Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn Rushd, and Al-Fārābī, 2023
By: G. Hussein Rassool, Mugheera M. Luqman
Title Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn Rushd, and Al-Fārābī
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2023
Published in Foundations of Islāmic Psychology. From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers
Pages 48-55
Categories al-Fārābī, Psychology
Author(s) G. Hussein Rassool , Mugheera M. Luqman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this particular chapter, three physicians Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn Rushd, and Al-Fārābī, who made some contributions, directly and indirectly, to the development of psychology, are presented. Ibn Miskawayh can be regarded as one of the earliest positive, educational, cognitive psychologists for his treatise on Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq. In positive psychology, he showed how to reach supreme happiness and its virtues. To reach such state, psychological conditions and environmental factors can shape the supreme happiness of human being. The development of a theory of psychotherapy has also been attributed to Ibn Miskawayh and introduced what is now known as "self-reinforcement" and response cost. Ibn Rushd's views on psychology are most fully discussed in his Talkhis Kitab al-Nafs as it "surpasses other sciences, except for divine science." Ibn Rushd described three-fold hierarchy of learning. Ibn Rushd argued that we experience health and illness, and that religious texts contain important information as to how we should behave. What is remarkable with Ibn Rushd is that he examined critically diverse views and argued that all these views are acceptable from different perspectives. Al Fārābī in his Ārāʾ Ahl al-Madīnah al-Fāḍilah describes several principles of social psychology using invented exemplars. Al-Fārābī suggested that the perfect human being has both theoretical virtue and practical moral virtues. At the heart of Al-Farabi's political philosophy is the concept of happiness in which people cooperate to gain contentment. Al-Fārābī used observable realities and experimentation based on clear evidence even though relied on scriptural sources for his intellectual discourse. Al-Fārābī wrote on dreams and explained the distinction between dream Interpretation and the nature and trigger of dreams. His writings on the therapeutic effect of music on the soul later influenced modern mental health and treatment.

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The development of a theory of psychotherapy has also been attributed to Ibn Miskawayh and introduced what is now known as \"self-reinforcement\" and response cost. Ibn Rushd's views on psychology are most fully discussed in his Talkhis Kitab al-Nafs as it \"surpasses other sciences, except for divine science.\" Ibn Rushd described three-fold hierarchy of learning. Ibn Rushd argued that we experience health and illness, and that religious texts contain important information as to how we should behave. What is remarkable with Ibn Rushd is that he examined critically diverse views and argued that all these views are acceptable from different perspectives. Al F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b in his \u0100r\u0101\u02be Ahl al-Mad\u012bnah al-F\u0101\u1e0dilah describes several principles of social psychology using invented exemplars. Al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b suggested that the perfect human being has both theoretical virtue and practical moral virtues. At the heart of Al-Farabi's political philosophy is the concept of happiness in which people cooperate to gain contentment. Al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b used observable realities and experimentation based on clear evidence even though relied on scriptural sources for his intellectual discourse. Al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b wrote on dreams and explained the distinction between dream Interpretation and the nature and trigger of dreams. His writings on the therapeutic effect of music on the soul later influenced modern mental health and treatment.","btype":2,"date":"2023","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"10.4324\/9781003181415-7","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":12,"category_name":"Psychology","link":"bib?categories[]=Psychology"}],"authors":[{"id":1854,"full_name":"G. 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Foundations of Islāmic Psychology. From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers, 2023
By: G. Hussein Rassool, Mugheera M. Luqman
Title Foundations of Islāmic Psychology. From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2023
Publication Place London
Publisher Routledge
Categories Psychology, al-Ġazālī, al-Kindī, Avicenna
Author(s) G. Hussein Rassool , Mugheera M. Luqman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Foundations of Islāmic Psychology: From Classical Scholars to Contemporary Thinkers examines the history of Islāmic psychology from the Islāmic Golden age through the early 21st century, giving a thorough look into Islāmic psychology’s origins, Islāmic philosophy and theology, and key developments in Islāmic psychology. In tracing psychology from its origins in early civilisations, ancient philosophy, and religions to the modern discipline of psychology, this book integrates overarching psychological principles and ideas that have shaped the global history of Islāmic psychology. It examines the legacy of psychology from an Islāmic perspective, looking at the contributions of early Islāmic classical scholars and contemporary psychologists, and to introduce how the history of Islāmic philosophy and sciences has contributed to the development of classical and modern Islāmic psychology from its founding to the present. With each chapter covering a key thinker or moment, and also covering the globalisation of psychology, the Islāmisation of knowledge, and the decolonisation of psychology, the work critically evaluates the effects of the globalisation of psychology and its lasting impact on indigenous culture. This book aims to engage and inspire students taking undergraduate and graduate courses on Islāmic psychology, to recognise the power of history in the academic studies of Islāmic psychology, to connect history to the present and the future, and to think critically. It is also ideal reading for researchers and those undertaking continuing professional development in Islāmic psychology, psychotherapy, and counselling.

