An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5354","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5354,"authors_free":[{"id":6205,"entry_id":5354,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1741,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Karen Taliaferro","free_first_name":"Karen","free_last_name":"Taliaferro","norm_person":{"id":1741,"first_name":"Karen","last_name":"Taliaferro","full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1021039934","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Karen Taliaferro"}}],"entry_title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"\u201cOf what use,\u201d Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d \u201cis this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a shar\u012b\u02bfa?\u201d In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 113–132
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Influence
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this chapter, I will focus on Averroes's position on family and property in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I will lay out his views on the role of parents in the education of children, and the place of women and children within the family and in society. I will examine Averroes's stance on private and collective property, as well as his questions pertaining to the transmission of property. Averroes's primary goal in this commentary is arguably to elucidate Plato's analysis of the structure of the ideal political state, given that, by his own admission, he could not find an Arabic translation of Aristotle's Politics. A distinction can in principle be made between Plato's views as expounded by Averroes, and the latter's own views on a given subject. Averroes’ positions can be discerned in the way he introduces personal comments and references to contemporary al-Andalus. In order to discern Averroes's positions and to discover whether he concurs with Plato on issues such as the question of education and the status of women and property, comparisons will be drawn with his main legal work, Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid, so as to uncover his position on such legal matters as family law and property law. It seems that Averroes would have preferred to write a commentary on Aristotle's Politics, since Aristotle's views are closer to his own. In spite of the fact that he is writing on a philosopher with whom he has fewer affinities, he succeeds in presenting many of his own views in this commentary on Plato. This is perhaps owing to the fact that Averroes often quotes Alfarabi, who greatly admired Plato's philosophy and held it to be in harmony with Aristotle’s. Thus Alfarabi, who is a great source of inspiration for Averroes, constitutes in this instance a strong link between Averroes and Plato. Averroes draws on Plato and appears to agree with him in many respects. Writing on Plato's work also allows him to expound some of his own views on issues such as virtue, education, the political state, and religion. In the Commentary on Plato's “Republic” there are echoes of works by Alfarabi, in particular The Attainment of Happiness.

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The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

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الفقهاء والفلاسفة في الغرب الإسلامي في القرنين السادس والسابع الهجريين : جدلية القبول والرفض‬, 2021
By: Al-Amīn Mustafa Bbukhubza
Title الفقهاء والفلاسفة في الغرب الإسلامي في القرنين السادس والسابع الهجريين : جدلية القبول والرفض‬
Transcription al-faqahā' wa al-falāsifa fi al-gharb al-islāmiy fi al-qarbīn al-sādis wa al-sābaʻa al-hijriin: jdaliyya al-qabūl wa al-rafḍ
Translation The legitimists and philosophers in the Islamic West in the sixth and seventh century of the Hegira: The dialectics of approval and rejection
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Rabat
Publisher Munshūrāt ḥikma al-tauḥid wa al-iṣlāḥ
Series silsila risa'il jāmiʻayya
Categories Law, Dialectic
Author(s) Al-Amīn Mustafa Bbukhubza
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"‫القياس المصلحي عند ابن رشد الحفيد وأثره في تعليل الخلاف الفقهي من خلال كتابه "بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد, 2021
By: ʻAbd Alhalīm Alqabī
Title "‫القياس المصلحي عند ابن رشد الحفيد وأثره في تعليل الخلاف الفقهي من خلال كتابه "بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد
Transcription al-qiyās al-maṣlaḥy ʻnd Ibn Rushd al-ḥafyd wa āthrh fy taʻlīl al-khilāf al-fiqhy min khilāl kitābh "bidāya al-mujtihad wa bihāya al-muqtaṣid"
Translation The governmental measure in Ibn Rushd, the grandson, and his impact in the reasoning of legal controversy in his book "bidāya al-mujtihad wa bihāya al-muqtaṣid"
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Fès
Publisher Al-muwalaf
Categories Law, Logic
Author(s) ʻAbd Alhalīm Alqabī
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Theory of Judgment in Averroes, 2021
By: Rayyan Dabbous
Title A Theory of Judgment in Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Arab Studies Quarterly
Volume 43
Issue No. 3 (Summer 2021)
Pages 268–281
Categories Linguistics, Politics, Rhetoric, Law, Psychology
Author(s) Rayyan Dabbous
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Tradition und Fortschreibung bei Ibn Rušd. Eine rechtsschulübergreifende Analyse zu Kauf- und Tauschgeschäften im islamischen Recht, 2020
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Tradition und Fortschreibung bei Ibn Rušd. Eine rechtsschulübergreifende Analyse zu Kauf- und Tauschgeschäften im islamischen Recht
Type Monograph
Language German
Date 2020
Publication Place Baden-Baden
Publisher Nomos
Series Theologie, Bildung, Ethik und Recht des Islam
Volume 4
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This study portrays the unique philosophical approach of Ibn Rušd to systematising Islamic law flexibly in order to solve the problems Muslims experience in daily life. His approach allows for a new perspective in the discourse on how to update Islamic law for contemporary times and how norms are qualified as being Islamic. Taking the prohibition of usury as an example, this study scrutinises Ibn Rušd’s approach and compares it with others from Muslim legal scholarship. For this purpose, the introduction and the chapter on usury in his juristic work Bidāyat al-mujtahid have been translated and commented on, with his approach analysed and the sources that he consulted identified.

