El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes, 2015
By: Diego R. Sarrió
Title El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 36
Issue 1
Pages 45–68
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Diego R. Sarrió
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El presente artículo argumenta que por debajo del marco jurídico del Faṣl al-maqāl subyace el deseo de conciliar los requerimientos de la razón con las exigencias de la fe. Averroes basa tal conciliación en la aceptación de una teoría hermenéutica según la cual, la Palabra Divina se dirige a cada ser humano según su capacidad intelectual. Por consiguiente, Averroes no excluye a los sabios del deber religioso de asentir a la verdad revelada. Contrariamente a interpretaciones exageradamente secularizadoras de su racionalismo, el artículo sugiere que Averroes concibió la filosofía en términos cuasi religiosos, como la obra más noble que se puede llevar a cabo en presencia de Dios, cuyo ejercicio convierte a sus practicantes en los legítimos «herederos de los profetas».

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The heritage of Arabo-Islamic learning: studies presented to Wadad Kadi, 2015
By: Maurice A. Pomerantz (Ed.), Aram A. Shahin (Ed.)
Title The heritage of Arabo-Islamic learning: studies presented to Wadad Kadi
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2015
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Islamic History and Civilization
Volume 122
Categories Surveys, Theology, Law
Author(s) Maurice A. Pomerantz , Aram A. Shahin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Arabo-Islamic heritage of the Islam is among the richest, most diverse, and longest-lasting literary traditions in the world. Born from a culture and religion that valued teaching, Arabo-Islamic learning spread from the seventh century and has had a lasting impact until the present.In The Heritage of Arabo-Islamic Learning leading scholars around the world present twenty-five studies explore diverse areas of Arabo-Islamic heritage in honor of a renowned scholar and teacher, Dr. Wadad A. Kadi (Prof. Emerita, University of Chicago). The volume includes contributions in three main areas: History, Institutions, and the Use of Documentary Sources; Religion, Law, and Islamic Thought; Language, Literature, and Heritage which reflect Prof. Kadi’s contributions to the field.

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El tratado decisive y otros textos sobre filosofía y religion, 2015
By: Averroes,
Title El tratado decisive y otros textos sobre filosofía y religion
Type Monograph
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Publication Place Buenos Aires
Publisher Ediciones Winograd
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Rafael Ramón Guerrero

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Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza, 2015
By: Joaquín García-Huidobro
Title Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Anales del seminario de historia de la filosofía
Volume 32
Issue 2
Pages 393–413
Categories Aristotle, Law
Author(s) Joaquín García-Huidobro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
En su comentario a la Ética a Nicómaco, Averroes se ocupó del pasaje donde Aristóteles distingue entre las cosas que son justas por naturaleza y aquéllas que lo son en virtud de la ley (V, 7 1134b18-1135a5). Su comentario es particularmente breve, pero plantea algunas dificultades importantes, como su alusión a un derecho naturale legale, que, según Leo Strauss, vendría a ser simplemente un derecho positivo de aceptación general. En este artículo se busca caracterizar lo justo natural y lo justo positivo en el comentario de Averroes y mostrar el alcance de la variación de los criterios propios de la justicia positiva.

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Averroès: le philosophe et la Loi. Édition, traduction et commentaire de “L’Abrégé du Mustasfa”, 2015
By: Ziad Bou Akl (Ed.)
Title Averroès: le philosophe et la Loi. Édition, traduction et commentaire de “L’Abrégé du Mustasfa”
Type Edited Book
Language French
Date 2015
Publication Place Berlin, Boston
Publisher de Gruyter
Series Scientia Graeco-Arabica
Volume 14
Categories Law, al-Ġazālī
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
One of Averroes' (Ibn Rushd) earliest works is dedicated to law. The work comprises a summary of al-Ghazali's work on legal theory called al-Mustasfa min 'ilm al-usul. This volume presents a new edition of the Arabic text accompanied by a French translation and commentary. The edition is preceded by a study that draws attention to the main points of difference between the two philosophers.

