Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna, 2020
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 20
Issue 1
Pages 1–26
Categories Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with the divine knowledge of particulars in Averroes’ Tahāfut al-tahāfut and Ḍamīma. It examines how the concept of relation, generally neglected, is at the heart of the dispute between Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, and the Commentator. In al-Ġazālī’s eyes, Avicenna's misconception of divine knowledge “in a universal way” is based on a misuse of relation in the case of God's knowledge. If particulars change and God does not, his knowledge of particulars, insofar as it undergoes change, can be considered a pure relation without ontological consequences. Averroes contests both al-Ġazālī’s criticism and his proposal, despite the fact that, for different reasons involving the coming-to-be of human knowledge, he too employs the notion of pure relation in his Long Commentary on the Physics.

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Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age
Volume 85
Pages 108–127
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Averroism, Metaphysics, Politics
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to present the position of the Master of Arts John of Jandun (d. 1328) on the relationship between the metaphysical and the political; and second, to show how his solution, based on the idea of an agency “in second intention,” makes him a follower of Averroes and, more remotely, of Alexander of Aphrodisias’s doctrine on providence. Although the philosopher must play a key role in the city-state as the prince’s teacher on divine truths, this role does not make him a subordinate in any way, because he is turned towards others only in secunda intentione. How does John of Jandun flesh this out? And what does he owe to the metaphysical providence defended by his Greek and Arabic predecessors? These are the issues the paper deals with.

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Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 85
Issue 2
Pages 261–284
Categories Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper studies the analogy set forth by Averroes in his Great Commentary on the De anima between the material intellect and the transparent medium. The overall context of the present inquiry is the 'question of Theophrastus' concerning the nature of the material intellect. The paper argues that the analogy between material intellect and transparent medium arises because, just like the transparent medium, the material intellect’s functioning requires a prior actualization: just as colors shine through the transparent medium only insofar as it is itself actually illuminated, the material intellect can receive intelligible forms only insofar as it is fundamentally actualized by the agent intellect. The aim of this paper is thus to reconsider the nature of the material intellect’s potency and its formal relation to the agent intellect.

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Averroès pour quoi faire?, 2016
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès pour quoi faire?
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Qantara, Magazine des cultures arabe et méditerranéenne
Issue 100
Pages 48–51
Categories no categories
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Pensée, dénomination extrinsèque et changement chez Averroès. Une lecture d’Aristote, Physique, VII, 3, 2015
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Pensée, dénomination extrinsèque et changement chez Averroès. Une lecture d’Aristote, Physique, VII, 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2015
Journal Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge
Volume 82
Pages 23–43
Categories Aristotle, Physics, Psychology
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Du corporel au spirituel. Averroès et la question d'un sens « agent », 2014
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Du corporel au spirituel. Averroès et la question d'un sens « agent »
Type Article
Language French
Date 2014
Journal Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie
Volume 61
Issue 1
Pages 19–42
Categories De anima
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Siger de Brabant et la notion d’operans intrinsecum: un coup de maître?, 2013
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Siger de Brabant et la notion d’operans intrinsecum: un coup de maître?
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Revue des Sciences philosophiques et théologiques
Volume 97
Issue 1
Pages 3–36
Categories Siger of Brabant, Latin Averroism, Aquinas
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The present article pertains to the notion of operans intrinsecum that Siger of Brabant, in response to Thomas Aquinas, places at the heart of his De anima intellectiva in order to reconsider the intellect’s relationship to the body. Drawing upon the model of celestial auto-motricity, the author aims to show two things. First, Siger finds in the Aquinate the elements for his own solution (without simply transferring the thomasian position). Second, he does so pertinently by recovering in Thomas Aquinas one of the muted but decisive sources for his cosmology: Averroes. Far from being a miserable escape hence decried, or even a first step toward Thomas’ noetic, the “intrinsic operant” is the subtle and sound concept of a master capably enriching his contested exegesis of the De anima with averroist physics.

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S'unir à l'Intellect, Voir Dieu. Averroès Et la Doctrine de la Jonction au Cœur du Thomisme, 2011
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title S'unir à l'Intellect, Voir Dieu. Averroès Et la Doctrine de la Jonction au Cœur du Thomisme
Type Article
Language French
Date 2011
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 21
Issue 2
Pages 215–247
Categories Psychology, Commentary, Thomas
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The article examines the relation that Aquinas' theory of the beatific vision maintains with Averroes' noetics as presented in his Great Commentary on the De anima. Starting with his Commentary on the Sentences, in which the young Thomas Aquinas offers an explicit transposition of the philosophical intellection of separate substances into the Christian theological order, through to his later works where no mention of it is found, we will endeavour to present the exact nature of these borrowings and to evaluate their accuracy by questioning the conceptual coherence of Aquinas' gesture: could Aquinas base his conception of a vision of God by essence on a noetic construction which was originally part of a system judged both erroneous and contrary to faith? Can one concede theologically, concerning the relation between divine essence and intellect, what one refuses philosophically, concerning the relation between the separate intellect and the body? Although Aquinas and his followers, in the incipient quarrel, assert it to be so, we will indicate how the original paradoxical borrowing maintains something conceptually problematic at the heart of Aquinas' thinking.

