Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique, 2022
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Oxford
Publisher Oxford University Press
Categories Aristotle, Thomas, Avicenna, De anima, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This book on the Muslim philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) provides a detailed analysis of his (in)famous unicity thesis—the view that there is only one separate and eternal intellect for all human beings. It focuses directly on Averroes’ arguments, both from the text of Aristotle’s De Anima and, more importantly, his own philosophical arguments in the Long Commentary on the De Anima. Ogden defends Averroes’ interpretation of Aristotle’s DA III.4–5 (using Greek, Arabic, Latin, and contemporary sources). Yet, the author insists that Averroes is not merely a “commentator” but also an incisive philosopher in his own right. Ogden thus reconstructs and analyzes Averroes’ two most significant independent philosophical arguments, the Determinate Particular Argument and the Unity Argument. Alternative ancient and medieval views are considered throughout, especially from two important foils before and after Averroes, namely Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas’s most famous and penetrating arguments against the unicity thesis are also addressed. Finally, Ogden considers Averroes’ own objections to broader metaphysical views of the soul such as Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s, which agree with him on several key points (e.g., the immateriality of the intellect and the individuation of human souls by matter), while still diverging on the number and substantial nature of the intellect. The central aim of the book is to provide readers a single study of Averroes’ most pivotal arguments on intellect, consolidating and building on recent scholarship and offering a comprehensive case for his unicity thesis in the wider context of Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics.

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Happiness, Eros, and the Active Intellect: Understanding Erotic Desire in Averroes’s Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Λ in Light of the Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics, 2021
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Happiness, Eros, and the Active Intellect: Understanding Erotic Desire in Averroes’s Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Λ in Light of the Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in The Pursuit of Happiness in Medieval Jewish and Islamic Thought. Studies Dedicated to Steven Harvey
Pages 195–213
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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New Wine in Old Vessels: Alexander of Aphrodisias as a Source for Averroes’ Metaphysics, 2021
By: Matteo Di Giovanni
Title New Wine in Old Vessels: Alexander of Aphrodisias as a Source for Averroes’ Metaphysics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Pages 59–76
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentary, Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Besides his best-known merits as a philosopher, Averroes stands out in the history of the classical tradition as a unique testimony to Alexander’s lost commentary on Metaphysics Lambda and, through it, his interpretation of the argument running through the whole text of the Metaphysics. The gist of this interpretation is laid out in the elaborate prologue to the Lambda commentary that goes back to Alexander and is preserved by Averroes. Building on this textual evidence, the study investigates Averroes’ philosophical appropriation of the Alexander material that is interwoven into the fabric of the former’s exegesis, from the earlier epitome to the later long commentary on the Metaphysics. A number of doctrines turn out to be ultimately inspired by Alexander, including Averroes’ view of the tripartite structure of metaphysics, his notion of book Gamma as an epistemology (“specific logic”) for metaphysics, the function of Delta, the downgrading of both mental and accidental being in Epsilon, and Aristotle’s argument in Zeta. Averroes’ debt to his source is brought to the fore without prejudicing the further question, awaiting future research, of whether Averroes’ acquaintance with Alexander’s line of interpretation was always unmediated or any figures in the philosophical tradition played some role in its transmission.

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Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2021
By: Pietro B. Rossi (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.), Andrea A. Robiglio (Ed.)
Title Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Studia artistarum
Volume 45
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Albert, Avicenna, Renaissance, Metaphysics, Logic
Author(s) Pietro B. Rossi , Matteo Di Giovanni , Andrea A. Robiglio
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The greatest ancient interpreter of Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. 200 AD) exerted a profound and enduring influence upon philosophy from Boethius until the modern era. Alexander’s interpretations laid the foundation for multiple philosophical views which were promoted as quintessentially Aristotelian by both Islamic and Latin thinkers throughout the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, the University of Padua, a leading center of philosophical education and thought, established a scholarly tradition named “Alexandrinism” after him.

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In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature, 2020
By: Yehuda Halper
Title In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Revue des études juives
Volume 179
Issue 1–2
Pages 133–160
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Renaissance
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic: Perspectives in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought, 2020
By: Nadja Germann (Ed.), Steven Harvey (Ed.)
Title The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic: Perspectives in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2020
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Rencontres de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 20
Categories Logic, Theology, Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Avicenna, Maimonides
Author(s) Nadja Germann , Steven Harvey
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The annual colloquium of the SIEPM in Freiburg, Germany, was groundbreaking in that it featured a more or less equal number of talks on all three medieval cultures that contributed to the formation of Western philosophical thought: the Islamic, Jewish, and Christian traditions. Indeed, the subject of the colloquium, ‘The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought’, lent itself to such a cross-cultural approach. In all these traditions, partially inspired by ancient Greek philosophy, partially by other sources, language and thought, semantics and logic occupied a central place. As a result, the chapters of the present volume effortlessly traverse philosophical, religious, cultural, and linguistic boundaries and thus in many respects open up new perspectives. It should not be surprising if readers delight in chapters of a philosophical tradition outside of their own as much as they do in those in their area of expertise. Among the topics discussed are the significance of language for logic; the origin of language: inspiration or convention; imposition or coinage; the existence of an original language; the correctness of language; divine discourse; animal language; the meaningfulness of animal sounds; music as communication; the scope of dialectical disputation; the relation between rhetoric and demonstration; the place of logic and rhetoric in theology; the limits of human knowledge; the meaning of categories; the problem of metaphysical entailment; the need to disentangle the metaphysical implications of language; the quantification of predicates; and the significance of linguistic custom for judging logical propositions.

