Ibn Rušd on the Structure of Aristotle's Metaphysics, 2010
By: Rüdiger Arnzen
Title Ibn Rušd on the Structure of Aristotle's Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 21
Pages 375–410
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Rüdiger Arnzen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The structure of Aristotle's Metaphysics was a matter of dispute among ancient and Medieval Greek, Arabic, and Latin-writing commentators. The present article investigates the question in which way the Arab philosopher Averroes dealt with this problem in his so-called Epitome and his literal commentary on the Metaphysics. It tries to show that in the Epitome Averroes restructured the contents of the Metaphysics according to his own conception of this discipline, and that this conception was partly indebted to his own main sources, al-Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā, partly independent from these. Furthemore, the article examines whether and, if so, in which whay Averroes changed his mind about metaphysics as such and/or the structure of Aristotle's Metaphysics in his late literal commentary. It is argued that Averroes discarded there some of his earlier Avicennian positions in favour of a certain rapprochement to positions held by Alexander of Aphrodisias, but never gave up in general his overall conception of the Metaphysics as displayed in the Epitome.

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The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. Celestial Influences on the Sublunary World in Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Averroes, 2009
By: Gad Freudenthal
Title The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. Celestial Influences on the Sublunary World in Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2009
Published in New Perspectives on Aristotle's De caelo
Pages 239–281
Categories Cosmology, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Aristotle
Author(s) Gad Freudenthal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. From Alexander of Aphrodisias to Averroes, 2006
By: Gad Freudenthal
Title The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. From Alexander of Aphrodisias to Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 59
Pages 29–68
Categories Cosmology, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Gad Freudenthal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd's Middle Commentary and Alexander's Commentary in their Relationship to the Arab Commentary Tradition on the De Generatione et corruptione, 2002
By: Heidrun Eichner
Title Ibn Rushd's Middle Commentary and Alexander's Commentary in their Relationship to the Arab Commentary Tradition on the De Generatione et corruptione
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2002
Published in Aristotele e Alessandro di Afrodisia nella tradizione araba. Atti del Colloquio La ricezione arabe ed ebraica della filosofia e della scienza greche. Padova, 14–15 maggio 1999
Pages 281–297
Categories Natural Philosophy, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Heidrun Eichner
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La tradizione giudeo-araba ed ebraica del De intellectu di Alessandro di Afrodisia e il testo originale del Commento di Averroè, 2001
By: Mauro Zonta
Title La tradizione giudeo-araba ed ebraica del De intellectu di Alessandro di Afrodisia e il testo originale del Commento di Averroè
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2001
Journal Annali di Ca' Foscari
Volume 40
Issue 3
Pages 17–35
Categories Psychology, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Il movimento del cielo in Alessandro di Afrodisià, 2000
By: Enrico Berti
Title Il movimento del cielo in Alessandro di Afrodisià
Type Book Section
Language Italian
Date 2000
Published in La filosofia in eta imperiale
Pages ?-?
Categories Cosmology, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Enrico Berti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les stades de la philosophie naturelle d'Averroès, 1997
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Les stades de la philosophie naturelle d'Averroès
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1997
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 7
Pages 115–137
Categories Biography, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Themistius, Ibn Bāǧǧa
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The stages in the development of Averroes' philosophy can be better defined by the revisions Averroes himself made of his works than by the traditional order of his commentaries (short, middle, long); such revisions often take the form of glosses. In his initial stages Averroes' opinions are influenced by the interpretations of Alexander of Aphrodisias and Themistius as well as Avempace. In his final stages, he departs from them and moves closer to Aristotle's original thought. Averroes' reading of the beginning of Physics, Book VIII is an exception: there he agrees with Aristotle in the first stage and moves away from him in the final stage, because he came to believe that Aristotle's purpose in this part of the book was to prove the eternity of heavenly movement. The explanation for the different reading of the introduction to the short commentary can be found in the persecution Averroes and other philosophers suffered in 1197, after which Averroes no longer declared philosophy to be the way to attain human perfection, and he only wanted to illuminate Aristotle's philosophy.