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Vision béatifique et séparation de l'intellect au début du XIVe siècle. Pour Averroès ou contre Thomas d'Aquin?, 2006
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Vision béatifique et séparation de l'intellect au début du XIVe siècle. Pour Averroès ou contre Thomas d'Aquin?
Type Article
Language French
Date 2006
Journal Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie
Volume 53
Pages 310–342
Categories Averroism, Aquinas
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"296","_score":null,"_source":{"id":296,"authors_free":[{"id":433,"entry_id":296,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":622,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Jean-Baptiste Brenet","free_first_name":"Jean-Baptiste","free_last_name":"Brenet","norm_person":{"id":622,"first_name":"Jean-Baptiste","last_name":"Brenet","full_name":"Jean-Baptiste Brenet","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1051778867","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/27224973","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Jean-Baptiste Brenet"}}],"entry_title":"Vision b\u00e9atifique et s\u00e9paration de l'intellect au d\u00e9but du XIVe si\u00e8cle. Pour Averro\u00e8s ou contre Thomas d'Aquin?","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"Vision b\u00e9atifique et s\u00e9paration de l'intellect au d\u00e9but du XIVe si\u00e8cle. Pour Averro\u00e8s ou contre Thomas d'Aquin?"},"abstract":null,"btype":3,"date":"2006","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":2,"category_name":"Aquinas","link":"bib?categories[]=Aquinas"}],"authors":[{"id":622,"full_name":"Jean-Baptiste Brenet","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":296,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Freiburger Zeitschrift f\u00fcr Philosophie und Theologie","volume":"53","issue":null,"pages":"310\u2013342"}},"sort":[2006]}

Les sources et le sens de l'anti-averroïsme de Thomas de Strasbourg, 2006
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Les sources et le sens de l'anti-averroïsme de Thomas de Strasbourg
Type Article
Language French
Date 2006
Journal Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques
Volume 90
Issue 4
Pages 641–663
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commnentary on the Sentences (book II, dist. XVII, q. 1), doubtless read at Paris between 1335 and 1337, Thomas de Strasbourg († 1357) contests in a dense and singular fashion the noetic of Averroes and the Averroists. His reading depends at once upon two figures. First, Giles of Rome, who denounces in the theory of the continuatio a feature that makes of the image the second subject-substrate of the intelligible. Second, Durandus of Saint-Pourçain, who with Hervé Nédellec, opposes to the Commentator a novel perspective of the subject applied to man. This paper studies this theoretical pro-duction as it bears witness to the dynamism of the quarrel over Averroism and which enlists Thomas of Strasbourg in this long chronicle in which the modern notion of sub-jectivity is worked out.

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"... set hominem anima". Thomas d'Aquin et la pensée humaine comme acte du composé , 2006
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title "... set hominem anima". Thomas d'Aquin et la pensée humaine comme acte du composé
Type Article
Language French
Date 2006
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 59
Pages 69–96
Categories Psychology, Thomas
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroès a-t-il inventé une théorie des deux sujets de la pensée, 2005
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès a-t-il inventé une théorie des deux sujets de la pensée
Type Article
Language French
Date 2005
Journal Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía
Volume 29
Pages 53–86
Categories Psychology
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to Thomas Aquinas, Averroes's philosophy of the mind is characterized by the doctrine of the "double subject", which is found in his Long Commentary on the De anima. As it is well-known, Averroes asserts that the intelligibles in act or theoretical intelligibles may be said to have two subjects (duo subiecta): the material intellect and the image of the cogitative power, whose connection allows individual human beings to think. We try here to know if it is properly a "theory" produced by Averroes. By analysing all the texts dealing with it, we both intend to justify the use of the term "subiectum" applied to the image and to show that the expression "duo subiecta", equivocal from a lexical point of view, is totally clear from a conceptual one. The doctrine of the double subject is certainly a thesis of Averroes consequent with his latter stage of his philosophy and his new teaching on the material intellect, but it is not, contrary to the interpretation of his Latin opponents, the doctrine of the two "substrates" which would make man the second place of the intelligible in act.

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Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 85
Issue 2
Pages 261–284
Categories Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper studies the analogy set forth by Averroes in his Great Commentary on the De anima between the material intellect and the transparent medium. The overall context of the present inquiry is the 'question of Theophrastus' concerning the nature of the material intellect. The paper argues that the analogy between material intellect and transparent medium arises because, just like the transparent medium, the material intellect’s functioning requires a prior actualization: just as colors shine through the transparent medium only insofar as it is itself actually illuminated, the material intellect can receive intelligible forms only insofar as it is fundamentally actualized by the agent intellect. The aim of this paper is thus to reconsider the nature of the material intellect’s potency and its formal relation to the agent intellect.