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Gersonides’ Afterlife: Studies on the Reception of Levi ben Gerson’s Philosophical, Halakhic and Scientific Oeuvre in the 14th through 20th Centuries, 2020
By: Ofer Elior (Ed.), Gad Freudenthal (Ed.), David Wirmer (Ed.)
Title Gersonides’ Afterlife: Studies on the Reception of Levi ben Gerson’s Philosophical, Halakhic and Scientific Oeuvre in the 14th through 20th Centuries
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2020
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Studies in Jewish History and Culture
Volume 62
Categories Gersonides, Law, Science, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Ofer Elior , Gad Freudenthal , David Wirmer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Gersonides’ Afterlife is the first full-scale treatment of the reception of one of the greatest scientific minds of medieval Judaism: Gersonides (1288–1344). An outstanding representative of the Hebrew Jewish culture that then flourished in southern France, Gersonides wrote on mathematics, logic, astronomy, astrology, physical science, metaphysics and theology, and commented on almost the entire bible. His strong-minded attempt to integrate these different areas of study into a unitary system of thought was deeply rooted in the Aristotelian tradition and yet innovative in many respects, and thus elicited diverse and often impassionate reactions. For the first time, the twenty-one papers collected here describe Gersonides’ impact in all fields of his activity and the reactions from his contemporaries up to present-day religious Zionism.

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الفقه والفلسفة‬, 2020
By: Ibrāhīm Būršāšin
Title الفقه والفلسفة‬
Transcription Al-fiqh wa al-falsafah
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2020
Publication Place Tanger
Publisher Salīkī
Categories Law
Author(s) Ibrāhīm Būršāšin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
DOI 2020

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Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays, 2019
By: Peter Adamson (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.)
Title Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Categories Logic, Natural Philosophy, Psychology, Metaphysics, Law, Medicine, Ethics
Author(s) Peter Adamson , Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Irrtum - Error - Erreur, 2018
By: Andreas Speer (Ed.), Maxime Mauriège (Ed.)
Title Irrtum - Error - Erreur
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2018
Publication Place Berlin; Boston
Publisher De Gruyter
Series Miscellanea Mediaevalia
Volume 40
Categories Science, Medicine, Psychology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Andreas Speer , Maxime Mauriège
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The volume is a comprehensive evaluation of epistemic, practical, veridical issues from the perspective of every kind of failure, disruption, or confusion that comes under the general rubric of “error.” The analysis is not limited to the element of negativity, but rather, an inquiry about the extent that error can be transformed into a starting point or precondition for successful epistemic practices.

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1427","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1427,"authors_free":[{"id":1622,"entry_id":1427,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1332,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Terence J. Kleven","free_first_name":"Terence J.","free_last_name":"Kleven","norm_person":{"id":1332,"first_name":"Terence J.","last_name":"Kleven","full_name":"Terence J. Kleven","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1050705157","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/308213722","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Terence J. Kleven"}}],"entry_title":"\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2010","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1332,"full_name":"Terence J. Kleven","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1427,"section_of":191,"pages":"225\u2013236","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":191,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2010","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2010","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":191,"pubplace":"Santa Barbara (CA)","publisher":"Praeger Security International","series":null,"volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)"]}

