Revisiting Averroes’ Influence on Western Philosophy, 2022
By: Anthony Raphael Etuk
Title Revisiting Averroes’ Influence on Western Philosophy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research
Volume 19
Issue 1
Pages 174-194
Categories Aristotle, Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Anthony Raphael Etuk
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Better known as Averroes, Ibn Rushd remains one of the greatest Islamic philosophical geniuses of all times. The unparalleled inventiveness of his mind and the ―audacity‖ of his methods are evident in many of his innovative philosophical activities, which tremendous stirred the minds of his contemporaries in the Middle Ages. Perhaps only a few would deny the far-reaching impacts of his profound philosophical activities and ideas on Western philosophy. Prominent among these are his unique status as a paramount guide to Aristotle, based on his influential and massive commentaries on Aristotle, and his strong arguments for the compatibility of philosophy with religion. These and more, have since established the depth of his ideas and his lasting relevance in Western philosophy history. This paper undertakes an exposition of his philosophical activities, to identify the impacts of his enduring legacies on Western philosophy. The expository and hermeneutical methods of analysis are adopted.

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Substances in Subjects: Instantiation and Existence in Avicenna, 2022
By: Nathaniel B. Taylor
Title Substances in Subjects: Instantiation and Existence in Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, Journal of the American Catholic Philosophical Association
Volume 96
Issue 3
Pages 453-471
Categories Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Metaphysics
Author(s) Nathaniel B. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In an effort to refute Avicenna’s real distinction between essence and existence, Averroes argues for an Instantiation Analysis of existence which thinks of existence not as an accidental addition to an essence, but rather as the recognition that there is an instance in extramental reality which matches a concept in the mind of a knower. In this study, I argue that Averroes’s Instantiation Analysis fails to refute Avicenna’s real distinction by showing that Avicenna himself endorses the Instantiation Analysis and, in fact, makes use of it to motivate his real distinction. To show this, I review several texts where Avicenna makes the puzzling claim that substances are found to be in subjects. These texts reveal how Avicenna discovers the real distinction with Aristotle’s help—not, as Averroes relates, against the view of Aristotle.

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Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

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La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?, 2021
By: Mounia Aît Kabboura
Title La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de théologie
Volume 73
Issue 1-2
Pages 177-196
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Mounia Aît Kabboura
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maqâl' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tahâfut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5570","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5570,"authors_free":[{"id":6464,"entry_id":5570,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mounia A\u00eet Kabboura","free_first_name":"Mounia A\u00eet","free_last_name":"Kabboura","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"La v\u00e9rit\u00e9 dans l'\u00e9pist\u00e9m\u00e8 islamique post-averroecien. La th\u00e9orie de la v\u00e9rit\u00e9 chez Averro\u00e8s pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"La v\u00e9rit\u00e9 dans l'\u00e9pist\u00e9m\u00e8 islamique post-averroecien. La th\u00e9orie de la v\u00e9rit\u00e9 chez Averro\u00e8s pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?"},"abstract":"Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maq\u00e2l' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tah\u00e2fut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5570,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de th\u00e9ologie","volume":"73","issue":" 1-2","pages":"177-196"}},"sort":[2021]}

Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle, 2021
By: Musa Duman
Title Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal mevzu
Volume 5
Pages 39-66
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Intellect
Author(s) Musa Duman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes was fully aware of the fact that Aristotle’s account of intellect as propounded in De Anima was incomplete. This meant that the key facet of Aristotle’s thought was fraught with gaps. Averroes made repeated attempts in his commentaries on De Anima to fill the gaps. The problem for Averroes was this: “if human beings are enmattered entities, how will anything more than sense perception be possible?” Averroes believes that finally in his Long Commentary on De Anima he has achieved a full and coherent account of thinking and understanding that centers on a new notion of the material intellect, according to which, together with the active intellect, there is also a distinct material intellect, numerically one for all human beings. The present article explores in detail this idea of material intellect. It is shown that material intellect, for Averroes, functions as the transpersonal, non-particular and non empirical subject required for the production and containment of universal meanings. The idea seems to aim at connecting consistently the embodied, sensible forms of human cognitive experience with the noetic, conceptual element of knowledge within a basically ontological account.

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Epistemic Paternalism, Open Group Inquiry, and Religious Knowledge, 2021
By: Kirk Lougheed
Title Epistemic Paternalism, Open Group Inquiry, and Religious Knowledge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Res philosophica
Volume 98
Issue 2
Pages 261–281
Categories no categories
Author(s) Kirk Lougheed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Epistemic paternalism occurs when a decision is made for an agent which helps them arrive at the truth, though they didn’t consent to that decision (and sometimes weren’t even aware of it). Common defenses of epistemic paternalism claim that it can help promote positive veritistic results. In other words, epistemic paternalism is often good for inquiry. I argue that there is often a better alternative available to epistemic paternalism in the form of what I call Open Group Inquiry. I then examine how Open Group Inquiry can be applied to cases of religious inquiry, while noting that epistemic paternalism is impermissible in cases of general religious inquiry. I argue that in the case of religious inquiry, there are serious questions about what constitutes evidence along with how to evaluate it. Rather than posing a particular worry for Open Group Inquiry, I suggest these questions pose a problem for religious inquiry in general. I conclude that while it very much matters how concepts like religious knowledge, religious faith, scepticism, etc., are defined, these considerations may well pave the way for a novel argument for religious scepticism.

