Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna, 2020
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 20
Issue 1
Pages 1–26
Categories Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with the divine knowledge of particulars in Averroes’ Tahāfut al-tahāfut and Ḍamīma. It examines how the concept of relation, generally neglected, is at the heart of the dispute between Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, and the Commentator. In al-Ġazālī’s eyes, Avicenna's misconception of divine knowledge “in a universal way” is based on a misuse of relation in the case of God's knowledge. If particulars change and God does not, his knowledge of particulars, insofar as it undergoes change, can be considered a pure relation without ontological consequences. Averroes contests both al-Ġazālī’s criticism and his proposal, despite the fact that, for different reasons involving the coming-to-be of human knowledge, he too employs the notion of pure relation in his Long Commentary on the Physics.

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Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5049","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5049,"authors_free":[{"id":5799,"entry_id":5049,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Yu Hoki","free_first_name":"Yu","free_last_name":"Hoki","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Ibn Rushd\u2019s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (kh\u0101ssa) in Medicine","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Ibn Rushd\u2019s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (kh\u0101ssa) in Medicine"},"abstract":"In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (kh\u0101\u1e63\u1e63a) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas.\r\nIbn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine.\r\nAs for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities.\r\nTo conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is. ","btype":3,"date":"2020","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.5356\/jorient.57.1_33","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":29,"category_name":"Medicine","link":"bib?categories[]=Medicine"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5049,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan","volume":"57","issue":"1","pages":"33\u201348"}},"sort":[2020]}

La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta, 2019
By: Fernanda Ocampo
Title La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2019
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 36
Issue 3
Pages 659–681
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, Thomas
Author(s) Fernanda Ocampo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the ‘real distinction’ between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich’s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading – critical of that of Avicenna’s –, which “has made school” in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5060","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5060,"authors_free":[{"id":5813,"entry_id":5060,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Fernanda Ocampo","free_first_name":"Fernanda ","free_last_name":"Ocampo","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiaci\u00f3n aristot\u00e9lico-averro\u00edsta","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiaci\u00f3n aristot\u00e9lico-averro\u00edsta"},"abstract":"The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the \u2018real distinction\u2019 between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich\u2019s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading \u2013 critical of that of Avicenna\u2019s \u2013, which \u201chas made school\u201d in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.","btype":3,"date":"2019","language":"Spanish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/dx.doi.org\/10.5209\/ashf.63089","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"},{"id":7,"category_name":"Latin Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Latin Averroism"},{"id":51,"category_name":"Thomas","link":"bib?categories[]=Thomas"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5060,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosof\u00eda","volume":"36","issue":"3","pages":"659\u2013681"}},"sort":[2019]}

Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis, 2019
By: Ahmad Ahmadi
Title Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Ishraq
Volume 9
Pages 13–22
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics, Ontology
Author(s) Ahmad Ahmadi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, 2018
By: Silvia Di Vincenzo
Title A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 29
Pages 125–136
Categories Avicenna, Commentary
Author(s) Silvia Di Vincenzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Accidentality of Existence in Avicenna and its Critique by Averroes, 2017
By: Yegane Shayegan, Bahman Zakipour, Samaneh Gachpazian
Title The Accidentality of Existence in Avicenna and its Critique by Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Journal of Persianate Studies
Volume 10
Issue 2
Pages 218–39
Categories Avicenna, Ontology
Author(s) Yegane Shayegan , Bahman Zakipour , Samaneh Gachpazian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle, 2015
By: Marta Borgo
Title Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 26
Pages 211–240
Categories Avicenna, Aristotle, Thomas, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Marta Borgo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Rethinking Abstractionism: Aquinas’s Intellectual Light and Some Arabic Sources, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Rethinking Abstractionism: Aquinas’s Intellectual Light and Some Arabic Sources
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Journal of the History of Philosophy
Volume 53
Issue 4
Pages 607–646
Categories Thomas, Avicenna
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The thesis of this paper is that Thomas Aquinas offers an alternative model of abstraction (the Active Principle Model) that overcomes the standard objections to abstractionism and expands our view of what an abstractionist theory might look like. I contend that this alternative model of abstraction has been invisible in plain sight, in Aquinas’s references to the mind’s abstractive mechanism as an “intellectual light.” Such language is not metaphorical but rather technical, signaling that intellectual abstraction is to be modeled on the activity of physical light as he understood it from theories proposed by Avicenna and Averroes. The Active Principle Model requires us to rethink Aquinas’s account of how we come to know essences—a process that turns out to be much more tentative and incremental than previously thought.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5276","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5276,"authors_free":[{"id":6092,"entry_id":5276,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Therese Scarpelli Cory","free_first_name":"Therese Scarpelli ","free_last_name":"Cory","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Rethinking Abstractionism: Aquinas\u2019s Intellectual Light and Some Arabic Sources","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Rethinking Abstractionism: Aquinas\u2019s Intellectual Light and Some Arabic Sources"},"abstract":"The thesis of this paper is that Thomas Aquinas offers an alternative model of abstraction (the Active Principle Model) that overcomes the standard objections to abstractionism and expands our view of what an abstractionist theory might look like. I contend that this alternative model of abstraction has been invisible in plain sight, in Aquinas\u2019s references to the mind\u2019s abstractive mechanism as an \u201cintellectual light.\u201d Such language is not metaphorical but rather technical, signaling that intellectual abstraction is to be modeled on the activity of physical light as he understood it from theories proposed by Avicenna and Averroes. The Active Principle Model requires us to rethink Aquinas\u2019s account of how we come to know essences\u2014a process that turns out to be much more tentative and incremental than previously thought.","btype":3,"date":"2015","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"10.1353\/hph.2015.0074","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":51,"category_name":"Thomas","link":"bib?categories[]=Thomas"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5276,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Journal of the History of Philosophy","volume":"53","issue":"4","pages":"607\u2013646"}},"sort":[2015]}