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Ibn Rušd et les Premiers Analytiques d'Aristote. Aperçu sur un problème de syllogistique modale, 1995
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Ibn Rušd et les Premiers Analytiques d'Aristote. Aperçu sur un problème de syllogistique modale
Type Article
Language French
Date 1995
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 5
Pages 51–74
Categories Logic, Alexander of Aphrodisias, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Commentary
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Rušd devoted a certain number of works to Aristotle's Prior Analytics. In a series of opuscules written over a period of twenty years and following upon his Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, he faced a problem particular to the modal syllogism - that of the mood of the conclusion in mixed syllogisms. The problem can be stated as follows: At the beginning of the Prior Analytics, Aristotle established a formal deductive principle - that of universal attribution (Pr. An. I.1.24b26–30). Applied to the modal syllogism, this principle is inadequate as stated. It is too general to be applied in a univocal manner in all modal syllogisms. To preserve a sense of coherence in Aristotle's declarations, the commentators had to interpret it. Presenting the interpretations of the commentators, primarily al-Fārābī and Alexander, on the basis of al-Fārābī's Large Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, Averroes criticizes them. Applied according to Alexander's interpretation, the principle of universal attribution is valid only for modal syllogisms one of whose premises is necessary and the other assertoric; according to al-Fārābī's interpretation, it is verified only when the minor premise is possible. Averroes proposes two preliminary solutions. Either this formal deductive principle must be applied differently according to the modal differences of the minor premises in mixed syllogisms (first solution) or would be used in two ways, generally or in keeping with each mood (second solution). These solutions are not satisfactory, for they call into question the unity and universality of the principle of universal attribution as established by Aristotle. What is the utility, Averroes asks, of a principle which does not hold for all modalities or does not apply to all the premises when the Prior Analytics ought to furnish formal and universal principles of deduction? And why did Aristotle define the principle of universal attribution without distinguishing its application according to each of the three modal premises? Returning at the end of his career to a literal exegesis of Aristotle's propositions and without harkening back to the earlier solutions, he proposes a theory of making the terms modal (fourth solution) in order to save Aristotle's declarations with respect to the principle of universal attribution and the mood of the conclusion of mixed syllogisms (Prior Analytics I. 9.30al5–20). Though formally inadequate, this solution, which had a continued history, proposes a new way of looking at the classification of modal propositions.

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Averroes als Vermittler der Gedanken des Alexander von Aphrodisias, 1994
By: Olaf Pluta
Title Averroes als Vermittler der Gedanken des Alexander von Aphrodisias
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 1994
Published in Averroismus im Mittelalter und in der Renaissance
Pages 201–221
Categories Influence, Renaissance, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Olaf Pluta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Die durch Averroes erhaltenen Fragmente Alexanders zur Metaphysik des Aristoteles. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin, 1884
By: Averroes, Jacob Freudenthal (Ed.), Siegmund Fränkel (Ed.)
Title Die durch Averroes erhaltenen Fragmente Alexanders zur Metaphysik des Aristoteles. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 1884
Publication Place Berlin
Publisher Verlag der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Averroes , Jacob Freudenthal , Siegmund Fränkel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Il movimento del cielo in Alessandro di Afrodisià, 2000
By: Enrico Berti
Title Il movimento del cielo in Alessandro di Afrodisià
Type Book Section
Language Italian
Date 2000
Published in La filosofia in eta imperiale
Pages ?-?
Categories Cosmology, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Enrico Berti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La tradizione giudeo-araba ed ebraica del De intellectu di Alessandro di Afrodisia e il testo originale del Commento di Averroè, 2001
By: Mauro Zonta
Title La tradizione giudeo-araba ed ebraica del De intellectu di Alessandro di Afrodisia e il testo originale del Commento di Averroè
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2001
Journal Annali di Ca' Foscari
Volume 40
Issue 3
Pages 17–35
Categories Psychology, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les stades de la philosophie naturelle d'Averroès, 1997
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Les stades de la philosophie naturelle d'Averroès
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1997
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 7
Pages 115–137
Categories Biography, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Themistius, Ibn Bāǧǧa
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The stages in the development of Averroes' philosophy can be better defined by the revisions Averroes himself made of his works than by the traditional order of his commentaries (short, middle, long); such revisions often take the form of glosses. In his initial stages Averroes' opinions are influenced by the interpretations of Alexander of Aphrodisias and Themistius as well as Avempace. In his final stages, he departs from them and moves closer to Aristotle's original thought. Averroes' reading of the beginning of Physics, Book VIII is an exception: there he agrees with Aristotle in the first stage and moves away from him in the final stage, because he came to believe that Aristotle's purpose in this part of the book was to prove the eternity of heavenly movement. The explanation for the different reading of the introduction to the short commentary can be found in the persecution Averroes and other philosophers suffered in 1197, after which Averroes no longer declared philosophy to be the way to attain human perfection, and he only wanted to illuminate Aristotle's philosophy.

