Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 69–86
Categories Politics, Dialectic
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's “Republic” with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is “to abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.” This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city—that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats “volitional actions and habits in general” (haqinyanim wehapeʿulot hareṣoniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences—even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division—as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing. It appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d–511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah harišonah).

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Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city\u2014that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats \u201cvolitional actions and habits in general\u201d (haqinyanim wehape\u02bfulot hare\u1e63oniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences\u2014even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division\u2014as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing.\r\n\r\nIt appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d\u2013511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah hari\u0161onah).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.004","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":79,"category_name":"Dialectic","link":"bib?categories[]=Dialectic"}],"authors":[{"id":1500,"full_name":"Yehuda Halper","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5349,"section_of":5346,"pages":"69\u201386","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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الفقهاء والفلاسفة في الغرب الإسلامي في القرنين السادس والسابع الهجريين : جدلية القبول والرفض‬, 2021
By: Al-Amīn Mustafa Bbukhubza
Title الفقهاء والفلاسفة في الغرب الإسلامي في القرنين السادس والسابع الهجريين : جدلية القبول والرفض‬
Transcription al-faqahā' wa al-falāsifa fi al-gharb al-islāmiy fi al-qarbīn al-sādis wa al-sābaʻa al-hijriin: jdaliyya al-qabūl wa al-rafḍ
Translation The legitimists and philosophers in the Islamic West in the sixth and seventh century of the Hegira: The dialectics of approval and rejection
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Rabat
Publisher Munshūrāt ḥikma al-tauḥid wa al-iṣlāḥ
Series silsila risa'il jāmiʻayya
Categories Law, Dialectic
Author(s) Al-Amīn Mustafa Bbukhubza
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Dialecticians and dialectics in Averroes' Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle's Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and dialectics in Averroes' Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle's Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161-184
Categories Dialectic, Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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Dialecticians and dialectics in Averroes' Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle's Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and dialectics in Averroes' Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle's Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161-184
Categories Dialectic, Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 69–86
Categories Politics, Dialectic
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's “Republic” with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is “to abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.” This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city—that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats “volitional actions and habits in general” (haqinyanim wehapeʿulot hareṣoniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences—even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division—as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing. It appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d–511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah harišonah).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5349","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5349,"authors_free":[{"id":6199,"entry_id":5349,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1500,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Yehuda Halper","free_first_name":"Yehuda","free_last_name":"Halper","norm_person":{"id":1500,"first_name":"Yehuda","last_name":"Halper","full_name":"Yehuda Halper","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/142969923","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/177995327","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Yehuda Halper"}}],"entry_title":"Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is \u201cto abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.\u201d This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city\u2014that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats \u201cvolitional actions and habits in general\u201d (haqinyanim wehape\u02bfulot hare\u1e63oniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences\u2014even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division\u2014as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing.\r\n\r\nIt appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d\u2013511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah hari\u0161onah).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.004","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":79,"category_name":"Dialectic","link":"bib?categories[]=Dialectic"}],"authors":[{"id":1500,"full_name":"Yehuda Halper","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5349,"section_of":5346,"pages":"69\u201386","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"]}

الفقهاء والفلاسفة في الغرب الإسلامي في القرنين السادس والسابع الهجريين : جدلية القبول والرفض‬, 2021
By: Al-Amīn Mustafa Bbukhubza
Title الفقهاء والفلاسفة في الغرب الإسلامي في القرنين السادس والسابع الهجريين : جدلية القبول والرفض‬
Transcription al-faqahā' wa al-falāsifa fi al-gharb al-islāmiy fi al-qarbīn al-sādis wa al-sābaʻa al-hijriin: jdaliyya al-qabūl wa al-rafḍ
Translation The legitimists and philosophers in the Islamic West in the sixth and seventh century of the Hegira: The dialectics of approval and rejection
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Rabat
Publisher Munshūrāt ḥikma al-tauḥid wa al-iṣlāḥ
Series silsila risa'il jāmiʻayya
Categories Law, Dialectic
Author(s) Al-Amīn Mustafa Bbukhubza
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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