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Towards a New Methodology for Natural Philosophy: Latin Averroism Revisited, 2021
By: Pilar Herráiz Oliva
Title Towards a New Methodology for Natural Philosophy: Latin Averroism Revisited
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Mediterranea
Volume 6
Pages 131–155
Categories Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Boethius, Thomas
Author(s) Pilar Herráiz Oliva
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The reception of Aristotelian philosophy with Averroes’s commentaries in the thirteenth-century Latin world promoted a new way of understanding natural philosophy and its method. A very special case among the readers of such commentaries, mostly found at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris, are the so-called averroistae. What these averroistae actually were is still a matter of discussion in current scholarship, whereas there is kind of consensus regarding the main exponents of this philosophical movement, namely Siger of Brabant and Boethius of Dacia. The aim of this paper is to shed light on this topic by providing a re-definition of Averroism in the 13th century. To do this, I will analyse some of the most important works of the aforementioned authors in an attempt to clarify the specificity of their philosophical program.

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Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering Ṭodros Ṭodrosi’s Method of Commenting on the Commentator, 2021
By: Steven Harvey, Oded Horezky
Title Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering Ṭodros Ṭodrosi’s Method of Commenting on the Commentator
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism
Volume 21
Issue 1
Pages 7-78
Categories Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Oded Horezky
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Our paper studies one of the most interesting manuscripts of medieval Jewish philosophy, a unicum that is housed in the British Library, Heb MS Add 27559. This fascinating manuscript, in part a version of a work compiled by Ṭodros Ṭodrosi, in Trinquetaille in the 1330s, is a Hebrew anthology of logical and scientific texts, written by Greek and Arabic philosophers, some of which are translated into Hebrew for the first time by Ṭodros. The paper sheds new light on this manuscript through an examination of the section on natural science that Ṭodros devoted to the study and explanation of Aristotle’s Physics and which comprises more than a third of the entire manuscript. We uncover Ṭodros’s aims and methodology in this section on physics (and, to some extent, in other sections as well), and sketch a clear picture of the ways in which Ṭodros intended to assist his contemporary readers in the study of natural science. The paper contributes to our knowledge of the fundamental status of Averroes’s middle commentaries on the Corpus Aristotelicum among medieval Jewish scholars, as well as to our growing awareness and appreciation of the achievements of a remarkable, young, fourteenth-century Provençal scholar, Ṭodros Ṭodrosi. It concludes with three appendices, two of which compare Ṭodros’s text with parallel passages in the Hebrew translations of Averroes’s commentaries, and a third which provides a detailed description of the British Library manuscript.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5576","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5576,"authors_free":[{"id":6470,"entry_id":5576,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":642,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Steven Harvey","free_first_name":"Steven ","free_last_name":"Harvey","norm_person":{"id":642,"first_name":"Steven","last_name":"Harvey","full_name":"Steven Harvey","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1051482674","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/97890242","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Steven Harvey"}},{"id":6471,"entry_id":5576,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Oded Horezky","free_first_name":"Oded ","free_last_name":"Horezky","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering \u1e6codros \u1e6codrosi\u2019s Method of Commenting on the Commentator","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering \u1e6codros \u1e6codrosi\u2019s Method of Commenting on the Commentator"},"abstract":"Our paper studies one of the most interesting manuscripts of medieval Jewish philosophy, a unicum that is housed in the British Library, Heb MS Add 27559. This fascinating \r\nmanuscript, in part a version of a work compiled by \u1e6codros \u1e6codrosi, in Trinquetaille in the 1330s, is a Hebrew anthology of logical and scientific texts, written by Greek and Arabic \r\nphilosophers, some of which are translated into Hebrew for the first time by \u1e6codros. The paper sheds new light on this manuscript through an examination of the section on natural science that \u1e6codros devoted to the study and explanation of Aristotle\u2019s Physics and which comprises more than a third of the entire manuscript. We uncover \u1e6codros\u2019s aims and methodology in this section on physics (and, to some extent, in other sections as well), and sketch a clear picture of the ways in which \u1e6codros intended to assist his contemporary readers in the study of natural science. The paper contributes to our knowledge of the fundamental status of Averroes\u2019s middle commentaries on the Corpus Aristotelicum\r\namong medieval Jewish scholars, as well as to our growing awareness and appreciation of the achievements of a remarkable, young, fourteenth-century Proven\u00e7al scholar, \u1e6codros \u1e6codrosi. It concludes with three appendices, two of which compare \u1e6codros\u2019s \r\ntext with parallel passages in the Hebrew translations of Averroes\u2019s commentaries, and a third which provides a detailed description of the British Library manuscript.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":642,"full_name":"Steven Harvey","role":1},{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5576,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism","volume":"21","issue":"1","pages":"7-78"}},"sort":[2021]}

Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu, 2021
By: Rafiz Manafov, Adem Akman
Title Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu
Translation The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
Volume 9 (İDEKTA)
Pages 131-139
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafiz Manafov , Adem Akman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
İbn Rüşd İslam düşüncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi düşüncenin gerilemeye yüz tuttuğu bir dönemin filozofudur. O, felsefi açıdan dinin konumunu gerekli gördüğü kadar, din açısından da felsefenin kaçınılmazlığına inanır. Çalışmamızın özünü ve amacını İbn Rüşd’ün felsefesindeki temel kavram ve düşünceler oluşturmaktadır. Makalede felsefenin İbn Rüşd açısından akli zorunluluk ve dinsel meşruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün felsefe savunusunun özellikleri ortaya konmakta ve önemi vurgulanmaktadır. Averroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes’ defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5578","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5578,"authors_free":[{"id":6474,"entry_id":5578,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rafiz Manafov","free_first_name":"Rafiz ","free_last_name":"Manafov","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}},{"id":6475,"entry_id":5578,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Adem Akman","free_first_name":"Adem ","free_last_name":"Akman","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Ak\u0131lsal Zorunluluk ve Din\u00ee Me\u015fruiyet Ba\u011flam\u0131nda \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Felsefe Savunusu","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy","main_title":{"title":"Ak\u0131lsal Zorunluluk ve Din\u00ee Me\u015fruiyet Ba\u011flam\u0131nda \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Felsefe Savunusu"},"abstract":"\u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd \u0130slam d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcncenin gerilemeye y\u00fcz tuttu\u011fu bir d\u00f6nemin filozofudur. O, felsefi a\u00e7\u0131dan dinin konumunu gerekli g\u00f6rd\u00fc\u011f\u00fc kadar, din a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan da felsefenin ka\u00e7\u0131n\u0131lmazl\u0131\u011f\u0131na inan\u0131r. \u00c7al\u0131\u015fmam\u0131z\u0131n \u00f6z\u00fcn\u00fc ve amac\u0131n\u0131 \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn felsefesindeki temel kavram ve d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcnceler olu\u015fturmaktad\u0131r. Makalede felsefenin \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan akli zorunluluk ve dinsel me\u015fruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131nda de\u011ferlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik ba\u011flam\u0131nda \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn felsefe savunusunun \u00f6zellikleri ortaya konmakta ve \u00f6nemi vurgulanmaktad\u0131r.\r\n\r\nAverroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes\u2019 defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Turkish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.18506\/anemon.906725","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1},{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5578,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Anemon Mu\u015f Alparslan \u00dcniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi ","volume":" 9 (\u0130DEKTA)","issue":"","pages":"131-139"}},"sort":[2021]}

İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonuçları, 2021
By: Fevzi Yiğit
Title İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonuçları
Translation The reasons for and the consequences of Averroes’ saying essence to God
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Turkish Academic Research Review
Volume 6
Issue 3
Pages 1035-1052
Categories Metaphysics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Cosmology
Author(s) Fevzi Yiğit
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Bu makalede, İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin görece neden ve sonuçları konu edilmektedir. Böylece İbn Rüşd örneğinden hareketle, filozofların Tanrı telakkilerinin aslında metafiziğin konusuyla doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu gösterilmek istenmektedir. Makalede bilkuvve-bilfiil, cevher-araz, varlık-mâhiyet, madde-sûret ve teşkîk gibi güçlü felsefî ayrımlara ihtiyaç duyuldukça başvurulacaktır. İbn Rüşd’e göre mevcut/var olan araştırması temelde bir cevher araştırmasıdır. Mevcut kavramı cevherin üstünde yer alan daha üst bir varlık seviyesini temsil etmese de kapsamının genişliği yüzünden cevherden daha üst bir kavramdır. Oysaki İbn Sînâ’ya göre mevcut, cevherden daha üst bir varlık seviyesini karşılar ve bu yüzden mevcut araştırması sadece cevher araştırmasına hasredilemez. Dolayısıyla ona göre metafiziğin konusu cevher olması açısından cevher değildir. İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin muhtemel nedenleri şunlardır: Birincisi, Tanrı bütün mevcudat içerisinde cevher tanımına en uygun olandır. İkincisi onun mevcut kavramını -diğer anlamlarını akılda tutmak kaydıyla- dış dünyada gerçekliği olmayan zihinsel bir kavram yani cins olarak kabul etmesi dolayısıyla sadece cevhere gerçeklik tanımış olmasıdır. Üçüncüsü, göksel cisimlerin sonsuz bir biçimde hareket ettiği düşüncesidir. Dördüncüsü tümeller ve ayrık mevcutlar ile hissedilir ferdi cevherler arasındaki ilişkiye dair görüşüdür. İbn Rüşd Aristoteles’i takiben tümellerin ve ideaların ferdi cevherlerin varoluşunda katkısı olmadığını düşünür. İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin muhtemel sonuçlarıysa şunlardır: Birincisi onun din felsefe ilişkisine dair yazdığı Faslü’l-makâl ve el-Keşf an menâhicü’ledille kitaplarında Tanrı hakkında takındığı Hanbeli tavırdır. İkincisi aslında yukarıda sebep olarak zikredilen burada ise sonuç olarak dile getirilebilecek döngüsel bir şeydir. Yani gök cisimleri ve âlemi ezeli olarak kabul etmek Tanrı’ya cevher denmesine sebep olurken Tanrı’ya cevher denmesi de âlemin Tanrı’nın etkisiyle ancak O’ndan ayrı ve kopuk olarak mevcut olması fikrini sonuç vermektedir. Üçüncüsü sudûr ve yoktan yaratma doktrinlerini reddetmesidir. Yoktan yaratmayı reddi ise -antik filozofların da açıkça dile getirdiği üzere- “salt yokluğun varlığın kaynağı olamayacağı “şeklindeki genel bir ontolojik ilkeye dayanmaktadır. This article deals with the relative reasons and consequences of Averroes’ saying God the essence. Thus, based on the example of Averroes, it is desired to show that the philosophers’ conception of God is actually directly related to the subject of metaphysics. The distinctions between potential and actual, being-essence and matter-form, which are thought to have strong forms of explanation, will be applied when needed. According to Averroes, his research of being is basically an investigation of essence. Although the concept of being/existence does not represent a higher level of being above the substance, it takes place in metaphysics as a higher concept with different meanings. However, according to Ibn Avicenna, the existing meets a higher level of being than the substance, and therefore its inquiry cannot be only the one for substance. Therefore, according to him, the subject of metaphysics is not a substance qua substance. In short, the possible reasons for Averroes to call God essence are as follows: First, God is the most suitable for the definition of essence in all existence. The second is that, keeping other meanings of being in mind, he accepted the concept of “mawjūd” as a mental concept that has no reality in the external world, that is, as a genus, and therefore only recognized the substance as reality. The third is the idea that the celestial bodies move endlessly. The fourth is his view on the relationship between universals and discrete entities and tangible individual essences. Following Aristotle, Averroes thinks that universals and ideas do not contribute to the existence of individual essences. The possible consequences of Averroes’ calling God a substance are as follows: The first is his Hanbalī attitude towards God in his books Fasl al-maqāl and al-Kashf an manāhij al-adilla, which he wrote on the relationship between religion and philosophy. Secondly, what was mentioned above as a cause, is a cyclical thing that can be expressed as a result here. In other words, while accepting the celestial bodies and the universe as eternal, causes God to be called essence, calling God essence results in the idea that the universe exists only apart and disconnected from him under the influence of God. The third is his rejection of the doctrines of creation out of nothing and sudūr (emanation). The refusal to create out of nothing is based on a general ontological principle -as the ancient philosophers openly expressed- “absolute absence cannot be the source of existence”.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5582","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5582,"authors_free":[{"id":6480,"entry_id":5582,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Fevzi Yi\u011fit","free_first_name":"Fevzi","free_last_name":"Yi\u011fit","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"\u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonu\u00e7lar\u0131","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"The reasons for and the consequences of Averroes\u2019 saying essence to God","main_title":{"title":"\u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonu\u00e7lar\u0131"},"abstract":"Bu makalede, \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin g\u00f6rece neden ve sonu\u00e7lar\u0131 konu edilmektedir. B\u00f6ylece \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd \u00f6rne\u011finden hareketle, filozoflar\u0131n Tanr\u0131 telakkilerinin asl\u0131nda metafizi\u011fin konusuyla do\u011frudan ba\u011flant\u0131l\u0131 oldu\u011fu g\u00f6sterilmek istenmektedir. Makalede bilkuvve-bilfiil, cevher-araz, varl\u0131k-m\u00e2hiyet, madde-s\u00fbret ve te\u015fk\u00eek gibi g\u00fc\u00e7l\u00fc felsef\u00ee ayr\u0131mlara ihtiya\u00e7 duyulduk\u00e7a ba\u015fvurulacakt\u0131r. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019e g\u00f6re mevcut\/var olan ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131 temelde bir cevher ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131d\u0131r. Mevcut kavram\u0131 cevherin \u00fcst\u00fcnde yer alan daha \u00fcst bir varl\u0131k seviyesini temsil etmese de kapsam\u0131n\u0131n geni\u015fli\u011fi y\u00fcz\u00fcnden cevherden daha \u00fcst bir kavramd\u0131r. Oysaki \u0130bn S\u00een\u00e2\u2019ya g\u00f6re mevcut, cevherden daha \u00fcst bir varl\u0131k seviyesini kar\u015f\u0131lar ve bu y\u00fczden mevcut ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131 sadece cevher ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131na hasredilemez. Dolay\u0131s\u0131yla ona g\u00f6re metafizi\u011fin konusu cevher olmas\u0131 a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan cevher de\u011fildir. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin muhtemel nedenleri \u015funlard\u0131r: Birincisi, Tanr\u0131 b\u00fct\u00fcn mevcudat i\u00e7erisinde cevher tan\u0131m\u0131na en uygun oland\u0131r. \u0130kincisi onun mevcut kavram\u0131n\u0131 -di\u011fer anlamlar\u0131n\u0131 ak\u0131lda tutmak kayd\u0131yla- d\u0131\u015f d\u00fcnyada ger\u00e7ekli\u011fi olmayan zihinsel bir kavram yani cins olarak kabul etmesi dolay\u0131s\u0131yla sadece cevhere ger\u00e7eklik tan\u0131m\u0131\u015f olmas\u0131d\u0131r. \u00dc\u00e7\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc, g\u00f6ksel cisimlerin sonsuz bir bi\u00e7imde hareket etti\u011fi d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcncesidir. D\u00f6rd\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc t\u00fcmeller ve ayr\u0131k mevcutlar ile hissedilir ferdi cevherler aras\u0131ndaki ili\u015fkiye dair g\u00f6r\u00fc\u015f\u00fcd\u00fcr. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd Aristoteles\u2019i takiben t\u00fcmellerin ve idealar\u0131n ferdi cevherlerin varolu\u015funda katk\u0131s\u0131 olmad\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131 d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcn\u00fcr. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin muhtemel sonu\u00e7lar\u0131ysa \u015funlard\u0131r: Birincisi onun din felsefe ili\u015fkisine dair yazd\u0131\u011f\u0131 Fasl\u00fc\u2019l-mak\u00e2l ve el-Ke\u015ff an men\u00e2hic\u00fc\u2019ledille kitaplar\u0131nda Tanr\u0131 hakk\u0131nda tak\u0131nd\u0131\u011f\u0131 Hanbeli tav\u0131rd\u0131r. \u0130kincisi asl\u0131nda yukar\u0131da sebep olarak zikredilen burada ise sonu\u00e7 olarak dile getirilebilecek d\u00f6ng\u00fcsel bir \u015feydir. Yani g\u00f6k cisimleri ve \u00e2lemi ezeli olarak kabul etmek Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher denmesine sebep olurken Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher denmesi de \u00e2lemin Tanr\u0131\u2019n\u0131n etkisiyle ancak O\u2019ndan ayr\u0131 ve kopuk olarak mevcut olmas\u0131 fikrini sonu\u00e7 vermektedir. \u00dc\u00e7\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc sud\u00fbr ve yoktan yaratma doktrinlerini reddetmesidir. Yoktan yaratmay\u0131 reddi ise -antik filozoflar\u0131n da a\u00e7\u0131k\u00e7a dile getirdi\u011fi \u00fczere- \u201csalt yoklu\u011fun varl\u0131\u011f\u0131n kayna\u011f\u0131 olamayaca\u011f\u0131 \u201c\u015feklindeki genel bir ontolojik ilkeye dayanmaktad\u0131r.\r\n \r\nThis article deals with the relative reasons and consequences of Averroes\u2019 saying God the essence. Thus, based on the example of Averroes, it is desired to show that the philosophers\u2019 conception of God is actually directly related to the subject of metaphysics. The distinctions between potential and actual, being-essence and matter-form, which are thought to have strong forms of explanation, will be applied when needed. According to Averroes, his research of being is basically an investigation of essence. Although the concept of being\/existence does not represent a higher level of being above the substance, it takes place in metaphysics as a higher concept with different meanings. However, according to Ibn Avicenna, the existing meets a higher level of being than the substance, and therefore its inquiry cannot be only the one for substance. Therefore, according to him, the subject of metaphysics is not a substance qua substance. In short, the possible reasons for Averroes to call God essence are as follows: First, God is the most suitable for the definition of essence in all existence. The second is that, keeping other meanings of being in mind, he accepted the concept of \u201cmawj\u016bd\u201d as a mental concept that has no reality in the external world, that is, as a genus, and therefore only recognized the substance as reality. The third is the idea that the celestial bodies move endlessly. The fourth is his view on the relationship between universals and discrete entities and tangible individual essences. Following Aristotle, Averroes thinks that universals and ideas do not contribute to the existence of individual essences. The possible consequences of Averroes\u2019 calling God a substance are as follows: The first is his Hanbal\u012b attitude towards God in his books Fasl al-maq\u0101l and al-Kashf an man\u0101hij al-adilla, which he wrote on the relationship between religion and philosophy. Secondly, what was mentioned above as a cause, is a cyclical thing that can be expressed as a result here. In other words, while accepting the celestial bodies and the universe as eternal, causes God to be called essence, calling God essence results in the idea that the universe exists only apart and disconnected from him under the influence of God. The third is his rejection of the doctrines of creation out of nothing and sud\u016br (emanation). The refusal to create out of nothing is based on a general ontological principle -as the ancient philosophers openly expressed- \u201cabsolute absence cannot be the source of existence\u201d.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Turkish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/20.500.11787\/6522","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5582,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Turkish Academic Research Review","volume":"6","issue":"3","pages":"1035-1052"}},"sort":[2021]}

