Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198), 2017
By: Carmela Baffioni
Title Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198)
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 59
Pages 33–56
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Theology, Commentary
Author(s) Carmela Baffioni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with Averroes’s interpretation of Metaph. Ε 1, where Aristotle discusses the nature and object of metaphysics, as well as its place in the hierarchy of sciences. Among Averroes’s predecessors, al-Kindī seems to see a coincidence between metaphysics and theology, since God can be described as the “first cause of everything”. However, al-Fārābī and Avicenna discovered that “first philosophy” could be conceived as an ontology distinct from theology; moreover, they considered theology to be only a part of metaphysics, not even the most important one. In the Great Commentary on Metaphysics - where the Arabic translation of the work by the Jacobite monk Usṭāth is quoted, Averroes often just paraphrases the original passages. One may infer that theology in the strict sense is merely mentioned by way of example. In the Epitome of Metaphysics, the objects of metaphysics are “general” ones; metaphysics studies the “absolute being” and cannot be identified with theology as “pertaining to God”.

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Averroes‘ Interpretations of Aristotle’s Metaphysics and their Different Receptions in the Hebrew Philosophical Tradition, 2017
By: Mauro Zonta
Title Averroes‘ Interpretations of Aristotle’s Metaphysics and their Different Receptions in the Hebrew Philosophical Tradition
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2017
Published in Appropriation, Interpretation and Criticism: Philosophical and Theological Exchanges between the Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Intellectual Traditions
Pages 261–278
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2017
By: Mauro Zonta
Title Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Aleph
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 335–353
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Jewish engagement with Aristotle's Metaphysics in Hebrew began in the thirteenth century when the text was presented in Hebrew encyclopedias; it continued with a number of translations in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. The study of Hebrew philosophical texts often resulted in supercommentaries on them. In this study I present a hitherto unnoticed work, preserved in a unique Oxford manuscript, that bears witness to the study of the Metaphysics. Consisting of twenty-nine short comments or glosses on key passages of Averroes' Middle Commentary on books Alpha minor and Beta, as well as two passages from the Middle Commentary on book Theta, it can be described as a kind of supercommentary on Averroes. The glosses as preserved in the manuscript were apparently collected by an unknown redactor from works of two or more authors, whom I try to identify. One of them may be R. Gershon, the father of Levi ben Gershon (1288–1344). An edition of the 29 glosses and, for comparison, several glosses on logic by R. Gershon, are also presented.

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Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Rursus
Volume 9
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commentary on Metaphysics IX 3, Averroes draws an analogy between the Megarian conception of dunamis, presented and refuted by Aristotle, and that of the Ashʿarites theologians. The study of the Arabic translation of lemmatas of Aristotle’s text (1047a26-28) and of the reformulation by Averroes of the third argument against the Megarians shows a shift commanded by theological issues: since the omnipotence of God can now bypass natural powers, the question of who possess the power should be added to that of its sole possession.

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Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161–184
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist, 2015
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 309–318
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The 15th century Jewish Aragonian thinker, Abraham Bibago treats conjunction in his two main works, Derekh Emunah (“The Way of Faith”) and Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In the former, which explicitly interprets Biblical and Talmudic stories along philosophical lines, Bibago promotes a neo-Platonic intellectual emanation schema and boldly asserts that human happiness is attained through conjunction with higher intellects. In the Commentary, which primarily treats Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Averroes’ commentaries on it, Bibago gives an account of conjunction that does not necessarily fit with the intellectual conjunction of Derekh Emunah. Indeed, his remarks in the Commentary are much less decisive about human happiness, suggesting that Bibago qua philosopher is more open minded about the summum bonum than he is qua religious thinker.