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Revisiting Averroes’ Influence on Western Philosophy, 2022
By: Anthony Raphael Etuk
Title Revisiting Averroes’ Influence on Western Philosophy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research
Volume 19
Issue 1
Pages 174-194
Categories Aristotle, Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Anthony Raphael Etuk
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Better known as Averroes, Ibn Rushd remains one of the greatest Islamic philosophical geniuses of all times. The unparalleled inventiveness of his mind and the ―audacity‖ of his methods are evident in many of his innovative philosophical activities, which tremendous stirred the minds of his contemporaries in the Middle Ages. Perhaps only a few would deny the far-reaching impacts of his profound philosophical activities and ideas on Western philosophy. Prominent among these are his unique status as a paramount guide to Aristotle, based on his influential and massive commentaries on Aristotle, and his strong arguments for the compatibility of philosophy with religion. These and more, have since established the depth of his ideas and his lasting relevance in Western philosophy history. This paper undertakes an exposition of his philosophical activities, to identify the impacts of his enduring legacies on Western philosophy. The expository and hermeneutical methods of analysis are adopted.

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Substances in Subjects: Instantiation and Existence in Avicenna, 2022
By: Nathaniel B. Taylor
Title Substances in Subjects: Instantiation and Existence in Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, Journal of the American Catholic Philosophical Association
Volume 96
Issue 3
Pages 453-471
Categories Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Metaphysics
Author(s) Nathaniel B. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In an effort to refute Avicenna’s real distinction between essence and existence, Averroes argues for an Instantiation Analysis of existence which thinks of existence not as an accidental addition to an essence, but rather as the recognition that there is an instance in extramental reality which matches a concept in the mind of a knower. In this study, I argue that Averroes’s Instantiation Analysis fails to refute Avicenna’s real distinction by showing that Avicenna himself endorses the Instantiation Analysis and, in fact, makes use of it to motivate his real distinction. To show this, I review several texts where Avicenna makes the puzzling claim that substances are found to be in subjects. These texts reveal how Avicenna discovers the real distinction with Aristotle’s help—not, as Averroes relates, against the view of Aristotle.

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Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

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La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?, 2021
By: Mounia Aît Kabboura
Title La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de théologie
Volume 73
Issue 1-2
Pages 177-196
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Mounia Aît Kabboura
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maqâl' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tahâfut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5570","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5570,"authors_free":[{"id":6464,"entry_id":5570,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mounia A\u00eet Kabboura","free_first_name":"Mounia A\u00eet","free_last_name":"Kabboura","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"La v\u00e9rit\u00e9 dans l'\u00e9pist\u00e9m\u00e8 islamique post-averroecien. La th\u00e9orie de la v\u00e9rit\u00e9 chez Averro\u00e8s pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"La v\u00e9rit\u00e9 dans l'\u00e9pist\u00e9m\u00e8 islamique post-averroecien. La th\u00e9orie de la v\u00e9rit\u00e9 chez Averro\u00e8s pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?"},"abstract":"Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maq\u00e2l' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tah\u00e2fut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5570,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de th\u00e9ologie","volume":"73","issue":" 1-2","pages":"177-196"}},"sort":[2021]}

Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle, 2021
By: Musa Duman
Title Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal mevzu
Volume 5
Pages 39-66
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Intellect
Author(s) Musa Duman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes was fully aware of the fact that Aristotle’s account of intellect as propounded in De Anima was incomplete. This meant that the key facet of Aristotle’s thought was fraught with gaps. Averroes made repeated attempts in his commentaries on De Anima to fill the gaps. The problem for Averroes was this: “if human beings are enmattered entities, how will anything more than sense perception be possible?” Averroes believes that finally in his Long Commentary on De Anima he has achieved a full and coherent account of thinking and understanding that centers on a new notion of the material intellect, according to which, together with the active intellect, there is also a distinct material intellect, numerically one for all human beings. The present article explores in detail this idea of material intellect. It is shown that material intellect, for Averroes, functions as the transpersonal, non-particular and non empirical subject required for the production and containment of universal meanings. The idea seems to aim at connecting consistently the embodied, sensible forms of human cognitive experience with the noetic, conceptual element of knowledge within a basically ontological account.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5573","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5573,"authors_free":[{"id":6467,"entry_id":5573,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":" Musa Duman","free_first_name":" Musa ","free_last_name":" Duman","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle"},"abstract":"Averroes was fully aware of the fact that Aristotle\u2019s account of intellect \r\nas propounded in De Anima was incomplete. This meant that the key facet of \r\nAristotle\u2019s thought was fraught with gaps. Averroes made repeated attempts \r\nin his commentaries on De Anima to fill the gaps. The problem for Averroes \r\nwas this: \u201cif human beings are enmattered entities, how will anything more \r\nthan sense perception be possible?\u201d Averroes believes that finally in his Long \r\nCommentary on De Anima he has achieved a full and coherent account of thinking and understanding that centers on a new notion of the material intellect, according to which, together with the active intellect, there is also a distinct material intellect, numerically one for all human beings. The present article explores in detail this idea of material intellect. It is shown that material intellect, for Averroes, functions as the transpersonal, non-particular and non empirical subject required for the production and containment of universal meanings. The idea seems to aim at connecting consistently the embodied, sensible forms of human cognitive experience with the noetic, conceptual element of knowledge within a basically ontological account.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":" 10.5281\/zenodo.4604660","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"},{"id":75,"category_name":"Intellect","link":"bib?categories[]=Intellect"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5573,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"mevzu","volume":" 5","issue":"","pages":"39-66"}},"sort":[2021]}

Epistemic Paternalism, Open Group Inquiry, and Religious Knowledge, 2021
By: Kirk Lougheed
Title Epistemic Paternalism, Open Group Inquiry, and Religious Knowledge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Res philosophica
Volume 98
Issue 2
Pages 261–281
Categories no categories
Author(s) Kirk Lougheed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Epistemic paternalism occurs when a decision is made for an agent which helps them arrive at the truth, though they didn’t consent to that decision (and sometimes weren’t even aware of it). Common defenses of epistemic paternalism claim that it can help promote positive veritistic results. In other words, epistemic paternalism is often good for inquiry. I argue that there is often a better alternative available to epistemic paternalism in the form of what I call Open Group Inquiry. I then examine how Open Group Inquiry can be applied to cases of religious inquiry, while noting that epistemic paternalism is impermissible in cases of general religious inquiry. I argue that in the case of religious inquiry, there are serious questions about what constitutes evidence along with how to evaluate it. Rather than posing a particular worry for Open Group Inquiry, I suggest these questions pose a problem for religious inquiry in general. I conclude that while it very much matters how concepts like religious knowledge, religious faith, scepticism, etc., are defined, these considerations may well pave the way for a novel argument for religious scepticism.

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’The Intelligence that illuminates all of us’. The Presence of Averroes in Bruno’s Doctrine of Intellect, 2021
By: Salvatore Carannante
Title ’The Intelligence that illuminates all of us’. The Presence of Averroes in Bruno’s Doctrine of Intellect
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 245–280
Categories Tradition and Reception, Renaissance
Author(s) Salvatore Carannante
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Towards a New Methodology for Natural Philosophy: Latin Averroism Revisited, 2021
By: Pilar Herráiz Oliva
Title Towards a New Methodology for Natural Philosophy: Latin Averroism Revisited
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Mediterranea
Volume 6
Pages 131–155
Categories Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Boethius, Thomas
Author(s) Pilar Herráiz Oliva
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The reception of Aristotelian philosophy with Averroes’s commentaries in the thirteenth-century Latin world promoted a new way of understanding natural philosophy and its method. A very special case among the readers of such commentaries, mostly found at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris, are the so-called averroistae. What these averroistae actually were is still a matter of discussion in current scholarship, whereas there is kind of consensus regarding the main exponents of this philosophical movement, namely Siger of Brabant and Boethius of Dacia. The aim of this paper is to shed light on this topic by providing a re-definition of Averroism in the 13th century. To do this, I will analyse some of the most important works of the aforementioned authors in an attempt to clarify the specificity of their philosophical program.

