Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience, 2019
By: Stephen Ogden
Title Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 595–614
Categories Thomas, Metaphysics, Aristotle, Commentary, Theology
Author(s) Stephen Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
Type Article
Language French
Date 2019
Journal Oriens
Volume 47
Issue 3-4
Pages 244–312
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote, 2018
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Oriens
Volume 46
Issue No. 3/4
Pages 332–367
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Following an exegetical method similar to the one used two years earlier in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Averroes usually stays very close to the Arabic version of the Nicomachean Ethics in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. For he mostly reproduces Aristotle’s text without reformulating it. When necessary he nonetheless deletes the most obscure passages and develops those requiring more explanation, adding examples and replacing some terms with other terms, usually technical ones. By doing so, Averroes gives the ten Books of Aristotle’s treatise a greater unity and coherence. One of the commonest modifications that Averroes introduced in the Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics on the microstructural level is the use of the term scientia/ ḥokhma to refer to the content of the Ethics, whereas Aristotle’s text had no specific word for this. Likewise, Averroes makes clear in the first lines of his Commentary on the Republic that the discursive mode he is going to follow is the mode of scientific or theoretical arguments, not dialectical arguments. Hence, bestowing the status of a «science» on ethics (and on politics) clearly seems problematic – from a strictly Aristotelian perspective at any rate. This contribution seeks to understand, from Books I and X of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, how the «scientific» status of ethics shall be understood, by observing in particular the inscription of the Ethics in the knowledge system as Averroes conceives it, and by raising the question of the addressee of his Middle Commentary, who obviously is no longer the Aristotelian figure of the legislator ἐπιειϰής.

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Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino, 2017
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Dianoia
Volume 24
Pages 15-32
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Thomas
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A widespread historiographic commonplace, established by Thomas Aquinas himself in his Tractatus de unitate intellectus (1270), takes Siger of Brabant’s Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1265) to be a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the unity of the material intellect as exposed in the Tafsīr Kitāb al-Nafs (Long Commentary on the De anima, ca. 1186); according to the same view, Aquinas’ philosophy of mind would be the expression of a strongly antiaverroistic – and therefore more orthodox – kind of aristotelianism. Building on a thorough analysis of key texts in Aquinas’ Commentary on the Sentences (1255), I argue in this paper that those who hold Aquinas’ noetic to be anti-averroistic are greatly mistaken: while Siger’s always superficial rushdian inspiration is better understood against the background of a neoplatonic-tinged mind-body dualism clearly at odds with Ibn Rušd’s own strictly peripatetic ontology, Aquinas’ psychology, hylomorfic and not-dualist at its core, is aristotelian mainly inasmuch as it is rushdian.

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Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon, 2017
By: Ilyas Altuner
Title Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Entelekya Logico-Metaphysical Review
Volume 1
Issue 1-2
Pages 5–17
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Ilyas Altuner
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes, considered to be the greatest Aristotelian commentator in the Middle Ages, has written three different types of commentary on almost all the works of this great philosopher: short, middle and long. These commentaries have been translated into Latin and Hebrew in the early period, and profoundly influenced both Medieval Europe and Jewish thought for centuries. The effect of Averroes in the West was to spread the whole of Europe under the name of Latin Averroism. The text what you have consists of some remarks about the translation of the commentary on the ‘Book Alpha Meizon’, the second book of Averroes’ Tafsīr Mā Ba’d at-Ṭabī’a.

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Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198), 2017
By: Carmela Baffioni
Title Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198)
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 59
Pages 33–56
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Theology, Commentary
Author(s) Carmela Baffioni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with Averroes’s interpretation of Metaph. Ε 1, where Aristotle discusses the nature and object of metaphysics, as well as its place in the hierarchy of sciences. Among Averroes’s predecessors, al-Kindī seems to see a coincidence between metaphysics and theology, since God can be described as the “first cause of everything”. However, al-Fārābī and Avicenna discovered that “first philosophy” could be conceived as an ontology distinct from theology; moreover, they considered theology to be only a part of metaphysics, not even the most important one. In the Great Commentary on Metaphysics - where the Arabic translation of the work by the Jacobite monk Usṭāth is quoted, Averroes often just paraphrases the original passages. One may infer that theology in the strict sense is merely mentioned by way of example. In the Epitome of Metaphysics, the objects of metaphysics are “general” ones; metaphysics studies the “absolute being” and cannot be identified with theology as “pertaining to God”.