A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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Storie di ricezione: Tolomeo, Avicenna e Averroè nel Medioevo arabo, ebraico e latino, 2013
By: Marienza Benedetto
Title Storie di ricezione: Tolomeo, Avicenna e Averroè nel Medioevo arabo, ebraico e latino
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2013
Journal Quaestio
Volume 13
Pages 323–336
Categories Avicenna, Influence, Transmission
Author(s) Marienza Benedetto
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The recent (re-)publication of volumes about Avicenna allows us to revisit his central position in the history of philosophy and his overwhelming influence in Arabic, Jewish and Latin cultures: even those who disagreed with Avicenna often developed their standpoint in confrontation with him. Equally significant and deep was Averroes’ impact on the philosophical tradition: the Quaestio de anima intellectiva by Thomas Wylton is a good example in this sense, presenting one the most original reading of Averroes’ noetic in the 14th century.

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A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, 2018
By: Silvia Di Vincenzo
Title A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 29
Pages 125–136
Categories Avicenna, Commentary
Author(s) Silvia Di Vincenzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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An Abstractionist Correction of Avicenna's Theory of Intentionality in the Early Averroes, 2011
By: Francisco Romero Carasquillo
Title An Abstractionist Correction of Avicenna's Theory of Intentionality in the Early Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2011
Journal Acta Philosophica
Volume 20
Issue 2
Pages 405-420
Categories Aristotle, Avicenna
Author(s) Francisco Romero Carasquillo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper offers an account of Averroes’ early doctrine of the internal senses with special reference to the role that intentionality plays in internal sense cognition. The author points out that, whereas for Avicenna an “intention” is the object of a specific faculty, for Averroes it is the formal aspect at any level of internal-sense cognition. This interpretation is required by the need to find coherence among those passages in Averroes’ Epitome de Parva naturalia that ascribe the joining of images and intentions to both the cogitative and memorative faculties. Consequently, Averroes’ account is hopelessly incoherent unless one interprets him as departing from, and indeed revising, the Avicennian doctrine of intentionality along more a faithful Aristotelian-abstractionist framework.

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Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal The Thomist
Volume 76
Issue 4
Pages 509–550
Categories Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Avicenna, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes, y la crítica de Avicena, 2003
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Averroes, y la crítica de Avicena
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval. Miscellanea Mediaevalia en honor de Joaquin Lomba Fuentes
Volume 10
Pages 127–138
Categories Avicenna
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his refutation of the philosophers, the Muslim theologian Al-Ghazzâlî argues for the incoherency of their doctrines on divine causality, and focuses his attacks on Avicenna’s doctrine of the distinction between being necessary by itself and being possible by itself, but necessary because of another. When Averroes refutes, on his turn, Al-Ghazzâlî’s work, he often points out that the doctrine refuted by al-Ghazzâlî belongs to Avicenna, not to Aristotle, and distances himself from the former.

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Avicenna and Averroes on the Proof of God's Existence and the Subject-Matter of Metaphysics, 2007
By: Amos Bertolacci
Title Avicenna and Averroes on the Proof of God's Existence and the Subject-Matter of Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Medioevo. Rivista di storia della filosofia medievale
Volume 32
Pages 61–79
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics
Author(s) Amos Bertolacci
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Avicenna's Influence on Aquinas' Early Doctrine of Creation in In II Sent., d. 1, q. 1, a. 2, 2012
By: Luis Xavier López-Farjeat
Title Avicenna's Influence on Aquinas' Early Doctrine of Creation in In II Sent., d. 1, q. 1, a. 2
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 79
Issue 2
Pages 307–337
Categories Thomas, Avicenna
Author(s) Luis Xavier López-Farjeat
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Avicenna's philosophy had a strong impact on many aspects of Thomas Aquinas' thought: Aquinas' early doctrine of creation is no exception to this. The present paper shows how the young Aquinas appeals to Avicenna's metaphysics while formulating a novel view on the topic of the creation of the world, a view diverging significantly from those of such contemporaries as Bonaventure and Albert the Great. After a brief historical introduction to the various argumentative strategies concerning the creation of the world, the discussion turns to an analysis of Aquinas' treatment in In II Sent. d. 1, q. 1, a. 2.

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Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle, 2015
By: Marta Borgo
Title Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 26
Pages 211–240
Categories Avicenna, Aristotle, Thomas, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Marta Borgo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

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Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis, 2019
By: Ahmad Ahmadi
Title Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Ishraq
Volume 9
Pages 13–22
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics, Ontology
Author(s) Ahmad Ahmadi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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