Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
Type Article
Language French
Date 2019
Journal Oriens
Volume 47
Issue 3-4
Pages 244–312
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions, 2019
By: Jakob Leth Fink (Ed.)
Title Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place London
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Series Bloomsbury studies in the Aristotelian tradition
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Jakob Leth Fink
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle suggests that a moral principle ‘does not immediately appear to the man who has been corrupted by pleasure or pain’. Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics investigates his claim and its reception in ancient and medieval Aristotelian traditions, including Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin. While contemporary commentators on the Ethics have overlooked Aristotle’s remark, his ancient and medieval interpreters made substantial contributions towards a clarification of the claim’s meaning and relevance. Even when the hazards of transmission have left no explicit comments on this particular passage, as is the case in the Arabic tradition, medieval responders still offer valuable interpretations of phantasia (appearance) and its role in ethical deliberation and action. This volume casts light on these readings, showing how the distant voices from the medieval Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Aristotelian traditions still contribute to contemporary debate concerning phantasia, motivation and deliberation in Aristotle’s Ethics.

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Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions
Pages 37–64
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics, Transmission
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus, 2018
By: Averroes, Frédérique Woerther (Ed.),
Title Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus
Type Monograph
Language French
Date 2018
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science. Texts and Studies
Volume 108
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Averroes , Frédérique Woerther ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Frédérique Woerther
This volume contains the first edition of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary of Averroes on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book X, the original arabic version being lost. It is accompanied by an annotated French translation. The volume also contains a full study of the manuscript tradition of the Latin text and sets outs the principles used in the edition, which takes into account, where necessary, the Hebrew version of the Commentary. Two further studies complete the volume: the first is devoted to the genre of “Middle Commentary” (talḫīṣ); the second considers how Averroes uses an analogy with medicine to place ethics at the heart of practical philosophy, and how, in a manner that is foreign to Aristotle, he conceives of ethics as a “science.”

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Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote, 2018
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Oriens
Volume 46
Issue No. 3/4
Pages 332–367
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Following an exegetical method similar to the one used two years earlier in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Averroes usually stays very close to the Arabic version of the Nicomachean Ethics in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. For he mostly reproduces Aristotle’s text without reformulating it. When necessary he nonetheless deletes the most obscure passages and develops those requiring more explanation, adding examples and replacing some terms with other terms, usually technical ones. By doing so, Averroes gives the ten Books of Aristotle’s treatise a greater unity and coherence. One of the commonest modifications that Averroes introduced in the Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics on the microstructural level is the use of the term scientia/ ḥokhma to refer to the content of the Ethics, whereas Aristotle’s text had no specific word for this. Likewise, Averroes makes clear in the first lines of his Commentary on the Republic that the discursive mode he is going to follow is the mode of scientific or theoretical arguments, not dialectical arguments. Hence, bestowing the status of a «science» on ethics (and on politics) clearly seems problematic – from a strictly Aristotelian perspective at any rate. This contribution seeks to understand, from Books I and X of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, how the «scientific» status of ethics shall be understood, by observing in particular the inscription of the Ethics in the knowledge system as Averroes conceives it, and by raising the question of the addressee of his Middle Commentary, who obviously is no longer the Aristotelian figure of the legislator ἐπιειϰής.

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Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum, 2016
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge
Volume 83
Pages 115–147
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Ethics, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, 2014
By: Steven Harvey, Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Oriens
Volume 42
Issue 1-2
Pages 254-287
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The conventional view of the previous century that Averroes’ middle commentaries (talāḫīṣ) on Aristotle are all of the same form and style is no longer tenable. A full and accurate account of the similarities and differences among Averroes’ talāḫīṣ on Aristotle must consider all of them. Perhaps the least studied and least known of these middle commentaries is the one on the Nicomachean Ethics, a text which is extant today only in a critically edited medieval Hebrew translation and an as yet unedited medieval Latin translation. The two authors of the present article have each studied chapters of this commentary independently of each other and have reached different conclusions concerning its value. In this article they present a careful examination of the first book of Averroes’ commentary via its Hebrew translation and Latin translation (primarily through the two oldest and most reliable manuscripts of it) in comparison with the medieval Arabic translation of the Nicomachean Ethics that was used by Averroes (and in light of Aristotle’s Greek text). This study shows an Averroean middle commentary that is not very original and not particularly helpful, especially, for example, when compared to the quite different middle commentaries on Aristotle’s books on natural science. Indeed, he often seems to do little more than copy—not even paraphrase—the Arabic translation. On the other hand, Averroes does not hesitate to insert words as he copies in order to make the text clearer and easier to understand. Where lengthier explanations are needed, they too are attempted, at times in response to problematic translations in the Arabic text before him.