A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century, 2015
By: Ali Ghorbani, Fath ali Akbari
Title A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century
Type Article
Language Persian
Date 2015
Journal Comparative Theology
Volume 5
Issue 12
Pages 69-84
Categories Epistemology, Averroism, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Ali Ghorbani , Fath ali Akbari
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5579","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5579,"authors_free":[{"id":6476,"entry_id":5579,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Ali Ghorbani","free_first_name":"Ali ","free_last_name":"Ghorbani","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}},{"id":6477,"entry_id":5579,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Fath ali Akbari","free_first_name":"Fath ali ","free_last_name":"Akbari","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century"},"abstract":"In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Fa\u1e63l al-maq\u0101l, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.","btype":3,"date":"2015","language":"Persian","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1},{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5579,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Comparative Theology","volume":"5","issue":"12","pages":"69-84"}},"sort":["A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century"]}

Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu, 2021
By: Rafiz Manafov, Adem Akman
Title Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu
Translation The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
Volume 9 (İDEKTA)
Pages 131-139
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafiz Manafov , Adem Akman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
İbn Rüşd İslam düşüncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi düşüncenin gerilemeye yüz tuttuğu bir dönemin filozofudur. O, felsefi açıdan dinin konumunu gerekli gördüğü kadar, din açısından da felsefenin kaçınılmazlığına inanır. Çalışmamızın özünü ve amacını İbn Rüşd’ün felsefesindeki temel kavram ve düşünceler oluşturmaktadır. Makalede felsefenin İbn Rüşd açısından akli zorunluluk ve dinsel meşruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün felsefe savunusunun özellikleri ortaya konmakta ve önemi vurgulanmaktadır. Averroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes’ defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.

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Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes, 2020
By: Joen Laureth Delgado Gómez, Diego Giovanni Castellanos
Title Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2020
Journal Praxis Filosófica
Volume 50
Pages 65-88
Categories Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Joen Laureth Delgado Gómez , Diego Giovanni Castellanos
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El artículo aborda la discusión acerca de la unicidad divina y la existencia de atributos, tanto en la filosofía como en la teología islámica medieval, haciendo énfasis en la obra de Averroes. Se analiza cómo en el pensamiento Islámico, al tiempo que se afirma el dogma de la unicidad divina se sostiene la existencia de atributos reales, apuntando directamente a conceptos dialecticos como unidad y multiplicidad, identidad y diferencia, o igualdad y alteridad. Así mismo, partiendo del análisis de su obra, se busca mostrar la manera en la que el pensador cordobés legitimó el uso de la razón filosófica como camino optimo y recomendado para el abordaje de las verdades religiosas. Se considera que Averroes avanzó en una doctrina teológico-filosófica particular diferente del asharismo que se estaba imponiendo en la época, resistiéndose a Al Ghazali, y reivindicando el valor la perspectiva peripatética para enriquecer el debate en el Islam.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5577","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5577,"authors_free":[{"id":6472,"entry_id":5577,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Joen Laureth Delgado G\u00f3mez","free_first_name":"Joen Laureth Delgado ","free_last_name":" G\u00f3mez","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}},{"id":6473,"entry_id":5577,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Diego Giovanni Castellanos","free_first_name":"Diego Giovanni ","free_last_name":"Castellanos","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes"},"abstract":"El art\u00edculo aborda la discusi\u00f3n acerca de la unicidad divina y la existencia de atributos, tanto en la filosof\u00eda como en la teolog\u00eda isl\u00e1mica medieval, haciendo \u00e9nfasis en la obra de Averroes. Se analiza c\u00f3mo en el pensamiento Isl\u00e1mico, al tiempo que se afirma el dogma de la unicidad divina se sostiene la existencia de atributos reales, apuntando directamente a conceptos dialecticos como unidad y multiplicidad, identidad y diferencia, o igualdad y alteridad. As\u00ed mismo, partiendo del an\u00e1lisis de su obra, se busca mostrar la manera en la que el pensador cordob\u00e9s legitim\u00f3 el uso de la raz\u00f3n filos\u00f3fica como camino optimo y recomendado para el abordaje de las verdades religiosas. Se considera que Averroes avanz\u00f3 en una doctrina teol\u00f3gico-filos\u00f3fica particular diferente del asharismo que se estaba imponiendo en la \u00e9poca, resisti\u00e9ndose a Al Ghazali, y reivindicando el valor la perspectiva peripat\u00e9tica para enriquecer el debate en el Islam. ","btype":3,"date":"2020","language":"Spanish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.25100\/pfilosofica.v0i50.8838","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1},{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5577,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Praxis Filos\u00f3fica","volume":"50","issue":"","pages":"65-88"}},"sort":["Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes"]}

Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering Ṭodros Ṭodrosi’s Method of Commenting on the Commentator, 2021
By: Steven Harvey, Oded Horezky
Title Averroes ex Averroe: Uncovering Ṭodros Ṭodrosi’s Method of Commenting on the Commentator
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism
Volume 21
Issue 1
Pages 7-78
Categories Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Oded Horezky
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Our paper studies one of the most interesting manuscripts of medieval Jewish philosophy, a unicum that is housed in the British Library, Heb MS Add 27559. This fascinating manuscript, in part a version of a work compiled by Ṭodros Ṭodrosi, in Trinquetaille in the 1330s, is a Hebrew anthology of logical and scientific texts, written by Greek and Arabic philosophers, some of which are translated into Hebrew for the first time by Ṭodros. The paper sheds new light on this manuscript through an examination of the section on natural science that Ṭodros devoted to the study and explanation of Aristotle’s Physics and which comprises more than a third of the entire manuscript. We uncover Ṭodros’s aims and methodology in this section on physics (and, to some extent, in other sections as well), and sketch a clear picture of the ways in which Ṭodros intended to assist his contemporary readers in the study of natural science. The paper contributes to our knowledge of the fundamental status of Averroes’s middle commentaries on the Corpus Aristotelicum among medieval Jewish scholars, as well as to our growing awareness and appreciation of the achievements of a remarkable, young, fourteenth-century Provençal scholar, Ṭodros Ṭodrosi. It concludes with three appendices, two of which compare Ṭodros’s text with parallel passages in the Hebrew translations of Averroes’s commentaries, and a third which provides a detailed description of the British Library manuscript.

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Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle, 2021
By: Musa Duman
Title Averroes’ Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal mevzu
Volume 5
Pages 39-66
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Intellect
Author(s) Musa Duman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes was fully aware of the fact that Aristotle’s account of intellect as propounded in De Anima was incomplete. This meant that the key facet of Aristotle’s thought was fraught with gaps. Averroes made repeated attempts in his commentaries on De Anima to fill the gaps. The problem for Averroes was this: “if human beings are enmattered entities, how will anything more than sense perception be possible?” Averroes believes that finally in his Long Commentary on De Anima he has achieved a full and coherent account of thinking and understanding that centers on a new notion of the material intellect, according to which, together with the active intellect, there is also a distinct material intellect, numerically one for all human beings. The present article explores in detail this idea of material intellect. It is shown that material intellect, for Averroes, functions as the transpersonal, non-particular and non empirical subject required for the production and containment of universal meanings. The idea seems to aim at connecting consistently the embodied, sensible forms of human cognitive experience with the noetic, conceptual element of knowledge within a basically ontological account.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5573","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5573,"authors_free":[{"id":6467,"entry_id":5573,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":" Musa Duman","free_first_name":" Musa ","free_last_name":" Duman","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle"},"abstract":"Averroes was fully aware of the fact that Aristotle\u2019s account of intellect \r\nas propounded in De Anima was incomplete. This meant that the key facet of \r\nAristotle\u2019s thought was fraught with gaps. Averroes made repeated attempts \r\nin his commentaries on De Anima to fill the gaps. The problem for Averroes \r\nwas this: \u201cif human beings are enmattered entities, how will anything more \r\nthan sense perception be possible?\u201d Averroes believes that finally in his Long \r\nCommentary on De Anima he has achieved a full and coherent account of thinking and understanding that centers on a new notion of the material intellect, according to which, together with the active intellect, there is also a distinct material intellect, numerically one for all human beings. The present article explores in detail this idea of material intellect. It is shown that material intellect, for Averroes, functions as the transpersonal, non-particular and non empirical subject required for the production and containment of universal meanings. The idea seems to aim at connecting consistently the embodied, sensible forms of human cognitive experience with the noetic, conceptual element of knowledge within a basically ontological account.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":" 10.5281\/zenodo.4604660","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"},{"id":75,"category_name":"Intellect","link":"bib?categories[]=Intellect"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5573,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"mevzu","volume":" 5","issue":"","pages":"39-66"}},"sort":["Averroes\u2019 Doctrine of Material Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De Anima of Aristotle"]}

