Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique, 2022
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Oxford
Publisher Oxford University Press
Categories Aristotle, Thomas, Avicenna, De anima, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This book on the Muslim philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) provides a detailed analysis of his (in)famous unicity thesis—the view that there is only one separate and eternal intellect for all human beings. It focuses directly on Averroes’ arguments, both from the text of Aristotle’s De Anima and, more importantly, his own philosophical arguments in the Long Commentary on the De Anima. Ogden defends Averroes’ interpretation of Aristotle’s DA III.4–5 (using Greek, Arabic, Latin, and contemporary sources). Yet, the author insists that Averroes is not merely a “commentator” but also an incisive philosopher in his own right. Ogden thus reconstructs and analyzes Averroes’ two most significant independent philosophical arguments, the Determinate Particular Argument and the Unity Argument. Alternative ancient and medieval views are considered throughout, especially from two important foils before and after Averroes, namely Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas’s most famous and penetrating arguments against the unicity thesis are also addressed. Finally, Ogden considers Averroes’ own objections to broader metaphysical views of the soul such as Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s, which agree with him on several key points (e.g., the immateriality of the intellect and the individuation of human souls by matter), while still diverging on the number and substantial nature of the intellect. The central aim of the book is to provide readers a single study of Averroes’ most pivotal arguments on intellect, consolidating and building on recent scholarship and offering a comprehensive case for his unicity thesis in the wider context of Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics.

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Metaphysics Last: Agostino on Averroes, Avicenna, and the Order of the Theoretical Sciences, 2021
By: Anna-Katharina Strohschneider
Title Metaphysics Last: Agostino on Averroes, Avicenna, and the Order of the Theoretical Sciences
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 151–187
Categories Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Anna-Katharina Strohschneider
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2021
By: Pietro B. Rossi (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.), Andrea A. Robiglio (Ed.)
Title Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Studia artistarum
Volume 45
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Albert, Avicenna, Renaissance, Metaphysics, Logic
Author(s) Pietro B. Rossi , Matteo Di Giovanni , Andrea A. Robiglio
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The greatest ancient interpreter of Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. 200 AD) exerted a profound and enduring influence upon philosophy from Boethius until the modern era. Alexander’s interpretations laid the foundation for multiple philosophical views which were promoted as quintessentially Aristotelian by both Islamic and Latin thinkers throughout the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, the University of Padua, a leading center of philosophical education and thought, established a scholarly tradition named “Alexandrinism” after him.

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The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic: Perspectives in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought, 2020
By: Nadja Germann (Ed.), Steven Harvey (Ed.)
Title The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic: Perspectives in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2020
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Rencontres de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 20
Categories Logic, Theology, Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Avicenna, Maimonides
Author(s) Nadja Germann , Steven Harvey
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The annual colloquium of the SIEPM in Freiburg, Germany, was groundbreaking in that it featured a more or less equal number of talks on all three medieval cultures that contributed to the formation of Western philosophical thought: the Islamic, Jewish, and Christian traditions. Indeed, the subject of the colloquium, ‘The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought’, lent itself to such a cross-cultural approach. In all these traditions, partially inspired by ancient Greek philosophy, partially by other sources, language and thought, semantics and logic occupied a central place. As a result, the chapters of the present volume effortlessly traverse philosophical, religious, cultural, and linguistic boundaries and thus in many respects open up new perspectives. It should not be surprising if readers delight in chapters of a philosophical tradition outside of their own as much as they do in those in their area of expertise. Among the topics discussed are the significance of language for logic; the origin of language: inspiration or convention; imposition or coinage; the existence of an original language; the correctness of language; divine discourse; animal language; the meaningfulness of animal sounds; music as communication; the scope of dialectical disputation; the relation between rhetoric and demonstration; the place of logic and rhetoric in theology; the limits of human knowledge; the meaning of categories; the problem of metaphysical entailment; the need to disentangle the metaphysical implications of language; the quantification of predicates; and the significance of linguistic custom for judging logical propositions.

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The First as Pure Act and Causality: The Case of Ibn Rushd, 2020
By: Özgür Koca
Title The First as Pure Act and Causality: The Case of Ibn Rushd
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2020
Published in Islam, causality, and freedom: from the medieval to the modern era
Pages 83–99
Categories Metaphysics, Neoplatonism, Avicenna, al-Ġazālī
Author(s) Özgür Koca
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The fourth chapter examines Ibn Rushd’s account of causality. It will be argued that Ibn Rushd’s theory of causality comes very close to Neo-Platonistic participatory accounts, despite his strong Aristotelian tendencies. Ibn Rushd, like Ibn Sīnā, finds the basis of causal efficacy of entities in their participation in the pure existence-act of the First. The most important implication of this understanding of causality is that despite the occasionalist critique that we do not and cannot observe a necessary connection between cause and effect, for Ibn Rushd, the moment one defines existence as pure act, it metaphysically makes more sense to accept causal efficacy of entities, for they participate in the pure existence-act of the First. The chapter also examines the differences between Ibn Sīnā and Ibn Rushd that stem from the latter’s efforts to address some of Ghazālī’s challenges. Ibn Rushd agrees with Ghazālī in that plurality can emanate from the First without emanationist intermediation and solely based on the nature-capacity-form of beings. This view establishes a closer connection between the First’s existence-act and the world than Ibn Sīnā’s metaphysics allows.

