Essence, accident et nécessité: la notion de par soi chez Averroès, 2016
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Essence, accident et nécessité: la notion de par soi chez Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Les Études Philosophiques
Volume 117
Issue 2
Pages 217–241
Categories Aristotle, Ontology, Commentary, Logic
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The notion of “per se” (καθ’ αὑτό) is one of the key elements of Aristotle’s ontology and epistemology. Nowhere, however, does Aristotle provide a systematic study of it, leaving the articulation of its different meanings and the significance of the general project in which this notion is inscribed unclear. This paper aims to study the interpretation that Averroes provides of this notion in his Long Commentary on the Posterior Analytics. In translating for the first time some long quotations of this commentary into a modern language, we will show the central role that this notion plays in Averroes’ scientific theory and in particular in his theory of demonstration of sign.

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Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry, 2015
By: Francesca Forte
Title Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 287–296
Categories Aristotle, Poetics, Commentary, Logic, Politics
Author(s) Francesca Forte
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The theme of the pleasure of knowledge is central in Averroes’ aesthetical reflection of Aristotle’s Poetics, regardless whether we side with the logical or with the moral interpretation. The first one stresses the continuity between Averroes and previous commentators in his attempt to reconstruct the Poetics as an integral part of the Logic itself, whereby poetic discourse is conceived as a form of reasoning based on syllogisms. According to the latter perspective, however, pleasure is central in that poetry is a tool towards the pursuit of happiness: in this perspective it is necessary to bear in mind some common themes present in other works by Averroes (particularly in the commentaries on the Aristotelian Organon – and especially the commentary on the Rhetoric –, in the commentaries on Plato’s Republic, and, last but not least, in the Decisive Treatise). The pleasure of contemplative knowledge must go hand in hand with the pursuit of communal happiness and therefore with the good and proper order of community and society. Poetry represents a central tool towards this aim in that it expresses moral truths which cannot not be communicated (to everybody) by means of logic and philosophy alone.

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Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote, 2007
By: Ahmad Hasnawi
Title Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2007
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 203–265
Categories Transmission, Commentary, Themistius, Logic, Aristotle
Author(s) Ahmad Hasnawi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Aristotle's Topics, and especially, as far as the subject of this study is concerned, their central books (II-VII), played a role of central importance both in the medieval Latin and in the Arabic logical tradition. This did not occur without transformations, which affected the nature and the function of the loci of which these books set forth the theory. One of the most visible signposts of this tradition of re-elaboration of the Topics is represented by Themistius (ob. c. 388), to whom both Boethius and Averroes refer. Yet no work by Themistius on the Topics has come down to us in Greek. With a view to reconstructing the work(s) of this author, we have here collected and translated the passages that are attributed to him explicitly (with the exception of one of them) in Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Topics, comparing them, where necessary, to the testimonies collected by Boethius in his De topicis differentiis. In addition - and this is a new element added to the file - we show that the Themistian classification of loci was taken up by Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī (ob. after 1164), author of a philosophical summa entitled al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar (The meditated book). These three testimonies are all the more precious in that they are independent of one another. The study of the chapter in the logical part of al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar, containing the Themistian classification of loci, of which a corrected text with translation is offered, shows that one finds in it some of the most singular aspects of this classification, as it appears in Boethius. Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī thus reveals himself to be closer than Averroes to the testimony of Boethius. This suggests the idea of a double redaction by Themistius of the classification of loci: one, more concentrated, comes from an introduction to the paraphrase of the central books of the Topics, which may have inspired Averroes; the other, more extensive, which will have been part of an original work, and inspired the classifications of Boethius and of Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī.

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Ibn Rušd et les Premiers Analytiques d'Aristote. Aperçu sur un problème de syllogistique modale, 1995
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Ibn Rušd et les Premiers Analytiques d'Aristote. Aperçu sur un problème de syllogistique modale
Type Article
Language French
Date 1995
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 5
Pages 51–74
Categories Logic, Alexander of Aphrodisias, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Commentary
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Rušd devoted a certain number of works to Aristotle's Prior Analytics. In a series of opuscules written over a period of twenty years and following upon his Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, he faced a problem particular to the modal syllogism - that of the mood of the conclusion in mixed syllogisms. The problem can be stated as follows: At the beginning of the Prior Analytics, Aristotle established a formal deductive principle - that of universal attribution (Pr. An. I.1.24b26–30). Applied to the modal syllogism, this principle is inadequate as stated. It is too general to be applied in a univocal manner in all modal syllogisms. To preserve a sense of coherence in Aristotle's declarations, the commentators had to interpret it. Presenting the interpretations of the commentators, primarily al-Fārābī and Alexander, on the basis of al-Fārābī's Large Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, Averroes criticizes them. Applied according to Alexander's interpretation, the principle of universal attribution is valid only for modal syllogisms one of whose premises is necessary and the other assertoric; according to al-Fārābī's interpretation, it is verified only when the minor premise is possible. Averroes proposes two preliminary solutions. Either this formal deductive principle must be applied differently according to the modal differences of the minor premises in mixed syllogisms (first solution) or would be used in two ways, generally or in keeping with each mood (second solution). These solutions are not satisfactory, for they call into question the unity and universality of the principle of universal attribution as established by Aristotle. What is the utility, Averroes asks, of a principle which does not hold for all modalities or does not apply to all the premises when the Prior Analytics ought to furnish formal and universal principles of deduction? And why did Aristotle define the principle of universal attribution without distinguishing its application according to each of the three modal premises? Returning at the end of his career to a literal exegesis of Aristotle's propositions and without harkening back to the earlier solutions, he proposes a theory of making the terms modal (fourth solution) in order to save Aristotle's declarations with respect to the principle of universal attribution and the mood of the conclusion of mixed syllogisms (Prior Analytics I. 9.30al5–20). Though formally inadequate, this solution, which had a continued history, proposes a new way of looking at the classification of modal propositions.

