Type of Media
Category
Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary, 2022
By: Dustin Klinger
Title Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 32
Issue 1
Pages 109–135
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Providence
Author(s) Dustin Klinger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the fresh reading proposed here of the still not satisfactorily interpreted passages in Metaphysics Ε2-3, Aristotle emerges as making a case against determinism based on a robust notion of the accident. Accidental beings are uncaused causes and have their rightful place in Aristotle's ontology. The resulting physical indeterminism is here used as a litmus test for the exegetical practice of the great Commentator, Averroes, whose self-proclaimed, and later proverbial, loyalty to Aristotle's text will be shown to give way to idiosyncratic interpretations at times. His explanations of Metaphysics Ε2-3 are sparse and no less obscure than Aristotle's text. It is only when read together with his commentaries on the Physics, to which he explicitly refers twice in his Long commentary on Metaphysics Ε2-3, that a surprising picture emerges. Averroes recycles the notion of the accident, now reconceptualised in cosmological terms, and – putting it to the opposite use of Aristotle's – weaves it into an original theory of motion that integrates both supra- and sublunar realms into a deterministic framework of uninterrupted causal chains, thus safeguarding the principle of Divine providence.

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Substances in Subjects: Instantiation and Existence in Avicenna, 2022
By: Nathaniel B. Taylor
Title Substances in Subjects: Instantiation and Existence in Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, Journal of the American Catholic Philosophical Association
Volume 96
Issue 3
Pages 453-471
Categories Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Metaphysics
Author(s) Nathaniel B. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In an effort to refute Avicenna’s real distinction between essence and existence, Averroes argues for an Instantiation Analysis of existence which thinks of existence not as an accidental addition to an essence, but rather as the recognition that there is an instance in extramental reality which matches a concept in the mind of a knower. In this study, I argue that Averroes’s Instantiation Analysis fails to refute Avicenna’s real distinction by showing that Avicenna himself endorses the Instantiation Analysis and, in fact, makes use of it to motivate his real distinction. To show this, I review several texts where Avicenna makes the puzzling claim that substances are found to be in subjects. These texts reveal how Avicenna discovers the real distinction with Aristotle’s help—not, as Averroes relates, against the view of Aristotle.

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Ibn Rushd on Knowledge, Pleasures, and Analogy, 2021
By: Fouad Ben Ahmed
Title Ibn Rushd on Knowledge, Pleasures, and Analogy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Philosophy and Scienes in Muslim Contexts
Categories Logic, Psychology, Metaphysics, Poetics, Rhetoric
Author(s) Fouad Ben Ahmed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonuçları, 2021
By: Fevzi Yiğit
Title İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonuçları
Translation The reasons for and the consequences of Averroes’ saying essence to God
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Turkish Academic Research Review
Volume 6
Issue 3
Pages 1035-1052
Categories Metaphysics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Cosmology
Author(s) Fevzi Yiğit