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L’analogia dell’essere. Testi antichi e medievali, 2020
By: Giovanni Catapano (Ed.), Cecilia Martini Bonadeo (Ed.), Rita Salis (Ed.)
Title L’analogia dell’essere. Testi antichi e medievali
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2020
Publication Place Padua
Publisher Padova University Press
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, al-Fārābī, Thomas
Author(s) Giovanni Catapano , Cecilia Martini Bonadeo , Rita Salis
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
L’analogia dell’essere attribuita ad Aristotele costituisce un tema filosofico tra i più discussi, sul quale è tornata recentemente a concentrarsi l’attenzione degli studiosi. Comprendendo un arco temporale che va dall’antichità all’età contemporanea, il tema permette di essere trattato da molteplici prospettive, aprendo il campo alla collaborazione fra esperti di epoche e discipline diverse. Il volume contiene i testi più significativi relativamente alla nascita e allo sviluppo della dottrina dell’analogia dell’essere. I passi sono riportati a fronte con traduzioni originali annotate e sono raccolti in due sezioni: quella di filosofia antica e tardoantica e quella di filosofia medievale araba e latina. La prima sezione comprende i principali testi aristotelici che della dottrina dell’analogia dell’essere hanno costituito l’origine, e i passi fra i più rilevanti della tradizione commentaristica antica e tardoantica, da Alessandro di Afrodisia (II-III sec. d.C) a Simplicio di Cilicia (VI sec. d.C.), nei quali è possibile individuare le prime fasi dello sviluppo di tale dottrina. La sezione di filosofia medievale araba e latina comprende passi scelti dei filosofi che rappresentano le tappe essenziali dello sviluppo della dottrina dell’analogia dell’essere nel medioevo arabo e latino, da al-Fārābī (m. 950 c.) a Tommaso d’Aquino (XIII sec.) a Tommaso de Vio, il “Gaetano” (XV-XVI sec.). Oltre a fornire un utile strumento per la ricostruzione delle origini dell’attribuzione dell’analogia dell’essere ad Aristotele, il volume individua nei testi riportati l’imprescindibile base per ulteriori sviluppi di tale dottrina nella metafisica contemporanea.

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Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age
Volume 85
Pages 108–127
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Averroism, Metaphysics, Politics
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to present the position of the Master of Arts John of Jandun (d. 1328) on the relationship between the metaphysical and the political; and second, to show how his solution, based on the idea of an agency “in second intention,” makes him a follower of Averroes and, more remotely, of Alexander of Aphrodisias’s doctrine on providence. Although the philosopher must play a key role in the city-state as the prince’s teacher on divine truths, this role does not make him a subordinate in any way, because he is turned towards others only in secunda intentione. How does John of Jandun flesh this out? And what does he owe to the metaphysical providence defended by his Greek and Arabic predecessors? These are the issues the paper deals with.

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New Wine in Old Vessels: Alexander of Aphrodisias as a Source for Averroes’ Metaphysics, 2021
By: Matteo Di Giovanni
Title New Wine in Old Vessels: Alexander of Aphrodisias as a Source for Averroes’ Metaphysics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Pages 59–76
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentary, Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Besides his best-known merits as a philosopher, Averroes stands out in the history of the classical tradition as a unique testimony to Alexander’s lost commentary on Metaphysics Lambda and, through it, his interpretation of the argument running through the whole text of the Metaphysics. The gist of this interpretation is laid out in the elaborate prologue to the Lambda commentary that goes back to Alexander and is preserved by Averroes. Building on this textual evidence, the study investigates Averroes’ philosophical appropriation of the Alexander material that is interwoven into the fabric of the former’s exegesis, from the earlier epitome to the later long commentary on the Metaphysics. A number of doctrines turn out to be ultimately inspired by Alexander, including Averroes’ view of the tripartite structure of metaphysics, his notion of book Gamma as an epistemology (“specific logic”) for metaphysics, the function of Delta, the downgrading of both mental and accidental being in Epsilon, and Aristotle’s argument in Zeta. Averroes’ debt to his source is brought to the fore without prejudicing the further question, awaiting future research, of whether Averroes’ acquaintance with Alexander’s line of interpretation was always unmediated or any figures in the philosophical tradition played some role in its transmission.