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Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry, 2015
By: Francesca Forte
Title Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 287–296
Categories Aristotle, Poetics, Commentary, Logic, Politics
Author(s) Francesca Forte
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The theme of the pleasure of knowledge is central in Averroes’ aesthetical reflection of Aristotle’s Poetics, regardless whether we side with the logical or with the moral interpretation. The first one stresses the continuity between Averroes and previous commentators in his attempt to reconstruct the Poetics as an integral part of the Logic itself, whereby poetic discourse is conceived as a form of reasoning based on syllogisms. According to the latter perspective, however, pleasure is central in that poetry is a tool towards the pursuit of happiness: in this perspective it is necessary to bear in mind some common themes present in other works by Averroes (particularly in the commentaries on the Aristotelian Organon – and especially the commentary on the Rhetoric –, in the commentaries on Plato’s Republic, and, last but not least, in the Decisive Treatise). The pleasure of contemplative knowledge must go hand in hand with the pursuit of communal happiness and therefore with the good and proper order of community and society. Poetry represents a central tool towards this aim in that it expresses moral truths which cannot not be communicated (to everybody) by means of logic and philosophy alone.

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Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote, 2007
By: Ahmad Hasnawi
Title Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2007
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 203–265
Categories Transmission, Commentary, Themistius, Logic, Aristotle
Author(s) Ahmad Hasnawi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Aristotle's Topics, and especially, as far as the subject of this study is concerned, their central books (II-VII), played a role of central importance both in the medieval Latin and in the Arabic logical tradition. This did not occur without transformations, which affected the nature and the function of the loci of which these books set forth the theory. One of the most visible signposts of this tradition of re-elaboration of the Topics is represented by Themistius (ob. c. 388), to whom both Boethius and Averroes refer. Yet no work by Themistius on the Topics has come down to us in Greek. With a view to reconstructing the work(s) of this author, we have here collected and translated the passages that are attributed to him explicitly (with the exception of one of them) in Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Topics, comparing them, where necessary, to the testimonies collected by Boethius in his De topicis differentiis. In addition - and this is a new element added to the file - we show that the Themistian classification of loci was taken up by Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī (ob. after 1164), author of a philosophical summa entitled al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar (The meditated book). These three testimonies are all the more precious in that they are independent of one another. The study of the chapter in the logical part of al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar, containing the Themistian classification of loci, of which a corrected text with translation is offered, shows that one finds in it some of the most singular aspects of this classification, as it appears in Boethius. Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī thus reveals himself to be closer than Averroes to the testimony of Boethius. This suggests the idea of a double redaction by Themistius of the classification of loci: one, more concentrated, comes from an introduction to the paraphrase of the central books of the Topics, which may have inspired Averroes; the other, more extensive, which will have been part of an original work, and inspired the classifications of Boethius and of Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1533","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1533,"authors_free":[{"id":1760,"entry_id":1533,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":788,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Ahmad Hasnawi","free_first_name":"Ahmad","free_last_name":"Hasnawi","norm_person":{"id":788,"first_name":"Ahmad","last_name":"Hasnawi","full_name":"Ahmad Hasnawi","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1011618869","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/29672431","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Ahmad Hasnawi"}}],"entry_title":"Bo\u00e8ce, Averro\u00e8s et Ab\u016b al-Barak\u0101t al-Ba\u0121d\u0101d\u012b. T\u00e9moins des \u00e9crits de Th\u00e9mistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"Bo\u00e8ce, Averro\u00e8s et Ab\u016b al-Barak\u0101t al-Ba\u0121d\u0101d\u012b. T\u00e9moins des \u00e9crits de Th\u00e9mistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote"},"abstract":"Aristotle's Topics, and especially, as far as the subject of this study is concerned, their central books (II-VII), played a role of central importance both in the medieval Latin and in the Arabic logical tradition. This did not occur without transformations, which affected the nature and the function of the loci of which these books set forth the theory. One of the most visible signposts of this tradition of re-elaboration of the Topics is represented by Themistius (ob. c. 388), to whom both Boethius and Averroes refer. Yet no work by Themistius on the Topics has come down to us in Greek. With a view to reconstructing the work(s) of this author, we have here collected and translated the passages that are attributed to him explicitly (with the exception of one of them) in Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Topics, comparing them, where necessary, to the testimonies collected by Boethius in his De topicis differentiis. In addition - and this is a new element added to the file - we show that the Themistian classification of loci was taken up by Ab\u016b al-Barak\u0101t al-Ba\u0121d\u0101d\u012b (ob. after 1164), author of a philosophical summa entitled al-Kit\u0101b al-mu\u02bftabar (The meditated book). These three testimonies are all the more precious in that they are independent of one another. The study of the chapter in the logical part of al-Kit\u0101b al-mu\u02bftabar, containing the Themistian classification of loci, of which a corrected text with translation is offered, shows that one finds in it some of the most singular aspects of this classification, as it appears in Boethius. Ab\u016b al-Barak\u0101t al-Ba\u0121d\u0101d\u012b thus reveals himself to be closer than Averroes to the testimony of Boethius. This suggests the idea of a double redaction by Themistius of the classification of loci: one, more concentrated, comes from an introduction to the paraphrase of the central books of the Topics, which may have inspired Averroes; the other, more extensive, which will have been part of an original work, and inspired the classifications of Boethius and of Ab\u016b al-Barak\u0101t al-Ba\u0121d\u0101d\u012b.","btype":3,"date":"2007","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":40,"category_name":"Transmission","link":"bib?categories[]=Transmission"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":16,"category_name":"Themistius","link":"bib?categories[]=Themistius"},{"id":27,"category_name":"Logic","link":"bib?categories[]=Logic"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"}],"authors":[{"id":788,"full_name":"Ahmad Hasnawi","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":1533,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Arabic Sciences and Philosophy","volume":"17","issue":"2","pages":"203\u2013265"}},"sort":["Bo\u00e8ce, Averro\u00e8s et Ab\u016b al-Barak\u0101t al-Ba\u0121d\u0101d\u012b. T\u00e9moins des \u00e9crits de Th\u00e9mistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote"]}