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento, 2013
By: Mauro Zonta
Title La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento
Type Book Section
Language Italian
Date 2013
Published in L'averroismo in età moderna (1400–1700)
Pages 15–23
Categories Commentary, Metaphysics, Tradition and Reception, Aristotle
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Companion to the Latin Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Metaphysics, 2013
By: Fabrizio Amerini (Ed.), Gabriele Galluzzo (Ed.)
Title A Companion to the Latin Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Metaphysics
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2013
Publication Place Leiden
Publisher Brill Academic Publishers
Series Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition
Volume 43
Categories Tradition and Reception, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Fabrizio Amerini , Gabriele Galluzzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Few philosophical books have been so influential in the development of Western thought as Aristotle’s Metaphysics. For centuries Aristotle’s most celebrated work has been regarded as a source of inspiration as well as the starting point for every investigation into the structure of reality. Not surprisingly, the topics discussed in the book – the scientific status of ontology and metaphysics, the foundations of logical truths, the notions of essence and existence, the nature of material objects and their properties, the status of mathematical entities, just to mention some – are still at the centre of the current philosophical debate and are likely to excite philosophical minds for many years to come. This volume reconstructs in fourteen chapters a particular phase in the long history of the Metaphysics by focusing on the medieval reception of Aristotle’s masterpiece, specifically from its introduction in the Latin West in the twelfth through fifteenth centuries. Contributors include: Marta Borgo, Matteo di Giovanni, Amos Bertolacci, Silvia Donati, Gabriele Galluzzo, Alessandro D. Conti, Sten Ebbesen, Fabrizio Amerini, Giorgio Pini, Roberto Lambertini, William O. Duba, Femke J. Kok, and Paul J.J.M. Bakker.

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Averroes against Avicenna on Human Spontaneous Generation: The Starting-Point of a Lasting Debate, 2013
By: Amos Bertolacci
Title Averroes against Avicenna on Human Spontaneous Generation: The Starting-Point of a Lasting Debate
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 37–54
Categories Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Amos Bertolacci
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The first criticism of Avicenna in Averroes’s Long Commentary on Metaphysica (II, 993a30-995a20) regards Avicenna’s doctrine of the asexual (so-called ‘spontaneous’) generation of human beings. This criticism is interesting in two main regards. When considered in the general historical context of the confrontation between advocates and opponents of spontaneous generation, the specific debate between Averroes and Avicenna on this issue can be said to have had a long-lasting impact on Latin philosophy up until the Renaissance. Doctrinally, the criticism in question can be taken as a paradigm of Averroes’s more general anti-Avicennian polemic and of the ideological reasons of his dissent towards his illustrious predecessor. In fact, the criticism in questions displays three leitmotivs of Averroes’s dissent towards Avicenna: the harsh tone and the ad personam character of the attack, stressing an error unworthy of Avicenna’s alleged fame in philosophy; the insistence on Avicenna’s agreement and consonance with contemporary thinkers, a fact that in Averroes’s eyes evidences the profound gap separating Avicenna from the ancient masters, depositaries of authentic philosophy; the reproach addressed to Avicenna of being too conversant with, and receptive of, Islamic theology, thus disregarding the requirements of true philosophy. The article shows that in each of these three respects Averroes in fact presents Avicenna’s position in a biased way: indeed Avicenna does not uphold the specific version of human spontaneous generation that Averroes ascribes to him; his doctrine of human spontaneous generation is deeply rooted in ancient philosophy; and his account of this doctrine evidences clear non-religious (and therefore non-theological) traits.

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Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161–184
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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Generazione verticale, generazione orizzontale: il principio di sinonimia nel Commento grande di Averroè al Libro Z della Metafisica di Aristotle, 2009
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Generazione verticale, generazione orizzontale: il principio di sinonimia nel Commento grande di Averroè al Libro Z della Metafisica di Aristotle
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2009
Journal Chôra. Revue d’Études anciennes et médiévales
Volume 7-8
Issue 2009-2010
Pages 133-62
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Le but de cet article est d’analyser l’interprétation qu’Averroès propose de l’étude de la génération spontanée développée par Aristote dans le chapitre 9 du livre Z de la Métaphysique et montrer que pour Averroès le véritable enjeu de cette étude est celui de démontrer que l’agent et le produit de la génération ont une même forme. C’est cette thèse, en effet, qui d’après le Cordouan permet en dernière instance d’instaurer entre le monde céleste et le monde terrestre une causalité, pour ainsi dire, «perpendiculaire» qui sauve à la fois l’efficacité des causes secondes et celle de la cause première qui agit par l’intermédiaire des causes célestes. Ce nouveau cadre cosmologico-ontologique apparaît manifestement comme le produit d’une stratégie menée directement contre Avicenne, car le but ultime d’Averroès est de substituer sa propre théorie de l’Artisan divin à la théorie platonicienne de la création démiurgique, à laquelle il assimile la théorie avicennienne d’une donation des formes par une Intelligence cosmique.