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Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2017
By: Mauro Zonta
Title Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Aleph
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 335–353
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Jewish engagement with Aristotle's Metaphysics in Hebrew began in the thirteenth century when the text was presented in Hebrew encyclopedias; it continued with a number of translations in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. The study of Hebrew philosophical texts often resulted in supercommentaries on them. In this study I present a hitherto unnoticed work, preserved in a unique Oxford manuscript, that bears witness to the study of the Metaphysics. Consisting of twenty-nine short comments or glosses on key passages of Averroes' Middle Commentary on books Alpha minor and Beta, as well as two passages from the Middle Commentary on book Theta, it can be described as a kind of supercommentary on Averroes. The glosses as preserved in the manuscript were apparently collected by an unknown redactor from works of two or more authors, whom I try to identify. One of them may be R. Gershon, the father of Levi ben Gershon (1288–1344). An edition of the 29 glosses and, for comparison, several glosses on logic by R. Gershon, are also presented.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5204","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5204,"authors_free":[{"id":5998,"entry_id":5204,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":401,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mauro Zonta","free_first_name":"Mauro","free_last_name":"Zonta","norm_person":{"id":401,"first_name":"Mauro","last_name":"Zonta","full_name":"Mauro Zonta","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1068186860","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/51773741","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mauro Zonta"}}],"entry_title":"Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes\u2018 Middle Commentary on Aristotle\u2019s Metaphysics","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes\u2018 Middle Commentary on Aristotle\u2019s Metaphysics"},"abstract":"Jewish engagement with Aristotle's Metaphysics in Hebrew began in the thirteenth century when the text was presented in Hebrew encyclopedias; it continued with a number of translations in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. The study of Hebrew philosophical texts often resulted in supercommentaries on them. In this study I present a hitherto unnoticed work, preserved in a unique Oxford manuscript, that bears witness to the study of the Metaphysics. Consisting of twenty-nine short comments or glosses on key passages of Averroes' Middle Commentary on books Alpha minor and Beta, as well as two passages from the Middle Commentary on book Theta, it can be described as a kind of supercommentary on Averroes. The glosses as preserved in the manuscript were apparently collected by an unknown redactor from works of two or more authors, whom I try to identify. One of them may be R. Gershon, the father of Levi ben Gershon (1288\u20131344). An edition of the 29 glosses and, for comparison, several glosses on logic by R. Gershon, are also presented.","btype":3,"date":"2017","language":"English","online_url":"https:\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/10.2979\/aleph.17.2.0335","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.2979\/aleph.17.2.0335","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":401,"full_name":"Mauro Zonta","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5204,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Aleph","volume":"17","issue":"2","pages":"335\u2013353"}},"sort":[2017]}

Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Rursus
Volume 9
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commentary on Metaphysics IX 3, Averroes draws an analogy between the Megarian conception of dunamis, presented and refuted by Aristotle, and that of the Ashʿarites theologians. The study of the Arabic translation of lemmatas of Aristotle’s text (1047a26-28) and of the reformulation by Averroes of the third argument against the Megarians shows a shift commanded by theological issues: since the omnipotence of God can now bypass natural powers, the question of who possess the power should be added to that of its sole possession.

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Essence, accident et nécessité: la notion de par soi chez Averroès, 2016
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Essence, accident et nécessité: la notion de par soi chez Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Les Études Philosophiques
Volume 117
Issue 2
Pages 217–241
Categories Aristotle, Ontology, Commentary, Logic
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The notion of “per se” (καθ’ αὑτό) is one of the key elements of Aristotle’s ontology and epistemology. Nowhere, however, does Aristotle provide a systematic study of it, leaving the articulation of its different meanings and the significance of the general project in which this notion is inscribed unclear. This paper aims to study the interpretation that Averroes provides of this notion in his Long Commentary on the Posterior Analytics. In translating for the first time some long quotations of this commentary into a modern language, we will show the central role that this notion plays in Averroes’ scientific theory and in particular in his theory of demonstration of sign.