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Les translittérations dans la version latine du Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès, 2014
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les translittérations dans la version latine du Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2014
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie médiévale
Volume 56
Pages 61–89
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Transmission
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The present discussion derives from a larger research project that concerns the medieval Latin translation of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics. The translation was carried out by Hermann the German in Toledo in 1240. I am concerned here specifically with nine passages that are distributed over three chapters of the Commentary (II.7; IV.1-3) in which the Latin translation is sprinkled with transliterations based on Greek and Arabic terms. These transliterations, which are not glosses, can be understood on several levels, and these, in turn, raise questions about the boundary between transliteration proper and translation that borrows from the source language a term which is then integrated into the Latin lexicon in the form of a calque or ‘loan translation’. Examining these transliterations makes it possible, first, to show that the translator does not follow a uniform method throughout the text, which could imply the existence of several translators or several collaborators with distinct and exclusive areas of expertise, and second, to advance the hypothesis that a Greek copy of the Nicomachean Ethics was available at the time the translation was being executed in 1240. Finally, the discussion of transliterations makes it possible to confirm certain emendations proposed by Ullman in the Arabic edition of the Nicomachean Ethics published by Akasoy and Fidora, as well as to suggest a primary classification of the surviving manuscripts of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics.

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Ibn Rushd's Middle commentary in the Nicomachean ethics in medieval Hebrew literature
By: Lawrence V. Berman
Title Ibn Rushd's Middle commentary in the Nicomachean ethics in medieval Hebrew literature
Type Book Section
Language English
Published in Multiple Averroès. Actes du Colloque International organisé à l'occasion du 850 anniversaire de la naissance d'averroès, Paris 20–23 septembre 1976
Pages 287-321
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Lawrence V. Berman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, 2014
By: Steven Harvey, Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Oriens
Volume 42
Issue 1-2
Pages 254-287
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The conventional view of the previous century that Averroes’ middle commentaries (talāḫīṣ) on Aristotle are all of the same form and style is no longer tenable. A full and accurate account of the similarities and differences among Averroes’ talāḫīṣ on Aristotle must consider all of them. Perhaps the least studied and least known of these middle commentaries is the one on the Nicomachean Ethics, a text which is extant today only in a critically edited medieval Hebrew translation and an as yet unedited medieval Latin translation. The two authors of the present article have each studied chapters of this commentary independently of each other and have reached different conclusions concerning its value. In this article they present a careful examination of the first book of Averroes’ commentary via its Hebrew translation and Latin translation (primarily through the two oldest and most reliable manuscripts of it) in comparison with the medieval Arabic translation of the Nicomachean Ethics that was used by Averroes (and in light of Aristotle’s Greek text). This study shows an Averroean middle commentary that is not very original and not particularly helpful, especially, for example, when compared to the quite different middle commentaries on Aristotle’s books on natural science. Indeed, he often seems to do little more than copy—not even paraphrase—the Arabic translation. On the other hand, Averroes does not hesitate to insert words as he copies in order to make the text clearer and easier to understand. Where lengthier explanations are needed, they too are attempted, at times in response to problematic translations in the Arabic text before him.

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Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions
Pages 37–64
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics, Transmission
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd's Middle commentary in the Nicomachean ethics in medieval Hebrew literature
By: Lawrence V. Berman
Title Ibn Rushd's Middle commentary in the Nicomachean ethics in medieval Hebrew literature
Type Book Section
Language English
Published in Multiple Averroès. Actes du Colloque International organisé à l'occasion du 850 anniversaire de la naissance d'averroès, Paris 20–23 septembre 1976
Pages 287-321
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Lawrence V. Berman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus, 2018
By: Averroes, Frédérique Woerther (Ed.),
Title Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus
Type Monograph
Language French
Date 2018
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science. Texts and Studies
Volume 108
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Averroes , Frédérique Woerther ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Frédérique Woerther
This volume contains the first edition of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary of Averroes on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book X, the original arabic version being lost. It is accompanied by an annotated French translation. The volume also contains a full study of the manuscript tradition of the Latin text and sets outs the principles used in the edition, which takes into account, where necessary, the Hebrew version of the Commentary. Two further studies complete the volume: the first is devoted to the genre of “Middle Commentary” (talḫīṣ); the second considers how Averroes uses an analogy with medicine to place ethics at the heart of practical philosophy, and how, in a manner that is foreign to Aristotle, he conceives of ethics as a “science.”