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Pomponazzi Contra Averroes on the Intellect, 2016
By: John Sellars
Title Pomponazzi Contra Averroes on the Intellect
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal British Journal for the History of Philosophy
Volume 24
Issue 1
Pages 45–66
Categories Renaissance, De anima, Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Themistius, Thomas
Author(s) John Sellars
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper examines Pomponazzi's arguments against Averroes in his De Immortalitate Animae, focusing on the question whether thought is possible without a body. The first part of the paper will sketch the history of the problem, namely the interpretation of Aristotle's remarks about the intellect in De Anima 3.4-5, touching on Alexander, Themistius, and Averroes. The second part will focus on Pomponazzi's response to Averroes, including his use of arguments by Aquinas. It will conclude by suggesting that Pomponazzi's discussion stands as the first properly modern account of Aristotle's psychology.

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Reason and No-reason from Ancient Philosophy to Neurosciences: : Old Parameters, New Perspectives, 2017
By: R. Loredana Cardullo (Ed.), Francesco Coniglione (Ed.)
Title Reason and No-reason from Ancient Philosophy to Neurosciences: : Old Parameters, New Perspectives
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2017
Publication Place Sankt Augustin
Publisher Academia Verlag
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Neoplatonism, Plato, Spinoza
Author(s) R. Loredana Cardullo , Francesco Coniglione
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The reason/no-reason conceptual pair (also declinable in the similar forms of rational/a-rational, logical/a-logical) pervades the history of Western thought from the archaic era up to contemporary times. Perceived in different historical periods and in different cultural forms either as a conflict or as a vital coexistence, the reason/no-reason pair was first theorized and legitimated as a sharp contrast in antiquity with the Pythagorean systoichiai, and at the dawn of the twentieth century it was successfully exemplified by Nietzsche through the opposition between Apollonian and Dionysian principles, which denotes respectively the harmonious, orderly, 'bright' side of the human soul, and the chaotic one, wild, instinctive, passionate, 'dark'. This volume is the outcome of the work of an international research group, which intended to cover some aspects of this dichotomy with the specific end to prove that the two sides of the human 'soul' don't contradict each other - in such a way that one excludes, ontologically and axiologically, the other - but they are rather closely interrelated and interdependent. Scholars with different expertise in the history of thought tackled diachronically some key moments of this story, from different angles and with different approaches, from ancient thought to modern neurosciences. The volume contains contributions of Krzysztof Brzechczyn (Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University), R. Loredana Cardullo (University of Catania), Francesco Coniglione (University of Catania), Santo Di Nuovo (University of Catania), Daniele Iozzia (University of Catania), Syliane Malinowski-Charles (Université du Québec à Trois Rivière), Concetto Martello (University of Catania), Alexandra Michalewski (Paris - Sorbonne, CNRS), Chiara Militello (University of Catania), Sebastian Moro Tornese (United Kingdom), Jean-Marc Narbonne (Laval Université, Canada), Anne Sheppard (Royal Holloway, University of London), Salvatore Vasta (University of Catania), Andrea Vella (University of Catania).

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The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. Celestial Influences on the Sublunary World in Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Averroes, 2009
By: Gad Freudenthal
Title The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. Celestial Influences on the Sublunary World in Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2009
Published in New Perspectives on Aristotle's De caelo
Pages 239–281
Categories Cosmology, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Aristotle
Author(s) Gad Freudenthal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. From Alexander of Aphrodisias to Averroes, 2006
By: Gad Freudenthal
Title The Medieval Astrologization of the Aristotelian Cosmos. From Alexander of Aphrodisias to Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 59
Pages 29–68
Categories Cosmology, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Gad Freudenthal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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