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A 14th Century Kabbalist's Excerpt from the Lost Arabic Original of Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Physics, 1985
By: Steven Harvey
Title A 14th Century Kabbalist's Excerpt from the Lost Arabic Original of Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Physics
Type Article
Language English
Date 1985
Journal Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam
Volume 6
Pages 219–227
Categories Physics, Commentary, Aristotle
Author(s) Steven Harvey
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, 2014
By: Steven Harvey, Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Oriens
Volume 42
Issue 1-2
Pages 254-287
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The conventional view of the previous century that Averroes’ middle commentaries (talāḫīṣ) on Aristotle are all of the same form and style is no longer tenable. A full and accurate account of the similarities and differences among Averroes’ talāḫīṣ on Aristotle must consider all of them. Perhaps the least studied and least known of these middle commentaries is the one on the Nicomachean Ethics, a text which is extant today only in a critically edited medieval Hebrew translation and an as yet unedited medieval Latin translation. The two authors of the present article have each studied chapters of this commentary independently of each other and have reached different conclusions concerning its value. In this article they present a careful examination of the first book of Averroes’ commentary via its Hebrew translation and Latin translation (primarily through the two oldest and most reliable manuscripts of it) in comparison with the medieval Arabic translation of the Nicomachean Ethics that was used by Averroes (and in light of Aristotle’s Greek text). This study shows an Averroean middle commentary that is not very original and not particularly helpful, especially, for example, when compared to the quite different middle commentaries on Aristotle’s books on natural science. Indeed, he often seems to do little more than copy—not even paraphrase—the Arabic translation. On the other hand, Averroes does not hesitate to insert words as he copies in order to make the text clearer and easier to understand. Where lengthier explanations are needed, they too are attempted, at times in response to problematic translations in the Arabic text before him.

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Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry, 2015
By: Francesca Forte
Title Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 287–296
Categories Aristotle, Poetics, Commentary, Logic, Politics
Author(s) Francesca Forte
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The theme of the pleasure of knowledge is central in Averroes’ aesthetical reflection of Aristotle’s Poetics, regardless whether we side with the logical or with the moral interpretation. The first one stresses the continuity between Averroes and previous commentators in his attempt to reconstruct the Poetics as an integral part of the Logic itself, whereby poetic discourse is conceived as a form of reasoning based on syllogisms. According to the latter perspective, however, pleasure is central in that poetry is a tool towards the pursuit of happiness: in this perspective it is necessary to bear in mind some common themes present in other works by Averroes (particularly in the commentaries on the Aristotelian Organon – and especially the commentary on the Rhetoric –, in the commentaries on Plato’s Republic, and, last but not least, in the Decisive Treatise). The pleasure of contemplative knowledge must go hand in hand with the pursuit of communal happiness and therefore with the good and proper order of community and society. Poetry represents a central tool towards this aim in that it expresses moral truths which cannot not be communicated (to everybody) by means of logic and philosophy alone.

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino, 2017
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Dianoia
Volume 24
Pages 15-32
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Thomas
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A widespread historiographic commonplace, established by Thomas Aquinas himself in his Tractatus de unitate intellectus (1270), takes Siger of Brabant’s Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1265) to be a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the unity of the material intellect as exposed in the Tafsīr Kitāb al-Nafs (Long Commentary on the De anima, ca. 1186); according to the same view, Aquinas’ philosophy of mind would be the expression of a strongly antiaverroistic – and therefore more orthodox – kind of aristotelianism. Building on a thorough analysis of key texts in Aquinas’ Commentary on the Sentences (1255), I argue in this paper that those who hold Aquinas’ noetic to be anti-averroistic are greatly mistaken: while Siger’s always superficial rushdian inspiration is better understood against the background of a neoplatonic-tinged mind-body dualism clearly at odds with Ibn Rušd’s own strictly peripatetic ontology, Aquinas’ psychology, hylomorfic and not-dualist at its core, is aristotelian mainly inasmuch as it is rushdian.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5154","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5154,"authors_free":[{"id":5935,"entry_id":5154,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1682,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Federico Minzoni","free_first_name":"Federico","free_last_name":"Minzoni","norm_person":{"id":1682,"first_name":"Federico","last_name":"Minzoni","full_name":"Federico Minzoni","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Federico Minzoni"}}],"entry_title":"Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafs\u00eer kit\u00e2b al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d\u2019Aquino","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafs\u00eer kit\u00e2b al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d\u2019Aquino"},"abstract":"A widespread historiographic commonplace, established by Thomas Aquinas himself in his Tractatus de unitate intellectus (1270), takes Siger of Brabant\u2019s Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1265) to be a latin formulation of Ibn Ru\u0161d\u2019s theory of the unity of the material intellect as exposed in the Tafs\u012br Kit\u0101b al-Nafs (Long Commentary on the De anima, ca. 1186); according to the same view, Aquinas\u2019 philosophy of mind would be the expression of a strongly antiaverroistic \u2013 and therefore more orthodox \u2013 kind of aristotelianism. Building on a thorough analysis of key texts in Aquinas\u2019 Commentary on the Sentences (1255), I argue in this paper that those who hold Aquinas\u2019 noetic to be anti-averroistic are greatly mistaken: while Siger\u2019s always superficial rushdian inspiration is better understood against the background of a neoplatonic-tinged mind-body dualism clearly at odds with Ibn Ru\u0161d\u2019s own strictly peripatetic ontology, Aquinas\u2019 psychology, hylomorfic and not-dualist at its core, is aristotelian mainly inasmuch as it is rushdian. ","btype":3,"date":"2017","language":"Italian","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"},{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":57,"category_name":"Siger of Brabant","link":"bib?categories[]=Siger of Brabant"},{"id":51,"category_name":"Thomas","link":"bib?categories[]=Thomas"}],"authors":[{"id":1682,"full_name":"Federico Minzoni","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5154,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Dianoia","volume":"24","issue":"","pages":"15-32"}},"sort":["Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafs\u00eer kit\u00e2b al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d\u2019Aquino"]}

Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote, 2007
By: Ahmad Hasnawi
Title Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2007
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 203–265
Categories Transmission, Commentary, Themistius, Logic, Aristotle
Author(s) Ahmad Hasnawi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Aristotle's Topics, and especially, as far as the subject of this study is concerned, their central books (II-VII), played a role of central importance both in the medieval Latin and in the Arabic logical tradition. This did not occur without transformations, which affected the nature and the function of the loci of which these books set forth the theory. One of the most visible signposts of this tradition of re-elaboration of the Topics is represented by Themistius (ob. c. 388), to whom both Boethius and Averroes refer. Yet no work by Themistius on the Topics has come down to us in Greek. With a view to reconstructing the work(s) of this author, we have here collected and translated the passages that are attributed to him explicitly (with the exception of one of them) in Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Topics, comparing them, where necessary, to the testimonies collected by Boethius in his De topicis differentiis. In addition - and this is a new element added to the file - we show that the Themistian classification of loci was taken up by Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī (ob. after 1164), author of a philosophical summa entitled al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar (The meditated book). These three testimonies are all the more precious in that they are independent of one another. The study of the chapter in the logical part of al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar, containing the Themistian classification of loci, of which a corrected text with translation is offered, shows that one finds in it some of the most singular aspects of this classification, as it appears in Boethius. Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī thus reveals himself to be closer than Averroes to the testimony of Boethius. This suggests the idea of a double redaction by Themistius of the classification of loci: one, more concentrated, comes from an introduction to the paraphrase of the central books of the Topics, which may have inspired Averroes; the other, more extensive, which will have been part of an original work, and inspired the classifications of Boethius and of Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī.

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Comentario mayor al libro 'Acerca del alma' de Aristóteles. Traducción parcial, 2005
By: Averroes,
Title Comentario mayor al libro 'Acerca del alma' de Aristóteles. Traducción parcial
Translation Averroes' Long Commentary on Aristotles' De Anima. A Partial Translation
Type Article
Language undefined
Date 2005
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 22
Pages 65–109
Categories Psychology, Commentary, Aristotle
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Josep Puig Montada