"‫القياس المصلحي عند ابن رشد الحفيد وأثره في تعليل الخلاف الفقهي من خلال كتابه "بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد, 2021
By: ʻAbd Alhalīm Alqabī
Title "‫القياس المصلحي عند ابن رشد الحفيد وأثره في تعليل الخلاف الفقهي من خلال كتابه "بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد
Transcription al-qiyās al-maṣlaḥy ʻnd Ibn Rushd al-ḥafyd wa āthrh fy taʻlīl al-khilāf al-fiqhy min khilāl kitābh "bidāya al-mujtihad wa bihāya al-muqtaṣid"
Translation The governmental measure in Ibn Rushd, the grandson, and his impact in the reasoning of legal controversy in his book "bidāya al-mujtihad wa bihāya al-muqtaṣid"
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Fès
Publisher Al-muwalaf
Categories Law, Logic
Author(s) ʻAbd Alhalīm Alqabī
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5383","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5383,"authors_free":[{"id":6235,"entry_id":5383,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"\u02bbAbd Alhal\u012bm Alqab\u012b","free_first_name":"\u02bbAbd Alhal\u012bm ","free_last_name":"Alqab\u012b","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"\"\u202b\u0627\u0644\u0642\u064a\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0644\u062d\u064a \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0641\u064a\u062f \u0648\u0623\u062b\u0631\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0639\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0642\u0647\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0647 \"\u0628\u062f\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0647\u062f \u0648\u0646\u0647\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u062a\u0635\u062f","title_transcript":"al-qiy\u0101s al-ma\u1e63la\u1e25y \u02bbnd Ibn Rushd al-\u1e25afyd wa \u0101thrh fy ta\u02bbl\u012bl al-khil\u0101f al-fiqhy min khil\u0101l kit\u0101bh \"bid\u0101ya al-mujtihad wa bih\u0101ya al-muqta\u1e63id\"","title_translation":"The governmental measure in Ibn Rushd, the grandson, and his impact in the reasoning of legal controversy in his book \"bid\u0101ya al-mujtihad wa bih\u0101ya al-muqta\u1e63id\"","main_title":{"title":"\"\u202b\u0627\u0644\u0642\u064a\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0644\u062d\u064a \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0641\u064a\u062f \u0648\u0623\u062b\u0631\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0639\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0642\u0647\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0647 \"\u0628\u062f\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0647\u062f \u0648\u0646\u0647\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u062a\u0635\u062f"},"abstract":"","btype":1,"date":"2021","language":"Arabic","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":27,"category_name":"Logic","link":"bib?categories[]=Logic"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":{"id":5383,"pubplace":"F\u00e8s","publisher":"Al-muwalaf","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"booksection":null,"article":null},"sort":["\"\u202b\u0627\u0644\u0642\u064a\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0644\u062d\u064a \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0641\u064a\u062f \u0648\u0623\u062b\u0631\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0639\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0642\u0647\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0647 \"\u0628\u062f\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0647\u062f \u0648\u0646\u0647\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u062a\u0635\u062f"]}

A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes, 2007
By: Thérèse Bonin
Title A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Peripatetikos
Volume 6
Pages 1-25
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Thérèse Bonin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Theory of Judgment in Averroes, 2021
By: Rayyan Dabbous
Title A Theory of Judgment in Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Arab Studies Quarterly
Volume 43
Issue No. 3 (Summer 2021)
Pages 268–281
Categories Linguistics, Politics, Rhetoric, Law, Psychology
Author(s) Rayyan Dabbous
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. 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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (Ibn Rushd), 2009
By: Gerhard Endress
Title Averroes (Ibn Rushd)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2009
Published in The History of Western Philosophy of Religion
Pages 121–136
Categories Biography, Law, Science
Author(s) Gerhard Endress
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Abū-l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn-Muḥammad ibn-Rushd, known in the Latin West under the Hispanicized name ‘Averroes’, was, like his ancestors, a jurist in Islamic Andalusia. He became Chief Judge of Cordoba and Seville, court physician to the Almohad princes of Morocco and Spain, counsellor and courtier in the orbit of power. He belonged to the three worlds of intellectual culture in his age: he was brought up in the world of the ʿulamā, learned exegetes and administrators of the Sharīʿa (the revealed law of Islam); he mastered the world of the rational sciences – applied in medicine and astronomy, and crowned by the universal wisdom of philosophy that was taken to lead the way to true wisdom and ultimate happiness; and he rose to high station in the world of court, where the Commander of the Faithful ruled as absolute king. He embodied the sum of intellectual excellence and active experience a person could gain in his time and place. The religious community, and the political conditions, of Muslim Spain underwent deep changes in Averroes' lifetime. His project – to give a rational foundation to the Muslim doctrine and in the long run to vindicate the work of philosophy as a rule of reason governing all of society – with its progress and its setbacks, was closely connected with the social condition, the spiritual outlook and the dialectic of power and authority in the Andalust.

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Averroes como muftí, 2003
By: Juan Martos Quesada
Title Averroes como muftí
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval. Miscellanea Mediaevalia en honor de Joaquin Lomba Fuentes
Volume 10
Pages 119–126
Categories Law
Author(s) Juan Martos Quesada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper is about the activity of Averroes as mufti, the role of this occupation in the legal word in al-Andalus; also, about the confusión between Averroes and his grandfather in the donation offetuas and, finally, the legal features of Averroes.

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