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La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta, 2019
By: Fernanda Ocampo
Title La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2019
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 36
Issue 3
Pages 659–681
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, Thomas
Author(s) Fernanda Ocampo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the ‘real distinction’ between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich’s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading – critical of that of Avicenna’s –, which “has made school” in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.

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Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis, 2019
By: Ahmad Ahmadi
Title Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Ishraq
Volume 9
Pages 13–22
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics, Ontology
Author(s) Ahmad Ahmadi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Sujet Libre. Pour Alain de Libera, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet (Ed.), Laurent Cesalli (Ed.)
Title Sujet Libre. Pour Alain de Libera
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2018
Publication Place Paris
Publisher Vrin
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet , Laurent Cesalli
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Nous avons souhaité ce livre pour rendre hommage à Alain de Libera et fêter son travail. Celles et ceux qui écrivent ici sont des maîtres, des pairs, des collègues, d’anciens étudiants; en divers sens, ce sont tous des amis. Plutôt que d’imposer une présentation, nous avons choisi comme ordre le hasard alphabétique des noms, sans chapitres. Deux consignes seulement avaient été fournies. La brièveté, d’abord – quelques pages, tenues par un nombre de signes. L’absence de notes, ensuite, pour livrer des textes de plain-pied. Restait, pour évoquer l’œuvre et la personne d’Alain de Libera, l’objet, l’angle. Nous n’avions cette fois indiqué qu’une chose, qui donne à ce volume son titre : sujet libre.

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Signe physique et signe métaphysique. Averroès contre Avicenne sur le statut épistémologique des sciences de l’être, 2014
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Signe physique et signe métaphysique. Averroès contre Avicenne sur le statut épistémologique des sciences de l’être
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2014
Published in Nature et sagesse. Les rapports entre physique et Métaphysique dans la tradition aristotélicienne. Recueil de textes en hommage à Pierre Pellegrin
Pages 429–473
Categories Physics, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Ontology
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2021
By: Pietro B. Rossi (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.), Andrea A. Robiglio (Ed.)
Title Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Studia artistarum
Volume 45
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Albert, Avicenna, Renaissance, Metaphysics, Logic
Author(s) Pietro B. Rossi , Matteo Di Giovanni , Andrea A. Robiglio
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The greatest ancient interpreter of Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. 200 AD) exerted a profound and enduring influence upon philosophy from Boethius until the modern era. Alexander’s interpretations laid the foundation for multiple philosophical views which were promoted as quintessentially Aristotelian by both Islamic and Latin thinkers throughout the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, the University of Padua, a leading center of philosophical education and thought, established a scholarly tradition named “Alexandrinism” after him.

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Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal The Thomist
Volume 76
Issue 4
Pages 509–550
Categories Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Avicenna, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes against Avicenna on Human Spontaneous Generation: The Starting-Point of a Lasting Debate, 2013
By: Amos Bertolacci
Title Averroes against Avicenna on Human Spontaneous Generation: The Starting-Point of a Lasting Debate
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 37–54
Categories Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Amos Bertolacci
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The first criticism of Avicenna in Averroes’s Long Commentary on Metaphysica (II, 993a30-995a20) regards Avicenna’s doctrine of the asexual (so-called ‘spontaneous’) generation of human beings. This criticism is interesting in two main regards. When considered in the general historical context of the confrontation between advocates and opponents of spontaneous generation, the specific debate between Averroes and Avicenna on this issue can be said to have had a long-lasting impact on Latin philosophy up until the Renaissance. Doctrinally, the criticism in question can be taken as a paradigm of Averroes’s more general anti-Avicennian polemic and of the ideological reasons of his dissent towards his illustrious predecessor. In fact, the criticism in questions displays three leitmotivs of Averroes’s dissent towards Avicenna: the harsh tone and the ad personam character of the attack, stressing an error unworthy of Avicenna’s alleged fame in philosophy; the insistence on Avicenna’s agreement and consonance with contemporary thinkers, a fact that in Averroes’s eyes evidences the profound gap separating Avicenna from the ancient masters, depositaries of authentic philosophy; the reproach addressed to Avicenna of being too conversant with, and receptive of, Islamic theology, thus disregarding the requirements of true philosophy. The article shows that in each of these three respects Averroes in fact presents Avicenna’s position in a biased way: indeed Avicenna does not uphold the specific version of human spontaneous generation that Averroes ascribes to him; his doctrine of human spontaneous generation is deeply rooted in ancient philosophy; and his account of this doctrine evidences clear non-religious (and therefore non-theological) traits.