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Averroès. Les philosophe et la Loi. Édition, traduction et commentaire de "L’Abrégé du Mustasfa", 2015
By: Ziad Bou Akl (Ed.)
Title Averroès. Les philosophe et la Loi. Édition, traduction et commentaire de "L’Abrégé du Mustasfa"
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2015
Publication Place Boston, Berlin, Munich
Publisher De Gruyter
Series Scientia Graeco-Arabica
Volume 14
Categories al-Ġazālī, Law,
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Discoverer of Being: Law or Philosophy?, 2014
By: Shawn Welnak
Title The Discoverer of Being: Law or Philosophy?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Revue académique Les Cahiers de l’Islam
Volume 1
Pages 65–88
Categories Law, Ontology
Author(s) Shawn Welnak
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi, 2012
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi
Type Article
Language French
Date 2012
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 64
Pages 239-259
Categories Law
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Raison et foi ou raison et Loi. Le philosophe et la cité selon Averroès, d'après al-Fârâbî et Ibn Bajja (Avempace), 2012
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title Raison et foi ou raison et Loi. Le philosophe et la cité selon Averroès, d'après al-Fârâbî et Ibn Bajja (Avempace)
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2012
Published in The Medieval Paradigm. Religious Thought and Philosophy
Pages 381–416
Categories Law, Ibn Bāǧǧa, al-Fārābī
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, 2019
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Oxford Journal of Law and Religion
Volume 8
Issue 1
Pages 174–205
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to the Sunnī legal tradition, legal norms should be derived from the authoritative texts of the Qurʾān and Sunna. However, how exactly to derive such norms remains unclear, when no reference can be found to the matter at hand within these sources. The use of maqāṣid at this point might be a viable solution. Little attention, however, is paid to alternative approaches like the one of Ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd (d 595/1198), which is based on philosophical ethics. Ibn Rushd derives ‘legal precepts’ through analysing the most prominent legal verdicts of Islamic law that were passed by various madhhab. These precepts not only enabled scholars to resolve new legal problems by using ijtihād, they also shed new light on existing legal challenges. This article will analyse Ibn Rushd’s legal hermeneutics in his Bidāyat al-mujtahid by looking at the passages concerning sales of ritually pure (ṭāhir) goods and interest (ribā).

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays, 2019
By: Peter Adamson (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.)
Title Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Categories Logic, Natural Philosophy, Psychology, Metaphysics, Law, Medicine, Ethics
Author(s) Peter Adamson , Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La Bidāya ou contribution de la pensée d'Ibn Rushd à l'évolution de la logique juridique et du droit comparé, 2001
By: Othman Ben Fadhl
Title La Bidāya ou contribution de la pensée d'Ibn Rushd à l'évolution de la logique juridique et du droit comparé
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 169–173
Categories Law
Author(s) Othman Ben Fadhl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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La philosophie comme pratique: erreur et droit à l’erreur dans la pensée d’Averroès, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title La philosophie comme pratique: erreur et droit à l’erreur dans la pensée d’Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Les Études Philosophiques
Volume 117
Issue 2
Pages 269–282
Categories al-Ġazālī, Law
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Responding to the accusations of the Ašʿarite theologian al-Ġazālī, in his Decisive Treatise Averroes champions the practice of philosophy, using legal and scriptural arguments. In this article, I wish to place these arguments within the context of legal theory, a discipline to which Averroes devoted one of his earliest treatises, the Abridgment of al-Mustaṣfā . A comparison of these two texts allows us to identify the origin of some arguments of the Decisive Treatise, concerning the taxonomy of errors and the social organization of knowledge. My aim is to set Averroes’ reflection within a continuity of the Islamic meta-legal tradition that provided him with the necessary tools for his conceptualization of the philosopher’s place within society.

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Le cercle continu d'Ibn Rushd. De la jurisprudence de l'élite à la logique des Lumières, 2001
By: Ahmad Dahbour
Title Le cercle continu d'Ibn Rushd. De la jurisprudence de l'élite à la logique des Lumières
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 233–237
Categories Law
Author(s) Ahmad Dahbour
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les cadis en Occident musulman medieval entre l’exercice de la judicature et la diversité des fonctions. Actes du deuxième colloque international, les 28-29 octobre 2015, 2017
By: Najmeddine Hantati (Ed.)
Title Les cadis en Occident musulman medieval entre l’exercice de la judicature et la diversité des fonctions. Actes du deuxième colloque international, les 28-29 octobre 2015
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2017
Publication Place Tunis
Publisher Université Ez-zitouna
Categories Law
Author(s) Najmeddine Hantati
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd, 2008
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd
Type Article
Language French
Date 2008
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 61
Pages 581–587
Categories Law
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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L’Abrégé de la Quintessence de la théorie légale, 2011
By: Averroes,
Title L’Abrégé de la Quintessence de la théorie légale
Type Monograph
Language French
Date 2011
Publication Place Paris
Publisher albustane
Categories Law, al-Ġazālī, Transmission
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Aida Farhat

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