Essence, accident et nécessité: la notion de par soi chez Averroès, 2016
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Essence, accident et nécessité: la notion de par soi chez Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Les Études Philosophiques
Volume 117
Issue 2
Pages 217–241
Categories Aristotle, Ontology, Commentary, Logic
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The notion of “per se” (καθ’ αὑτό) is one of the key elements of Aristotle’s ontology and epistemology. Nowhere, however, does Aristotle provide a systematic study of it, leaving the articulation of its different meanings and the significance of the general project in which this notion is inscribed unclear. This paper aims to study the interpretation that Averroes provides of this notion in his Long Commentary on the Posterior Analytics. In translating for the first time some long quotations of this commentary into a modern language, we will show the central role that this notion plays in Averroes’ scientific theory and in particular in his theory of demonstration of sign.

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Ibn Rušd et les Premiers Analytiques d'Aristote. Aperçu sur un problème de syllogistique modale, 1995
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Ibn Rušd et les Premiers Analytiques d'Aristote. Aperçu sur un problème de syllogistique modale
Type Article
Language French
Date 1995
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 5
Pages 51–74
Categories Logic, Alexander of Aphrodisias, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Commentary
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Rušd devoted a certain number of works to Aristotle's Prior Analytics. In a series of opuscules written over a period of twenty years and following upon his Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, he faced a problem particular to the modal syllogism - that of the mood of the conclusion in mixed syllogisms. The problem can be stated as follows: At the beginning of the Prior Analytics, Aristotle established a formal deductive principle - that of universal attribution (Pr. An. I.1.24b26–30). Applied to the modal syllogism, this principle is inadequate as stated. It is too general to be applied in a univocal manner in all modal syllogisms. To preserve a sense of coherence in Aristotle's declarations, the commentators had to interpret it. Presenting the interpretations of the commentators, primarily al-Fārābī and Alexander, on the basis of al-Fārābī's Large Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, Averroes criticizes them. Applied according to Alexander's interpretation, the principle of universal attribution is valid only for modal syllogisms one of whose premises is necessary and the other assertoric; according to al-Fārābī's interpretation, it is verified only when the minor premise is possible. Averroes proposes two preliminary solutions. Either this formal deductive principle must be applied differently according to the modal differences of the minor premises in mixed syllogisms (first solution) or would be used in two ways, generally or in keeping with each mood (second solution). These solutions are not satisfactory, for they call into question the unity and universality of the principle of universal attribution as established by Aristotle. What is the utility, Averroes asks, of a principle which does not hold for all modalities or does not apply to all the premises when the Prior Analytics ought to furnish formal and universal principles of deduction? And why did Aristotle define the principle of universal attribution without distinguishing its application according to each of the three modal premises? Returning at the end of his career to a literal exegesis of Aristotle's propositions and without harkening back to the earlier solutions, he proposes a theory of making the terms modal (fourth solution) in order to save Aristotle's declarations with respect to the principle of universal attribution and the mood of the conclusion of mixed syllogisms (Prior Analytics I. 9.30al5–20). Though formally inadequate, this solution, which had a continued history, proposes a new way of looking at the classification of modal propositions.

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