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Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote, 2018
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Oriens
Volume 46
Issue No. 3/4
Pages 332–367
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Following an exegetical method similar to the one used two years earlier in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Averroes usually stays very close to the Arabic version of the Nicomachean Ethics in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. For he mostly reproduces Aristotle’s text without reformulating it. When necessary he nonetheless deletes the most obscure passages and develops those requiring more explanation, adding examples and replacing some terms with other terms, usually technical ones. By doing so, Averroes gives the ten Books of Aristotle’s treatise a greater unity and coherence. One of the commonest modifications that Averroes introduced in the Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics on the microstructural level is the use of the term scientia/ ḥokhma to refer to the content of the Ethics, whereas Aristotle’s text had no specific word for this. Likewise, Averroes makes clear in the first lines of his Commentary on the Republic that the discursive mode he is going to follow is the mode of scientific or theoretical arguments, not dialectical arguments. Hence, bestowing the status of a «science» on ethics (and on politics) clearly seems problematic – from a strictly Aristotelian perspective at any rate. This contribution seeks to understand, from Books I and X of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, how the «scientific» status of ethics shall be understood, by observing in particular the inscription of the Ethics in the knowledge system as Averroes conceives it, and by raising the question of the addressee of his Middle Commentary, who obviously is no longer the Aristotelian figure of the legislator ἐπιειϰής.

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Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum, 2016
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge
Volume 83
Pages 115–147
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Ethics, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
Type Article
Language French
Date 2019
Journal Oriens
Volume 47
Issue 3-4
Pages 244–312
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les translittérations dans la version latine du Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès, 2014
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les translittérations dans la version latine du Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2014
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie médiévale
Volume 56
Pages 61–89
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Transmission
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The present discussion derives from a larger research project that concerns the medieval Latin translation of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics. The translation was carried out by Hermann the German in Toledo in 1240. I am concerned here specifically with nine passages that are distributed over three chapters of the Commentary (II.7; IV.1-3) in which the Latin translation is sprinkled with transliterations based on Greek and Arabic terms. These transliterations, which are not glosses, can be understood on several levels, and these, in turn, raise questions about the boundary between transliteration proper and translation that borrows from the source language a term which is then integrated into the Latin lexicon in the form of a calque or ‘loan translation’. Examining these transliterations makes it possible, first, to show that the translator does not follow a uniform method throughout the text, which could imply the existence of several translators or several collaborators with distinct and exclusive areas of expertise, and second, to advance the hypothesis that a Greek copy of the Nicomachean Ethics was available at the time the translation was being executed in 1240. Finally, the discussion of transliterations makes it possible to confirm certain emendations proposed by Ullman in the Arabic edition of the Nicomachean Ethics published by Akasoy and Fidora, as well as to suggest a primary classification of the surviving manuscripts of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics.

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Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions, 2019
By: Jakob Leth Fink (Ed.)
Title Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place London
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Series Bloomsbury studies in the Aristotelian tradition
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Jakob Leth Fink
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle suggests that a moral principle ‘does not immediately appear to the man who has been corrupted by pleasure or pain’. Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics investigates his claim and its reception in ancient and medieval Aristotelian traditions, including Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin. While contemporary commentators on the Ethics have overlooked Aristotle’s remark, his ancient and medieval interpreters made substantial contributions towards a clarification of the claim’s meaning and relevance. Even when the hazards of transmission have left no explicit comments on this particular passage, as is the case in the Arabic tradition, medieval responders still offer valuable interpretations of phantasia (appearance) and its role in ethical deliberation and action. This volume casts light on these readings, showing how the distant voices from the medieval Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Aristotelian traditions still contribute to contemporary debate concerning phantasia, motivation and deliberation in Aristotle’s Ethics.

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