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Greek, Arabic and Latin Commentators on Per Se Accidents of Being qua Being and the Place of Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book Iota, 2011
By: Laura Maria Castelli
Title Greek, Arabic and Latin Commentators on Per Se Accidents of Being qua Being and the Place of Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book Iota
Type Article
Language English
Date 2011
Journal Documenti e Studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 22
Pages 153–208
Categories Commentary, Metaphysics, Aristotle
Author(s) Laura Maria Castelli
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Happiness, Eros, and the Active Intellect: Understanding Erotic Desire in Averroes’s Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Λ in Light of the Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics, 2021
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Happiness, Eros, and the Active Intellect: Understanding Erotic Desire in Averroes’s Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Λ in Light of the Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in The Pursuit of Happiness in Medieval Jewish and Islamic Thought. Studies Dedicated to Steven Harvey
Pages 195–213
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience, 2019
By: Stephen Ogden
Title Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 595–614
Categories Thomas, Metaphysics, Aristotle, Commentary, Theology
Author(s) Stephen Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Il Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele nella tradizione ebraica. Le versioni ebraiche di Zerahyah ben Ishaq Hen e di Qalonymos ben Qalonymos. Edizione e introduzione storica e filologica, 2011
By: Averroes, Mauro Zonta (Ed.)
Title Il Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele nella tradizione ebraica. Le versioni ebraiche di Zerahyah ben Ishaq Hen e di Qalonymos ben Qalonymos. Edizione e introduzione storica e filologica
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2011
Publication Place Pavia
Publisher Pavia University Press
Series Editoria scientifica
Categories Metaphysics, Jewish Averroism, Commentary
Author(s) Averroes , Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198), 2017
By: Carmela Baffioni
Title Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198)
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 59
Pages 33–56
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Theology, Commentary
Author(s) Carmela Baffioni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with Averroes’s interpretation of Metaph. Ε 1, where Aristotle discusses the nature and object of metaphysics, as well as its place in the hierarchy of sciences. Among Averroes’s predecessors, al-Kindī seems to see a coincidence between metaphysics and theology, since God can be described as the “first cause of everything”. However, al-Fārābī and Avicenna discovered that “first philosophy” could be conceived as an ontology distinct from theology; moreover, they considered theology to be only a part of metaphysics, not even the most important one. In the Great Commentary on Metaphysics - where the Arabic translation of the work by the Jacobite monk Usṭāth is quoted, Averroes often just paraphrases the original passages. One may infer that theology in the strict sense is merely mentioned by way of example. In the Epitome of Metaphysics, the objects of metaphysics are “general” ones; metaphysics studies the “absolute being” and cannot be identified with theology as “pertaining to God”.

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Jawhar en el epítome averroico de la Metafísica, 2011
By: Josep Puig Montada

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La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento, 2013
By: Mauro Zonta
Title La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento
Type Book Section
Language Italian
Date 2013
Published in L'averroismo in età moderna (1400–1700)
Pages 15–23
Categories Commentary, Metaphysics, Tradition and Reception, Aristotle
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Multitude et bene esse chez Averroès et Dante. Retour sur la Monarchie I,3, 2019
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Multitude et bene esse chez Averroès et Dante. Retour sur la Monarchie I,3
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2019
Published in Dante et l’averroïsme
Pages 357–383
Categories Metaphysics, De anima, Politics, Aristotle, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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