Averroes’s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes’s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects
Type Article
Language English
Journal Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie
Volume 103
Issue 3
Pages 429–454
Categories De anima, Aristotle
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd) is well-known for his controversial thesis that there is only one separate intellect for all humankind. This article provides a detailed analysis of Averroes’s Unity Argument from his Long Commentary on De Anima, which argues from unified intelligible concepts to a single transcendent intellect. I set out the Unity Argument in its textual and philosophical context, explain exactly how the argument works on a new interpretation of its infinite regress (based on Averroes’s other assumptions about the mind-dependence of universals), and offer some brief suggestions as to how it might be further evaluated in light of alternative ancient and medieval theories. Ultimately, I demonstrate that the Unity Argument is Averroes’s most important philosophical argument for his distinctive view of intellect.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5013","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5013,"authors_free":[{"id":5749,"entry_id":5013,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Stephen R. Ogden","free_first_name":"Stephen R.","free_last_name":"Ogden","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects"},"abstract":"Averroes (Ibn Rushd) is well-known for his controversial thesis that there is only one separate intellect for all humankind. This article provides a detailed analysis of Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument from his Long Commentary on De Anima, which argues from unified intelligible concepts to a single transcendent intellect. I set out the Unity Argument in its textual and philosophical context, explain exactly how the argument works on a new interpretation of its infinite regress (based on Averroes\u2019s other assumptions about the mind-dependence of universals), and offer some brief suggestions as to how it might be further evaluated in light of alternative ancient and medieval theories. Ultimately, I demonstrate that the Unity Argument is Averroes\u2019s most important philosophical argument for his distinctive view of intellect.","btype":3,"date":"","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1515\/agph-2018-0038","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5013,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Archiv f\u00fcr Geschichte der Philosophie","volume":"103","issue":"3","pages":"429\u2013454"}},"sort":["Averroes\u2019s Unity Argument Against Multiple Intellects"]}

Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante, 2019
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2019
Journal Dianoia
Volume 28
Pages 81–94
Categories Siger of Brabant, De anima
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Siger of Brabant sketches in his Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1269) a noetic theory defending the unity of the intellect that is usually considered as a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the separateness of the material intellect as put forth in the Long Commentary on the De anima (ca. 1186). A closer look at key texts in both the Quaestiones and the Long Commentary will give us a quite different picture: while Siger works out his theory on the background of a dualistic anthropology that takes the union between the intellective soul (conceived as an hoc aliquid) and the human body to be only operational, Ibn Rušd (who develops his theory starting from strictly aristotelic epistemological premises) repeatedly stresses throughout the Long Commentary that, if man is an agent of thought, the union between the separate intellects and the thinking individual ought to be always hylomorphic. This paper aims at showing that, although Siger has often been identified as an averroist, his psychology is certainly not rushdian.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5014","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5014,"authors_free":[{"id":5750,"entry_id":5014,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Federico Minzoni","free_first_name":"Federico","free_last_name":"Minzoni","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante"},"abstract":"Siger of Brabant sketches in his Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1269) a noetic theory defending the unity of the intellect that is usually considered as a latin formulation of Ibn Ru\u0161d\u2019s theory of the separateness of the material intellect as put forth in the Long Commentary on the De anima (ca. 1186). A closer look at key texts in both the Quaestiones and the Long Commentary will give us a quite different picture: while Siger works out his theory on the background of a dualistic anthropology that takes the union between the intellective soul (conceived as an hoc aliquid) and the human body to be only operational, Ibn Ru\u0161d (who develops his theory starting from strictly aristotelic epistemological premises) repeatedly stresses throughout the Long Commentary that, if man is an agent of thought, the union between the separate intellects and the thinking individual ought to be always hylomorphic. This paper aims at showing that, although Siger has often been identified as an averroist, his psychology is certainly not rushdian. ","btype":3,"date":"2019","language":"Italian","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":57,"category_name":"Siger of Brabant","link":"bib?categories[]=Siger of Brabant"},{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5014,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Dianoia","volume":"28","issue":"","pages":"81\u201394"}},"sort":["Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante"]}

Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

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Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) - A physician of 12th CE, 2021
By: Azizur Rahman, Mohd Zulkifle, Aumir Rasool
Title Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) - A physician of 12th CE
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Journal of Medical Biography
Categories Biography, Medicine
Author(s) Azizur Rahman , Mohd Zulkifle , Aumir Rasool
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the Islamic Golden Age, medicine flourished by the practice of Persian, Arab and Greek physicians (9th to 13th century AD). Ibn rushd (1126–1198 AD) was renowned physician in that period, influenced the progress of medicine by his writings. He was the stalwart of medical sciences and owner of many writings in various fields of science. One of his writings in medicine was “Al- Kulliyat fi Al-Tibb” (Colliget or “Generalities on Medicine”). Many of his writings were studied in every part of globe. Now a day it is need of hour to generalize his knowledge for further researches. In this paper it is trying to compile his historical aspect of life as well as writings.

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Critical approach of Averroes about the use of reason and its Presence in the western philosophical thinking, 2014
By: Sajjad Yousefi
Title Critical approach of Averroes about the use of reason and its Presence in the western philosophical thinking
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Philosophical Investigations
Volume 8
Issue 15
Pages 167-181
Categories Influence
Author(s) Sajjad Yousefi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Rationalism is one of the influential components of the Western philosophy. One of the central aspects of his rationalism is his criticism of the limits of using the reason. This study has been reviewed the deep of this criticism and its presence in the philosophical thought of the West. The research method, on the one hand, is analyzing the content and the genealogy of the issue on the other hand. Here I try to clarify the Islamic and Western philosophy relationship in this case, and the interactions between both approaches

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