Type of Media
Category
Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary, 2022
By: Dustin Klinger
Title Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 32
Issue 1
Pages 109–135
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Providence
Author(s) Dustin Klinger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the fresh reading proposed here of the still not satisfactorily interpreted passages in Metaphysics Ε2-3, Aristotle emerges as making a case against determinism based on a robust notion of the accident. Accidental beings are uncaused causes and have their rightful place in Aristotle's ontology. The resulting physical indeterminism is here used as a litmus test for the exegetical practice of the great Commentator, Averroes, whose self-proclaimed, and later proverbial, loyalty to Aristotle's text will be shown to give way to idiosyncratic interpretations at times. His explanations of Metaphysics Ε2-3 are sparse and no less obscure than Aristotle's text. It is only when read together with his commentaries on the Physics, to which he explicitly refers twice in his Long commentary on Metaphysics Ε2-3, that a surprising picture emerges. Averroes recycles the notion of the accident, now reconceptualised in cosmological terms, and – putting it to the opposite use of Aristotle's – weaves it into an original theory of motion that integrates both supra- and sublunar realms into a deterministic framework of uninterrupted causal chains, thus safeguarding the principle of Divine providence.

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In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature, 2020
By: Yehuda Halper
Title In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Revue des études juives
Volume 179
Issue 1–2
Pages 133–160
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Renaissance
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta, 2019
By: Fernanda Ocampo
Title La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2019
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 36
Issue 3
Pages 659–681
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, Thomas
Author(s) Fernanda Ocampo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the ‘real distinction’ between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich’s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading – critical of that of Avicenna’s –, which “has made school” in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.

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Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis, 2019
By: Ahmad Ahmadi
Title Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Ishraq
Volume 9
Pages 13–22
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics, Ontology
Author(s) Ahmad Ahmadi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience, 2019
By: Stephen Ogden
Title Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 595–614
Categories Thomas, Metaphysics, Aristotle, Commentary, Theology
Author(s) Stephen Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica, 2019
By: Adam Takahashi
Title Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 30
Pages 625–654
Categories Albert, Tradition and Reception, Cosmology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Adam Takahashi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Biblical Inspiration & Islamic Instrumental Causality: Thomas Aquinas on Prophecy and the Two Authors of Sacred Scriptures, 2019
By: Brett Yardley
Title Biblical Inspiration & Islamic Instrumental Causality: Thomas Aquinas on Prophecy and the Two Authors of Sacred Scriptures
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 3
Pages 431–449
Categories Thomas, Metaphysics, Influence
Author(s) Brett Yardley
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Studia graeco-arabica
Volume 8
Pages 287–304
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Prophecy is conspicuous by its complete absence from all three of the commentaries on De Anima by Averroes. However, prophecy and philosophical metaphysics are discussed by him in his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia, a work written before his methodological work on philosophy and religion, the Faṣl al-maqāl, generally held to have been written ca. 1179-1180. The analyses and remarks of Averroes presented in that Commentary have been characterized by Herbert Davidson as “extremely radical” to the extent that “The term prophet would, on this reading, mean nothing more than the human author of Scripture; and the term revelation would mean a high level of philosophical knowledge”. In the present article I discuss Averroes on method in matters of religion and philosophy as well as prophecy in philosophically argumentative works and in dialectical works, with particular consideration of the reasoning of his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia. I conclude that Averroes found in philosophy and its sciences the most complete and precise truth content and highest levels of knowledge and understanding and from them constructed his worldview, while he found prophecy and religion to be like an Aristotelian practical science in that they concern good and right conduct in the achievement of an end attained in action, not truths to be known for their own sake.

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Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age
Volume 85
Pages 108–127
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Averroism, Metaphysics, Politics
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to present the position of the Master of Arts John of Jandun (d. 1328) on the relationship between the metaphysical and the political; and second, to show how his solution, based on the idea of an agency “in second intention,” makes him a follower of Averroes and, more remotely, of Alexander of Aphrodisias’s doctrine on providence. Although the philosopher must play a key role in the city-state as the prince’s teacher on divine truths, this role does not make him a subordinate in any way, because he is turned towards others only in secunda intentione. How does John of Jandun flesh this out? And what does he owe to the metaphysical providence defended by his Greek and Arabic predecessors? These are the issues the paper deals with.

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A Comparative Study of Some Aspects of the Metaphysics of Aristotle and Ibn Rushd, 1995
By: A. Q. Fazlul Wahid
Title A Comparative Study of Some Aspects of the Metaphysics of Aristotle and Ibn Rushd
Type Article
Language English
Date 1995
Journal Dhaka University Studies: Journal of the Faculty of Arts
Volume 51
Pages 113–126
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) A. Q. Fazlul Wahid
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A essência da matéria prima em Averróis Latino (con una referência a Henrique de Gand), 1996
By: Mário A. Santiago de Carvalho
Title A essência da matéria prima em Averróis Latino (con una referência a Henrique de Gand)
Type Article
Language Portuguese
Date 1996
Pages 197–221
Categories Metaphysics, Latin Averroism
Author(s) Mário A. Santiago de Carvalho
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A propos de fondamental et de l'essentiel dans le commentaire d'Averroès sur la Métaphysique d'Aristote, 1995
By: Laurence Bauloye
Title A propos de fondamental et de l'essentiel dans le commentaire d'Averroès sur la Métaphysique d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 1995
Journal Revue de philosophie ancienne
Volume 13
Pages 225–238
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle
Author(s) Laurence Bauloye
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist, 2015
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 309–318
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The 15th century Jewish Aragonian thinker, Abraham Bibago treats conjunction in his two main works, Derekh Emunah (“The Way of Faith”) and Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In the former, which explicitly interprets Biblical and Talmudic stories along philosophical lines, Bibago promotes a neo-Platonic intellectual emanation schema and boldly asserts that human happiness is attained through conjunction with higher intellects. In the Commentary, which primarily treats Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Averroes’ commentaries on it, Bibago gives an account of conjunction that does not necessarily fit with the intellectual conjunction of Derekh Emunah. Indeed, his remarks in the Commentary are much less decisive about human happiness, suggesting that Bibago qua philosopher is more open minded about the summum bonum than he is qua religious thinker.

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Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica, 2019
By: Adam Takahashi
Title Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 30
Pages 625–654
Categories Albert, Tradition and Reception, Cosmology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Adam Takahashi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Albert the Great on the Subject of Metaphysics and Demonstrating the Existence of God, 1992
By: Timothy B. Noone
Title Albert the Great on the Subject of Metaphysics and Demonstrating the Existence of God
Type Article
Language English
Date 1992
Journal Medieval Philosophy and Theology
Volume 2
Pages 31–52
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Timothy B. Noone
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal The Thomist
Volume 76
Issue 4
Pages 509–550
Categories Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Avicenna, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Aristote et Averroës dans le Commentaire de Ferrandus de Hispania sur la 'Métaphysique' d'Aristote, 1980
By: Albert Zimmermann
Title Aristote et Averroës dans le Commentaire de Ferrandus de Hispania sur la 'Métaphysique' d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 1980
Journal Diotima
Volume 8
Pages 159–163
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle
Author(s) Albert Zimmermann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Aristotle, Averroes and Thomas Aquinas on the Nature of Essence, 2003
By: Fabrizio Amerini
Title Aristotle, Averroes and Thomas Aquinas on the Nature of Essence
Type Article
Language English
Date 2003
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 14
Pages 79–122
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle, Aquinas
Author(s) Fabrizio Amerini
Publisher(s)
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