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Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique, 2022
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Oxford
Publisher Oxford University Press
Categories Aristotle, Thomas, Avicenna, De anima, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This book on the Muslim philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) provides a detailed analysis of his (in)famous unicity thesis—the view that there is only one separate and eternal intellect for all human beings. It focuses directly on Averroes’ arguments, both from the text of Aristotle’s De Anima and, more importantly, his own philosophical arguments in the Long Commentary on the De Anima. Ogden defends Averroes’ interpretation of Aristotle’s DA III.4–5 (using Greek, Arabic, Latin, and contemporary sources). Yet, the author insists that Averroes is not merely a “commentator” but also an incisive philosopher in his own right. Ogden thus reconstructs and analyzes Averroes’ two most significant independent philosophical arguments, the Determinate Particular Argument and the Unity Argument. Alternative ancient and medieval views are considered throughout, especially from two important foils before and after Averroes, namely Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas’s most famous and penetrating arguments against the unicity thesis are also addressed. Finally, Ogden considers Averroes’ own objections to broader metaphysical views of the soul such as Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s, which agree with him on several key points (e.g., the immateriality of the intellect and the individuation of human souls by matter), while still diverging on the number and substantial nature of the intellect. The central aim of the book is to provide readers a single study of Averroes’ most pivotal arguments on intellect, consolidating and building on recent scholarship and offering a comprehensive case for his unicity thesis in the wider context of Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics.

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Avicenna and Averroes on the Proof of God's Existence and the Subject-Matter of Metaphysics, 2007
By: Amos Bertolacci
Title Avicenna and Averroes on the Proof of God's Existence and the Subject-Matter of Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Medioevo. Rivista di storia della filosofia medievale
Volume 32
Pages 61–79
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics
Author(s) Amos Bertolacci
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Avicenna and Averroes. Modality and Theology, 2001
By: Allan Bäck
Title Avicenna and Averroes. Modality and Theology
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2001
Published in Potentialität und Possibilität. Modalaussagen in der Geschichte der Metaphysik
Pages 125–145
Categories Metaphysics, Logic, Avicenna
Author(s) Allan Bäck
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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D'Avicenne à Averroès, et retour. Sur les sources arabes de la théorie scolastique de l'un transcendantal, 1994
By: Alain de Libera
Title D'Avicenne à Averroès, et retour. Sur les sources arabes de la théorie scolastique de l'un transcendantal
Type Article
Language French
Date 1994
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 4
Pages 141–179
Categories Metaphysics, Avicenna
Author(s) Alain de Libera
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The scholastic doctrine of transcendentals is inherited from Arabic philosophy to a certain extent. This dependance is clearly illustrated in the construction of the problematic of the transcendental one, which is identical with being, and of the numerical one, which is not. The scholastic discussion as a whole reproduces the major themes of Avicenna's position, then of Averroes' criticism of Avicenna. This article attempts to reconstruct the complex of questions, topics, and arguments which constitute this problematic by tracing its evolution through the analysis of anonymous sophismata and of texts by Nicholas of Paris, Roger Bacon, Albert the Great, and James of Viterbo. Two stages are distinguished: the first is centered on the distinction between the transcendental and numerical one; the second, essentially German (Dietrich of Freiberg and Berthold of Moosburg), is centered on the subordination of the Aristotelian to the Platonic concept of the transcendental one. Along the way, it is shown that, with the exception of the German philosophers, the understanding of Avicenna's position is constantly filtered through Averroes' interpretation.

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Fārābī in the Reception of Avicenna's Metaphysics. Averroes against Avicenna on Being and Unity, 2012
By: Stephen Menn
Title Fārābī in the Reception of Avicenna's Metaphysics. Averroes against Avicenna on Being and Unity
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna's Metaphysics
Pages 51–96
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen Menn
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Fārābī in the Reception of Avicenna’s Metaphysics. Averroes against Avicenna on Being and Unity, 2012
By: Stephen Menn
Title Fārābī in the Reception of Avicenna’s Metaphysics. Averroes against Avicenna on Being and Unity
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna's Metaphysics
Pages 51–96
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Metaphysics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Stephen Menn
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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