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Bu makalede, İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin görece neden ve sonuçları konu edilmektedir. Böylece İbn Rüşd örneğinden hareketle, filozofların Tanrı telakkilerinin aslında metafiziğin konusuyla doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu gösterilmek istenmektedir. Makalede bilkuvve-bilfiil, cevher-araz, varlık-mâhiyet, madde-sûret ve teşkîk gibi güçlü felsefî ayrımlara ihtiyaç duyuldukça başvurulacaktır. İbn Rüşd’e göre mevcut/var olan araştırması temelde bir cevher araştırmasıdır. Mevcut kavramı cevherin üstünde yer alan daha üst bir varlık seviyesini temsil etmese de kapsamının genişliği yüzünden cevherden daha üst bir kavramdır. Oysaki İbn Sînâ’ya göre mevcut, cevherden daha üst bir varlık seviyesini karşılar ve bu yüzden mevcut araştırması sadece cevher araştırmasına hasredilemez. Dolayısıyla ona göre metafiziğin konusu cevher olması açısından cevher değildir. İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin muhtemel nedenleri şunlardır: Birincisi, Tanrı bütün mevcudat içerisinde cevher tanımına en uygun olandır. İkincisi onun mevcut kavramını -diğer anlamlarını akılda tutmak kaydıyla- dış dünyada gerçekliği olmayan zihinsel bir kavram yani cins olarak kabul etmesi dolayısıyla sadece cevhere gerçeklik tanımış olmasıdır. Üçüncüsü, göksel cisimlerin sonsuz bir biçimde hareket ettiği düşüncesidir. Dördüncüsü tümeller ve ayrık mevcutlar ile hissedilir ferdi cevherler arasındaki ilişkiye dair görüşüdür. İbn Rüşd Aristoteles’i takiben tümellerin ve ideaların ferdi cevherlerin varoluşunda katkısı olmadığını düşünür. İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin muhtemel sonuçlarıysa şunlardır: Birincisi onun din felsefe ilişkisine dair yazdığı Faslü’l-makâl ve el-Keşf an menâhicü’ledille kitaplarında Tanrı hakkında takındığı Hanbeli tavırdır. İkincisi aslında yukarıda sebep olarak zikredilen burada ise sonuç olarak dile getirilebilecek döngüsel bir şeydir. Yani gök cisimleri ve âlemi ezeli olarak kabul etmek Tanrı’ya cevher denmesine sebep olurken Tanrı’ya cevher denmesi de âlemin Tanrı’nın etkisiyle ancak O’ndan ayrı ve kopuk olarak mevcut olması fikrini sonuç vermektedir. Üçüncüsü sudûr ve yoktan yaratma doktrinlerini reddetmesidir. Yoktan yaratmayı reddi ise -antik filozofların da açıkça dile getirdiği üzere- “salt yokluğun varlığın kaynağı olamayacağı “şeklindeki genel bir ontolojik ilkeye dayanmaktadır. This article deals with the relative reasons and consequences of Averroes’ saying God the essence. Thus, based on the example of Averroes, it is desired to show that the philosophers’ conception of God is actually directly related to the subject of metaphysics. The distinctions between potential and actual, being-essence and matter-form, which are thought to have strong forms of explanation, will be applied when needed. According to Averroes, his research of being is basically an investigation of essence. Although the concept of being/existence does not represent a higher level of being above the substance, it takes place in metaphysics as a higher concept with different meanings. However, according to Ibn Avicenna, the existing meets a higher level of being than the substance, and therefore its inquiry cannot be only the one for substance. Therefore, according to him, the subject of metaphysics is not a substance qua substance. In short, the possible reasons for Averroes to call God essence are as follows: First, God is the most suitable for the definition of essence in all existence. The second is that, keeping other meanings of being in mind, he accepted the concept of “mawjūd” as a mental concept that has no reality in the external world, that is, as a genus, and therefore only recognized the substance as reality. The third is the idea that the celestial bodies move endlessly. The fourth is his view on the relationship between universals and discrete entities and tangible individual essences. Following Aristotle, Averroes thinks that universals and ideas do not contribute to the existence of individual essences. The possible consequences of Averroes’ calling God a substance are as follows: The first is his Hanbalī attitude towards God in his books Fasl al-maqāl and al-Kashf an manāhij al-adilla, which he wrote on the relationship between religion and philosophy. Secondly, what was mentioned above as a cause, is a cyclical thing that can be expressed as a result here. In other words, while accepting the celestial bodies and the universe as eternal, causes God to be called essence, calling God essence results in the idea that the universe exists only apart and disconnected from him under the influence of God. The third is his rejection of the doctrines of creation out of nothing and sudūr (emanation). The refusal to create out of nothing is based on a general ontological principle -as the ancient philosophers openly expressed- “absolute absence cannot be the source of existence”.