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Averroès pour quoi faire?, 2016
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès pour quoi faire?
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Qantara, Magazine des cultures arabe et méditerranéenne
Issue 100
Pages 48–51
Categories no categories
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Du corporel au spirituel. Averroès et la question d'un sens « agent », 2014
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Du corporel au spirituel. Averroès et la question d'un sens « agent »
Type Article
Language French
Date 2014
Journal Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie
Volume 61
Issue 1
Pages 19–42
Categories De anima
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les sources et le sens de l'anti-averroïsme de Thomas de Strasbourg, 2006
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Les sources et le sens de l'anti-averroïsme de Thomas de Strasbourg
Type Article
Language French
Date 2006
Journal Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques
Volume 90
Issue 4
Pages 641–663
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commnentary on the Sentences (book II, dist. XVII, q. 1), doubtless read at Paris between 1335 and 1337, Thomas de Strasbourg († 1357) contests in a dense and singular fashion the noetic of Averroes and the Averroists. His reading depends at once upon two figures. First, Giles of Rome, who denounces in the theory of the continuatio a feature that makes of the image the second subject-substrate of the intelligible. Second, Durandus of Saint-Pourçain, who with Hervé Nédellec, opposes to the Commentator a novel perspective of the subject applied to man. This paper studies this theoretical pro-duction as it bears witness to the dynamism of the quarrel over Averroism and which enlists Thomas of Strasbourg in this long chronicle in which the modern notion of sub-jectivity is worked out.

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Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age
Volume 85
Pages 108–127
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Averroism, Metaphysics, Politics
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to present the position of the Master of Arts John of Jandun (d. 1328) on the relationship between the metaphysical and the political; and second, to show how his solution, based on the idea of an agency “in second intention,” makes him a follower of Averroes and, more remotely, of Alexander of Aphrodisias’s doctrine on providence. Although the philosopher must play a key role in the city-state as the prince’s teacher on divine truths, this role does not make him a subordinate in any way, because he is turned towards others only in secunda intentione. How does John of Jandun flesh this out? And what does he owe to the metaphysical providence defended by his Greek and Arabic predecessors? These are the issues the paper deals with.

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Pensée, dénomination extrinsèque et changement chez Averroès. Une lecture d’Aristote, Physique, VII, 3, 2015
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Pensée, dénomination extrinsèque et changement chez Averroès. Une lecture d’Aristote, Physique, VII, 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2015
Journal Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge
Volume 82
Pages 23–43
Categories Aristotle, Physics, Psychology
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Perfection de la philosophie ou philosophe parfait?. Jean de Jandun lecteur d'Averroès, 2001
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Perfection de la philosophie ou philosophe parfait?. Jean de Jandun lecteur d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2001
Journal Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales
Volume 68
Pages 310–348
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
L'article examine la reprise que le « prince des Averroïstes » Jean de Jandun (ca. 1285–1328) fait de cette phrase délicate d'Averroès, tirée de son Grand Commentaire du De anima d'Aristote : « forte igitur philosophia invenitur in maiori parte subiecti in omni tempore ». On cherche à montrer par l'analyse des textes que l'interprétation du maître ès arts s'écarte radicalement de la pensée du Cordouan qu'il prétend suivre. Tandis qu'Averroès suppose l'existence continue d'au moins un philosophe dans le monde, Jean de Jandun, rejetant comme irréaliste l'idée d'un homme parfait en qui s'incarnerait tout le savoir, et tributaire d'une erreur de traduction arabo-latine qui donne « sujet » pour « lieu », soutient qu'il n'y a chaque fois de perfection que si l'on totalise tous les savoirs particuliers des différents penseurs en activité sur la terre. Autrement dit, la philosophie est parfaite, certes, mais il n'y a pas de philosophe parfait. C'est coniunctim que la science est achevée, et non pas divisim. Un tel constat, qui rapproche l'analyse de Jean de celle menée par Dante au début de sa Monarchia, permet deux révisions : d'une part, l'idée d'un « averroïsme » latin réactionnaire, se contentant de répéter les paroles du maître, est à revoir ; d'autre part, cela signifie qu'il n'y a pas chez Jean les bases théoriques de l'idéal éthico-intellectualiste dont l'historiographie moderne assure qu'il en fut le champion parisien.

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Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna, 2020
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 20
Issue 1
Pages 1–26
Categories Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with the divine knowledge of particulars in Averroes’ Tahāfut al-tahāfut and Ḍamīma. It examines how the concept of relation, generally neglected, is at the heart of the dispute between Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, and the Commentator. In al-Ġazālī’s eyes, Avicenna's misconception of divine knowledge “in a universal way” is based on a misuse of relation in the case of God's knowledge. If particulars change and God does not, his knowledge of particulars, insofar as it undergoes change, can be considered a pure relation without ontological consequences. Averroes contests both al-Ġazālī’s criticism and his proposal, despite the fact that, for different reasons involving the coming-to-be of human knowledge, he too employs the notion of pure relation in his Long Commentary on the Physics.

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