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"‫القياس المصلحي عند ابن رشد الحفيد وأثره في تعليل الخلاف الفقهي من خلال كتابه "بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد, 2021
By: ʻAbd Alhalīm Alqabī
Title "‫القياس المصلحي عند ابن رشد الحفيد وأثره في تعليل الخلاف الفقهي من خلال كتابه "بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد
Transcription al-qiyās al-maṣlaḥy ʻnd Ibn Rushd al-ḥafyd wa āthrh fy taʻlīl al-khilāf al-fiqhy min khilāl kitābh "bidāya al-mujtihad wa bihāya al-muqtaṣid"
Translation The governmental measure in Ibn Rushd, the grandson, and his impact in the reasoning of legal controversy in his book "bidāya al-mujtihad wa bihāya al-muqtaṣid"
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Fès
Publisher Al-muwalaf
Categories Law, Logic
Author(s) ʻAbd Alhalīm Alqabī
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century, 2015
By: Ali Ghorbani, Fath ali Akbari
Title A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century
Type Article
Language Persian
Date 2015
Journal Comparative Theology
Volume 5
Issue 12
Pages 69-84
Categories Epistemology, Averroism, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Ali Ghorbani , Fath ali Akbari
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5579","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5579,"authors_free":[{"id":6476,"entry_id":5579,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Ali Ghorbani","free_first_name":"Ali ","free_last_name":"Ghorbani","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}},{"id":6477,"entry_id":5579,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Fath ali Akbari","free_first_name":"Fath ali ","free_last_name":"Akbari","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century"},"abstract":"In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Fa\u1e63l al-maq\u0101l, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.","btype":3,"date":"2015","language":"Persian","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1},{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5579,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Comparative Theology","volume":"5","issue":"12","pages":"69-84"}},"sort":["A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century"]}

Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu, 2021
By: Rafiz Manafov, Adem Akman
Title Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu
Translation The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
Volume 9 (İDEKTA)
Pages 131-139
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafiz Manafov , Adem Akman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
İbn Rüşd İslam düşüncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi düşüncenin gerilemeye yüz tuttuğu bir dönemin filozofudur. O, felsefi açıdan dinin konumunu gerekli gördüğü kadar, din açısından da felsefenin kaçınılmazlığına inanır. Çalışmamızın özünü ve amacını İbn Rüşd’ün felsefesindeki temel kavram ve düşünceler oluşturmaktadır. Makalede felsefenin İbn Rüşd açısından akli zorunluluk ve dinsel meşruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün felsefe savunusunun özellikleri ortaya konmakta ve önemi vurgulanmaktadır. Averroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes’ defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5578","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5578,"authors_free":[{"id":6474,"entry_id":5578,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rafiz Manafov","free_first_name":"Rafiz ","free_last_name":"Manafov","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}},{"id":6475,"entry_id":5578,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Adem Akman","free_first_name":"Adem ","free_last_name":"Akman","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Ak\u0131lsal Zorunluluk ve Din\u00ee Me\u015fruiyet Ba\u011flam\u0131nda \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Felsefe Savunusu","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy","main_title":{"title":"Ak\u0131lsal Zorunluluk ve Din\u00ee Me\u015fruiyet Ba\u011flam\u0131nda \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Felsefe Savunusu"},"abstract":"\u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd \u0130slam d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcncenin gerilemeye y\u00fcz tuttu\u011fu bir d\u00f6nemin filozofudur. O, felsefi a\u00e7\u0131dan dinin konumunu gerekli g\u00f6rd\u00fc\u011f\u00fc kadar, din a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan da felsefenin ka\u00e7\u0131n\u0131lmazl\u0131\u011f\u0131na inan\u0131r. \u00c7al\u0131\u015fmam\u0131z\u0131n \u00f6z\u00fcn\u00fc ve amac\u0131n\u0131 \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn felsefesindeki temel kavram ve d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcnceler olu\u015fturmaktad\u0131r. Makalede felsefenin \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan akli zorunluluk ve dinsel me\u015fruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131nda de\u011ferlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik ba\u011flam\u0131nda \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn felsefe savunusunun \u00f6zellikleri ortaya konmakta ve \u00f6nemi vurgulanmaktad\u0131r.\r\n\r\nAverroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes\u2019 defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Turkish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.18506\/anemon.906725","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1},{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5578,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Anemon Mu\u015f Alparslan \u00dcniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi ","volume":" 9 (\u0130DEKTA)","issue":"","pages":"131-139"}},"sort":["Ak\u0131lsal Zorunluluk ve Din\u00ee Me\u015fruiyet Ba\u011flam\u0131nda \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Felsefe Savunusu"]}

Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes, 2020
By: Joen Laureth Delgado Gómez, Diego Giovanni Castellanos
Title Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2020
Journal Praxis Filosófica
Volume 50
Pages 65-88
Categories Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Joen Laureth Delgado Gómez , Diego Giovanni Castellanos
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El artículo aborda la discusión acerca de la unicidad divina y la existencia de atributos, tanto en la filosofía como en la teología islámica medieval, haciendo énfasis en la obra de Averroes. Se analiza cómo en el pensamiento Islámico, al tiempo que se afirma el dogma de la unicidad divina se sostiene la existencia de atributos reales, apuntando directamente a conceptos dialecticos como unidad y multiplicidad, identidad y diferencia, o igualdad y alteridad. Así mismo, partiendo del análisis de su obra, se busca mostrar la manera en la que el pensador cordobés legitimó el uso de la razón filosófica como camino optimo y recomendado para el abordaje de las verdades religiosas. Se considera que Averroes avanzó en una doctrina teológico-filosófica particular diferente del asharismo que se estaba imponiendo en la época, resistiéndose a Al Ghazali, y reivindicando el valor la perspectiva peripatética para enriquecer el debate en el Islam.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5577","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5577,"authors_free":[{"id":6472,"entry_id":5577,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Joen Laureth Delgado G\u00f3mez","free_first_name":"Joen Laureth Delgado ","free_last_name":" G\u00f3mez","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}},{"id":6473,"entry_id":5577,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Diego Giovanni Castellanos","free_first_name":"Diego Giovanni ","free_last_name":"Castellanos","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes"},"abstract":"El art\u00edculo aborda la discusi\u00f3n acerca de la unicidad divina y la existencia de atributos, tanto en la filosof\u00eda como en la teolog\u00eda isl\u00e1mica medieval, haciendo \u00e9nfasis en la obra de Averroes. Se analiza c\u00f3mo en el pensamiento Isl\u00e1mico, al tiempo que se afirma el dogma de la unicidad divina se sostiene la existencia de atributos reales, apuntando directamente a conceptos dialecticos como unidad y multiplicidad, identidad y diferencia, o igualdad y alteridad. As\u00ed mismo, partiendo del an\u00e1lisis de su obra, se busca mostrar la manera en la que el pensador cordob\u00e9s legitim\u00f3 el uso de la raz\u00f3n filos\u00f3fica como camino optimo y recomendado para el abordaje de las verdades religiosas. Se considera que Averroes avanz\u00f3 en una doctrina teol\u00f3gico-filos\u00f3fica particular diferente del asharismo que se estaba imponiendo en la \u00e9poca, resisti\u00e9ndose a Al Ghazali, y reivindicando el valor la perspectiva peripat\u00e9tica para enriquecer el debate en el Islam. ","btype":3,"date":"2020","language":"Spanish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.25100\/pfilosofica.v0i50.8838","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1},{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5577,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Praxis Filos\u00f3fica","volume":"50","issue":"","pages":"65-88"}},"sort":["Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes"]}

Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering Ṭodros Ṭodrosi’s Method of Commenting on the Commentator, 2021
By: Steven Harvey, Oded Horezky
Title Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering Ṭodros Ṭodrosi’s Method of Commenting on the Commentator
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism
Volume 21
Issue 1
Pages 7-78
Categories Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Oded Horezky
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Our paper studies one of the most interesting manuscripts of medieval Jewish philosophy, a unicum that is housed in the British Library, Heb MS Add 27559. This fascinating manuscript, in part a version of a work compiled by Ṭodros Ṭodrosi, in Trinquetaille in the 1330s, is a Hebrew anthology of logical and scientific texts, written by Greek and Arabic philosophers, some of which are translated into Hebrew for the first time by Ṭodros. The paper sheds new light on this manuscript through an examination of the section on natural science that Ṭodros devoted to the study and explanation of Aristotle’s Physics and which comprises more than a third of the entire manuscript. We uncover Ṭodros’s aims and methodology in this section on physics (and, to some extent, in other sections as well), and sketch a clear picture of the ways in which Ṭodros intended to assist his contemporary readers in the study of natural science. The paper contributes to our knowledge of the fundamental status of Averroes’s middle commentaries on the Corpus Aristotelicum among medieval Jewish scholars, as well as to our growing awareness and appreciation of the achievements of a remarkable, young, fourteenth-century Provençal scholar, Ṭodros Ṭodrosi. It concludes with three appendices, two of which compare Ṭodros’s text with parallel passages in the Hebrew translations of Averroes’s commentaries, and a third which provides a detailed description of the British Library manuscript.