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La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta, 2019
By: Fernanda Ocampo
Title La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2019
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 36
Issue 3
Pages 659–681
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, Thomas
Author(s) Fernanda Ocampo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the ‘real distinction’ between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich’s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading – critical of that of Avicenna’s –, which “has made school” in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.

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Multitude et bene esse chez Averroès et Dante. Retour sur la Monarchie I,3, 2019
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Multitude et bene esse chez Averroès et Dante. Retour sur la Monarchie I,3
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2019
Published in Dante et l’averroïsme
Pages 357–383
Categories Metaphysics, De anima, Politics, Aristotle, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Whose Prime Mover is More (un)Aristotelian, Broadie’s, Berti’s or Averroes’?, 2019
By: David Twetten
Title Whose Prime Mover is More (un)Aristotelian, Broadie’s, Berti’s or Averroes’?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in La philosophie arabe à l’étude. Sens, limites et défis d’une discipline moderne. Studying Arabic Philosophy: Meaning, Limits and Challenges of a Modern Discipline
Pages 345–390
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Cosmology, Theology, Modern Readings
Author(s) David Twetten
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Yahyâ ibn ‘Adî and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton, 2015
By: Peter Adamson
Title Yahyâ ibn ‘Adî and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Studies on Early Arabic Philosophy
Pages 343–373
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Peter Adamson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2021
By: Pietro B. Rossi (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.), Andrea A. Robiglio (Ed.)
Title Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Studia artistarum
Volume 45
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Albert, Avicenna, Renaissance, Metaphysics, Logic
Author(s) Pietro B. Rossi , Matteo Di Giovanni , Andrea A. Robiglio
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The greatest ancient interpreter of Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. 200 AD) exerted a profound and enduring influence upon philosophy from Boethius until the modern era. Alexander’s interpretations laid the foundation for multiple philosophical views which were promoted as quintessentially Aristotelian by both Islamic and Latin thinkers throughout the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, the University of Padua, a leading center of philosophical education and thought, established a scholarly tradition named “Alexandrinism” after him.

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Aristotle, Averroes and Thomas Aquinas on the Nature of Essence, 2003
By: Fabrizio Amerini
Title Aristotle, Averroes and Thomas Aquinas on the Nature of Essence
Type Article
Language English
Date 2003
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 14
Pages 79–122
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle, Aquinas
Author(s) Fabrizio Amerini
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Aristotle’s Ontology and the Middle Ages: The Tradition of Met., Book Zeta , 2013
By: Gabriele Galluzzo
Title Aristotle’s Ontology and the Middle Ages: The Tradition of Met., Book Zeta
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2013
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters
Volume 110/1
Categories Tradition and Reception, Aristotle, Metaphysics, Ontology
Author(s) Gabriele Galluzzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Focusing on the medieval reception of Book Zeta of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, Volume One of this work offers an unprecedented and philosophically oriented study of medieval ontology against the background of the current metaphysical debate on the nature of material objects. Volume Two makes available to scholars one of the culminating points in the medieval reception of Aristotle’s metaphysical thought by presenting the first critical edition of Book VII of Paul of Venice’s Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics (1420-1424)

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Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique, 2022
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Oxford
Publisher Oxford University Press
Categories Aristotle, Thomas, Avicenna, De anima, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This book on the Muslim philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) provides a detailed analysis of his (in)famous unicity thesis—the view that there is only one separate and eternal intellect for all human beings. It focuses directly on Averroes’ arguments, both from the text of Aristotle’s De Anima and, more importantly, his own philosophical arguments in the Long Commentary on the De Anima. Ogden defends Averroes’ interpretation of Aristotle’s DA III.4–5 (using Greek, Arabic, Latin, and contemporary sources). Yet, the author insists that Averroes is not merely a “commentator” but also an incisive philosopher in his own right. Ogden thus reconstructs and analyzes Averroes’ two most significant independent philosophical arguments, the Determinate Particular Argument and the Unity Argument. Alternative ancient and medieval views are considered throughout, especially from two important foils before and after Averroes, namely Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas’s most famous and penetrating arguments against the unicity thesis are also addressed. Finally, Ogden considers Averroes’ own objections to broader metaphysical views of the soul such as Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s, which agree with him on several key points (e.g., the immateriality of the intellect and the individuation of human souls by matter), while still diverging on the number and substantial nature of the intellect. The central aim of the book is to provide readers a single study of Averroes’ most pivotal arguments on intellect, consolidating and building on recent scholarship and offering a comprehensive case for his unicity thesis in the wider context of Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics.

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Averroes‘ Interpretations of Aristotle’s Metaphysics and their Different Receptions in the Hebrew Philosophical Tradition, 2017
By: Mauro Zonta
Title Averroes‘ Interpretations of Aristotle’s Metaphysics and their Different Receptions in the Hebrew Philosophical Tradition
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2017
Published in Appropriation, Interpretation and Criticism: Philosophical and Theological Exchanges between the Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Intellectual Traditions
Pages 261–278
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Avicenna's and Averroes' Interpretations and Their Influence in Albertus Magnus, 2013
By: Amos Bertolacci
Title Avicenna's and Averroes' Interpretations and Their Influence in Albertus Magnus
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in A Companion to the Latin Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Metaphysics
Pages 95–135
Categories Albert, Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Amos Bertolacci
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Rursus
Volume 9
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commentary on Metaphysics IX 3, Averroes draws an analogy between the Megarian conception of dunamis, presented and refuted by Aristotle, and that of the Ashʿarites theologians. The study of the Arabic translation of lemmatas of Aristotle’s text (1047a26-28) and of the reformulation by Averroes of the third argument against the Megarians shows a shift commanded by theological issues: since the omnipotence of God can now bypass natural powers, the question of who possess the power should be added to that of its sole possession.

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Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161–184
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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