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De l’ὑπόκρισις au أخذ بالوجوه. L’interprétation de l’action oratoire par Averroès dans le Commentaire moyen à la Rhétorique d’Aristote, 2015
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title De l’ὑπόκρισις au أخذ بالوجوه. L’interprétation de l’action oratoire par Averroès dans le Commentaire moyen à la Rhétorique d’Aristote
Transcription De l’hypokrisis au akhdh bi-l-wujûd. L’interprétation de l’action oratoire par Averroès dans le commentaire moyen à la Rhétorique d’Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2015
Journal Studia Graeco-Arabica
Volume 5
Pages 59-76
Categories Aristotle, Rhetoric, Commentary
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The notion of ὑπόκρισις (hypokrisis) was employed for the first time with the meaning of “rhetorical delivery” in Aristotle’s Rhetoric, where it is the target of a short and highly critical analysis. A practice borrowed directly from the theatre, and apparently resistant to any form of technicisation that might give it a legitimate place alongside the other means of rhetorical persuasion, ὑπόκρισις (hypokrisis) was nevertheless extremely effective–as Aristotle acknowledged with undisguised irritation. In the face of Aristotle’s ambivalence, and torn between a purist and idealist conception of rhetoric on the one hand, and the contemporary reality of speech, which required him to recognise a practice of which he could not approve, on the other, what was Averroes’ attitude in his Middle Commentary on the Rhetoric? Dependent on the Arabic version of the Rhetoric where the term ὑπόκρισις (hypokrisis) was – with one exception – translated by the expression أخذ بالوجوه (aḫḏ bi-l-wuǧūh) – “the taking of faces” –, has Averroes followed Aristotle in his hesitations and reticences? Or has he instead chosen to legitimise the use of hypokrisis in rhetorical technique? The analysis of the Rushdian interpretation of the ‘taking of faces’ will allow a better understanding of Averroes’ exegetical method, and grasp of what it meant, to him, to be faithful to the First Master.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"2050","_score":null,"_source":{"id":2050,"authors_free":[{"id":2495,"entry_id":2050,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1286,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","free_first_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique","free_last_name":"Woerther","norm_person":{"id":1286,"first_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique","last_name":"Woerther","full_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/13670932X","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther"}}],"entry_title":"De l\u2019\u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03ba\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 au \u0623\u062e\u0630 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0648\u0647. L\u2019interpr\u00e9tation de l\u2019action oratoire par Averro\u00e8s dans le Commentaire moyen \u00e0 la Rh\u00e9torique d\u2019Aristote","title_transcript":"De l\u2019hypokrisis au akhdh bi-l-wuj\u00fbd. L\u2019interpr\u00e9tation de l\u2019action oratoire par Averro\u00e8s dans le commentaire moyen \u00e0 la Rh\u00e9torique d\u2019Aristote","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"De l\u2019\u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03ba\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 au \u0623\u062e\u0630 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0648\u0647. L\u2019interpr\u00e9tation de l\u2019action oratoire par Averro\u00e8s dans le Commentaire moyen \u00e0 la Rh\u00e9torique d\u2019Aristote"},"abstract":"The notion of \u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03ba\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 (hypokrisis) was employed for the first time with the meaning of \u201crhetorical delivery\u201d in Aristotle\u2019s Rhetoric, where it is the target of a short and highly critical analysis. A practice borrowed directly from the theatre, and apparently resistant to any form of technicisation that might give it a legitimate place alongside the other means of rhetorical persuasion, \u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03ba\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 (hypokrisis) was nevertheless extremely effective\u2013as Aristotle acknowledged with undisguised irritation. In the face of Aristotle\u2019s ambivalence, and torn between a purist and idealist conception of rhetoric on the one hand, and the contemporary reality of speech, which required him to recognise a practice of which he could not approve, on the other, what was Averroes\u2019 attitude in his Middle Commentary on the Rhetoric? Dependent on the Arabic version of the Rhetoric where the term \u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03ba\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 (hypokrisis) was \u2013 with one exception \u2013 translated by the expression \u0623\u062e\u0630 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0648\u0647 (a\u1e2b\u1e0f bi-l-wu\u01e7\u016bh) \u2013 \u201cthe taking of faces\u201d \u2013, has Averroes followed Aristotle in his hesitations and reticences? Or has he instead chosen to legitimise the use of hypokrisis in rhetorical technique? The analysis of the Rushdian interpretation of the \u2018taking of faces\u2019 will allow a better understanding of Averroes\u2019 exegetical method, and grasp of what it meant, to him, to be faithful to the First Master.","btype":3,"date":"2015","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":48,"category_name":"Rhetoric","link":"bib?categories[]=Rhetoric"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1286,"full_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":2050,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Studia Graeco-Arabica","volume":"5","issue":null,"pages":"59-76"}},"sort":["De l\u2019\u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03ba\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 au \u0623\u062e\u0630 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0648\u0647. L\u2019interpr\u00e9tation de l\u2019action oratoire par Averro\u00e8s dans le Commentaire moyen \u00e0 la Rh\u00e9torique d\u2019Aristote"]}

Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Rursus
Volume 9
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commentary on Metaphysics IX 3, Averroes draws an analogy between the Megarian conception of dunamis, presented and refuted by Aristotle, and that of the Ashʿarites theologians. The study of the Arabic translation of lemmatas of Aristotle’s text (1047a26-28) and of the reformulation by Averroes of the third argument against the Megarians shows a shift commanded by theological issues: since the omnipotence of God can now bypass natural powers, the question of who possess the power should be added to that of its sole possession.

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Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161–184
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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