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Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle, 2021
By: Musa Duman
Title Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal mevzu
Volume 5
Pages 39-66
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Intellect
Author(s) Musa Duman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes was fully aware of the fact that Aristotle’s account of intellect as propounded in De Anima was incomplete. This meant that the key facet of Aristotle’s thought was fraught with gaps. Averroes made repeated attempts in his commentaries on De Anima to fill the gaps. The problem for Averroes was this: “if human beings are enmattered entities, how will anything more than sense perception be possible?” Averroes believes that finally in his Long Commentary on De Anima he has achieved a full and coherent account of thinking and understanding that centers on a new notion of the material intellect, according to which, together with the active intellect, there is also a distinct material intellect, numerically one for all human beings. The present article explores in detail this idea of material intellect. It is shown that material intellect, for Averroes, functions as the transpersonal, non-particular and non empirical subject required for the production and containment of universal meanings. The idea seems to aim at connecting consistently the embodied, sensible forms of human cognitive experience with the noetic, conceptual element of knowledge within a basically ontological account.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5573","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5573,"authors_free":[{"id":6467,"entry_id":5573,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":" Musa Duman","free_first_name":" Musa ","free_last_name":" Duman","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle"},"abstract":"Averroes was fully aware of the fact that Aristotle\u2019s account of intellect \r\nas propounded in De Anima was incomplete. This meant that the key facet of \r\nAristotle\u2019s thought was fraught with gaps. Averroes made repeated attempts \r\nin his commentaries on De Anima to fill the gaps. The problem for Averroes \r\nwas this: \u201cif human beings are enmattered entities, how will anything more \r\nthan sense perception be possible?\u201d Averroes believes that finally in his Long \r\nCommentary on De Anima he has achieved a full and coherent account of thinking and understanding that centers on a new notion of the material intellect, according to which, together with the active intellect, there is also a distinct material intellect, numerically one for all human beings. The present article explores in detail this idea of material intellect. It is shown that material intellect, for Averroes, functions as the transpersonal, non-particular and non empirical subject required for the production and containment of universal meanings. The idea seems to aim at connecting consistently the embodied, sensible forms of human cognitive experience with the noetic, conceptual element of knowledge within a basically ontological account.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":" 10.5281\/zenodo.4604660","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"},{"id":75,"category_name":"Intellect","link":"bib?categories[]=Intellect"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5573,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"mevzu","volume":" 5","issue":"","pages":"39-66"}},"sort":["Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle"]}

Averroes’s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes’s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects
Type Article
Language English
Journal Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie
Volume 103
Issue 3
Pages 429–454
Categories De anima, Aristotle
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd) is well-known for his controversial thesis that there is only one separate intellect for all humankind. This article provides a detailed analysis of Averroes’s Unity Argument from his Long Commentary on De Anima, which argues from unified intelligible concepts to a single transcendent intellect. I set out the Unity Argument in its textual and philosophical context, explain exactly how the argument works on a new interpretation of its infinite regress (based on Averroes’s other assumptions about the mind-dependence of universals), and offer some brief suggestions as to how it might be further evaluated in light of alternative ancient and medieval theories. Ultimately, I demonstrate that the Unity Argument is Averroes’s most important philosophical argument for his distinctive view of intellect.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5013","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5013,"authors_free":[{"id":5749,"entry_id":5013,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Stephen R. Ogden","free_first_name":"Stephen R.","free_last_name":"Ogden","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects"},"abstract":"Averroes (Ibn Rushd) is well-known for his controversial thesis that there is only one separate intellect for all humankind. This article provides a detailed analysis of Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument from his Long Commentary on De Anima, which argues from unified intelligible concepts to a single transcendent intellect. I set out the Unity Argument in its textual and philosophical context, explain exactly how the argument works on a new interpretation of its infinite regress (based on Averroes\u2019s other assumptions about the mind-dependence of universals), and offer some brief suggestions as to how it might be further evaluated in light of alternative ancient and medieval theories. Ultimately, I demonstrate that the Unity Argument is Averroes\u2019s most important philosophical argument for his distinctive view of intellect.","btype":3,"date":"","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1515\/agph-2018-0038","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5013,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Archiv f\u00fcr Geschichte der Philosophie","volume":"103","issue":"3","pages":"429\u2013454"}},"sort":["Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects"]}

Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante, 2019
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2019
Journal Dianoia
Volume 28
Pages 81–94
Categories Siger of Brabant, De anima
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Siger of Brabant sketches in his Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1269) a noetic theory defending the unity of the intellect that is usually considered as a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the separateness of the material intellect as put forth in the Long Commentary on the De anima (ca. 1186). A closer look at key texts in both the Quaestiones and the Long Commentary will give us a quite different picture: while Siger works out his theory on the background of a dualistic anthropology that takes the union between the intellective soul (conceived as an hoc aliquid) and the human body to be only operational, Ibn Rušd (who develops his theory starting from strictly aristotelic epistemological premises) repeatedly stresses throughout the Long Commentary that, if man is an agent of thought, the union between the separate intellects and the thinking individual ought to be always hylomorphic. This paper aims at showing that, although Siger has often been identified as an averroist, his psychology is certainly not rushdian.

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Averroè (Ibn Rushd), 2020
By: Sara Abram
Title Averroè (Ibn Rushd)
Type Book Section
Language Italian
Date 2020
Published in L’analogia dell’essere. Testi antichi e medievali
Pages 125–149
Categories no categories
Author(s) Sara Abram
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5008","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5008,"authors_free":[{"id":5745,"entry_id":5008,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Sara Abram","free_first_name":"Sara","free_last_name":"Abram","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averro\u00e8 (Ibn Rushd)","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averro\u00e8 (Ibn Rushd)"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2020","language":"Italian","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5008,"section_of":5007,"pages":"125\u2013149","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5007,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"L\u2019analogia dell\u2019essere. Testi antichi e medievali","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2020","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"L\u2019analogia dell\u2019essere attribuita ad Aristotele costituisce un tema filosofico tra i pi\u00f9 discussi, sul quale \u00e8 tornata recentemente a concentrarsi l\u2019attenzione degli studiosi. Comprendendo un arco temporale che va dall\u2019antichit\u00e0 all\u2019et\u00e0 contemporanea, il tema permette di essere trattato da molteplici prospettive, aprendo il campo alla collaborazione fra esperti di epoche e discipline diverse.\r\n\r\nIl volume contiene i testi pi\u00f9 significativi relativamente alla nascita e allo sviluppo della dottrina dell\u2019analogia dell\u2019essere. I passi sono riportati a fronte con traduzioni originali annotate e sono raccolti in due sezioni: quella di filosofia antica e tardoantica e quella di filosofia medievale araba e latina. La prima sezione comprende i principali testi aristotelici che della dottrina dell\u2019analogia dell\u2019essere hanno costituito l\u2019origine, e i passi fra i pi\u00f9 rilevanti della tradizione commentaristica antica e tardoantica, da Alessandro di Afrodisia (II-III sec. d.C) a Simplicio di Cilicia (VI sec. d.C.), nei quali \u00e8 possibile individuare le prime fasi dello sviluppo di tale dottrina. La sezione di filosofia medievale araba e latina comprende passi scelti dei filosofi che rappresentano le tappe essenziali dello sviluppo della dottrina dell\u2019analogia dell\u2019essere nel medioevo arabo e latino, da al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b (m. 950 c.) a Tommaso d\u2019Aquino (XIII sec.) a Tommaso de Vio, il \u201cGaetano\u201d (XV-XVI sec.).\r\n\r\nOltre a fornire un utile strumento per la ricostruzione delle origini dell\u2019attribuzione dell\u2019analogia dell\u2019essere ad Aristotele, il volume individua nei testi riportati l\u2019imprescindibile base per ulteriori sviluppi di tale dottrina nella metafisica contemporanea.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5007,"pubplace":"Padua","publisher":"Padova University Press","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["Averro\u00e8 (Ibn Rushd)"]}

Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

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