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B\u00f6ylece \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd \u00f6rne\u011finden hareketle, filozoflar\u0131n Tanr\u0131 telakkilerinin asl\u0131nda metafizi\u011fin konusuyla do\u011frudan ba\u011flant\u0131l\u0131 oldu\u011fu g\u00f6sterilmek istenmektedir. Makalede bilkuvve-bilfiil, cevher-araz, varl\u0131k-m\u00e2hiyet, madde-s\u00fbret ve te\u015fk\u00eek gibi g\u00fc\u00e7l\u00fc felsef\u00ee ayr\u0131mlara ihtiya\u00e7 duyulduk\u00e7a ba\u015fvurulacakt\u0131r. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019e g\u00f6re mevcut\/var olan ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131 temelde bir cevher ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131d\u0131r. Mevcut kavram\u0131 cevherin \u00fcst\u00fcnde yer alan daha \u00fcst bir varl\u0131k seviyesini temsil etmese de kapsam\u0131n\u0131n geni\u015fli\u011fi y\u00fcz\u00fcnden cevherden daha \u00fcst bir kavramd\u0131r. Oysaki \u0130bn S\u00een\u00e2\u2019ya g\u00f6re mevcut, cevherden daha \u00fcst bir varl\u0131k seviyesini kar\u015f\u0131lar ve bu y\u00fczden mevcut ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131 sadece cevher ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131na hasredilemez. Dolay\u0131s\u0131yla ona g\u00f6re metafizi\u011fin konusu cevher olmas\u0131 a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan cevher de\u011fildir. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin muhtemel nedenleri \u015funlard\u0131r: Birincisi, Tanr\u0131 b\u00fct\u00fcn mevcudat i\u00e7erisinde cevher tan\u0131m\u0131na en uygun oland\u0131r. \u0130kincisi onun mevcut kavram\u0131n\u0131 -di\u011fer anlamlar\u0131n\u0131 ak\u0131lda tutmak kayd\u0131yla- d\u0131\u015f d\u00fcnyada ger\u00e7ekli\u011fi olmayan zihinsel bir kavram yani cins olarak kabul etmesi dolay\u0131s\u0131yla sadece cevhere ger\u00e7eklik tan\u0131m\u0131\u015f olmas\u0131d\u0131r. \u00dc\u00e7\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc, g\u00f6ksel cisimlerin sonsuz bir bi\u00e7imde hareket etti\u011fi d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcncesidir. D\u00f6rd\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc t\u00fcmeller ve ayr\u0131k mevcutlar ile hissedilir ferdi cevherler aras\u0131ndaki ili\u015fkiye dair g\u00f6r\u00fc\u015f\u00fcd\u00fcr. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd Aristoteles\u2019i takiben t\u00fcmellerin ve idealar\u0131n ferdi cevherlerin varolu\u015funda katk\u0131s\u0131 olmad\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131 d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcn\u00fcr. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin muhtemel sonu\u00e7lar\u0131ysa \u015funlard\u0131r: Birincisi onun din felsefe ili\u015fkisine dair yazd\u0131\u011f\u0131 Fasl\u00fc\u2019l-mak\u00e2l ve el-Ke\u015ff an men\u00e2hic\u00fc\u2019ledille kitaplar\u0131nda Tanr\u0131 hakk\u0131nda tak\u0131nd\u0131\u011f\u0131 Hanbeli tav\u0131rd\u0131r. \u0130kincisi asl\u0131nda yukar\u0131da sebep olarak zikredilen burada ise sonu\u00e7 olarak dile getirilebilecek d\u00f6ng\u00fcsel bir \u015feydir. Yani g\u00f6k cisimleri ve \u00e2lemi ezeli olarak kabul etmek Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher denmesine sebep olurken Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher denmesi de \u00e2lemin Tanr\u0131\u2019n\u0131n etkisiyle ancak O\u2019ndan ayr\u0131 ve kopuk olarak mevcut olmas\u0131 fikrini sonu\u00e7 vermektedir. \u00dc\u00e7\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc sud\u00fbr ve yoktan yaratma doktrinlerini reddetmesidir. Yoktan yaratmay\u0131 reddi ise -antik filozoflar\u0131n da a\u00e7\u0131k\u00e7a dile getirdi\u011fi \u00fczere- \u201csalt yoklu\u011fun varl\u0131\u011f\u0131n kayna\u011f\u0131 olamayaca\u011f\u0131 \u201c\u015feklindeki genel bir ontolojik ilkeye dayanmaktad\u0131r.\r\n \r\nThis article deals with the relative reasons and consequences of Averroes\u2019 saying God the essence. Thus, based on the example of Averroes, it is desired to show that the philosophers\u2019 conception of God is actually directly related to the subject of metaphysics. The distinctions between potential and actual, being-essence and matter-form, which are thought to have strong forms of explanation, will be applied when needed. According to Averroes, his research of being is basically an investigation of essence. Although the concept of being\/existence does not represent a higher level of being above the substance, it takes place in metaphysics as a higher concept with different meanings. However, according to Ibn Avicenna, the existing meets a higher level of being than the substance, and therefore its inquiry cannot be only the one for substance. Therefore, according to him, the subject of metaphysics is not a substance qua substance. In short, the possible reasons for Averroes to call God essence are as follows: First, God is the most suitable for the definition of essence in all existence. The second is that, keeping other meanings of being in mind, he accepted the concept of \u201cmawj\u016bd\u201d as a mental concept that has no reality in the external world, that is, as a genus, and therefore only recognized the substance as reality. The third is the idea