn ‘Adî and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton, 2015
By: Peter Adamson
Title Yahyâ ibn ‘Adî and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Studies on Early Arabic Philosophy
Pages 343–373
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Peter Adamson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"... set hominem anima". Thomas d'Aquin et la pensée humaine comme acte du composé , 2006
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title "... set hominem anima". Thomas d'Aquin et la pensée humaine comme acte du composé
Type Article
Language French
Date 2006
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 59
Pages 69–96
Categories Psychology, Thomas
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"Averroes. Leben, Werke und Lehre", s.v. "Averroes, Averroismus", 1980
By: Georges C. Anawati
Title "Averroes. Leben, Werke und Lehre", s.v. "Averroes, Averroismus"
Type Article
Language German
Date 1980
Pages 1291–92
Categories Surveys
Author(s) Georges C. Anawati
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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