that the celestial bodies move endlessly. The fourth is his view on the relationship between universals and discrete entities and tangible individual essences. Following Aristotle, Averroes thinks that universals and ideas do not contribute to the existence of individual essences. The possible consequences of Averroes\u2019 calling God a substance are as follows: The first is his Hanbal\u012b attitude towards God in his books Fasl al-maq\u0101l and al-Kashf an man\u0101hij al-adilla, which he wrote on the relationship between religion and philosophy. Secondly, what was mentioned above as a cause, is a cyclical thing that can be expressed as a result here. In other words, while accepting the celestial bodies and the universe as eternal, causes God to be called essence, calling God essence results in the idea that the universe exists only apart and disconnected from him under the influence of God. The third is his rejection of the doctrines of creation out of nothing and sud\u016br (emanation). The refusal to create out of nothing is based on a general ontological principle -as the ancient philosophers openly expressed- \u201cabsolute absence cannot be the source of existence\u201d.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Turkish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/20.500.11787\/6522","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5582,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Turkish Academic Research Review","volume":"6","issue":"3","pages":"1035-1052"}},"sort":[2021]}

In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature, 2020
By: Yehuda Halper
Title In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Revue des études juives
Volume 179
Issue 1–2
Pages 133–160
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Renaissance
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5021","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5021,"authors_free":[{"id":5757,"entry_id":5021,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1500,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Yehuda Halper","free_first_name":"Yehuda","free_last_name":"Halper","norm_person":{"id":1500,"first_name":"Yehuda","last_name":"Halper","full_name":"Yehuda Halper","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/142969923","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/177995327","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Yehuda Halper"}}],"entry_title":"In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle\u2019s Metaphysics \u03ac \u03ad\u03bb\u03bb\u03ac\u03c4\u03bf\u03bd in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle\u2019s Metaphysics \u03ac \u03ad\u03bb\u03bb\u03ac\u03c4\u03bf\u03bd in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature"},"abstract":"","btype":3,"date":"2020","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":5,"category_name":"Renaissance","link":"bib?categories[]=Renaissance"}],"authors":[{"id":1500,"full_name":"Yehuda Halper","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5021,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Revue des \u00e9tudes juives","volume":"179","issue":"1\u20132","pages":"133\u2013160"}},"sort":[2020]}

Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes, 2020
By: Joen Laureth Delgado Gómez, Diego Giovanni Castellanos
Title Atributos divinos y el problema de la unicidad en Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2020
Journal Praxis Filosófica
Volume 50
Pages 65-88
Categories Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Joen Laureth Delgado Gómez , Diego Giovanni Castellanos
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El artículo aborda la discusión acerca de la unicidad divina y la existencia de atributos, tanto en la filosofía como en la teología islámica medieval, haciendo énfasis en la obra de Averroes. Se analiza cómo en el pensamiento Islámico, al tiempo que se afirma el dogma de la unicidad divina se sostiene la existencia de atributos reales, apuntando directamente a conceptos dialecticos como unidad y multiplicidad, identidad y diferencia, o igualdad y alteridad. Así mismo, partiendo del análisis de su obra, se busca mostrar la manera en la que el pensador cordobés legitimó el uso de la razón filosófica como camino optimo y recomendado para el abordaje de las verdades religiosas. Se considera que Averroes avanzó en una doctrina teológico-filosófica particular diferente del asharismo que se estaba imponiendo en la época, resistiéndose a Al Ghazali, y reivindicando el valor la perspectiva peripatética para enriquecer el debate en el Islam.

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Grek Şârihlerden İbn Rüşd'e Değin Aristoteles'in Theta (Θ) Kitabı'nın Hâricî Tarihi, 2019
By: Abdürrezzak Sevindik
Title Grek Şârihlerden İbn Rüşd'e Değin Aristoteles'in Theta (Θ) Kitabı'nın Hâricî Tarihi
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2019
Journal Sirnak University Journal of Divinity Faculty / Sirnak Üniversitesi Ilahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi
Volume 10
Issue 23
Pages 469-486
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Abdürrezzak Sevindik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The purpose of the article is to discuss the external history of the Book of Theta (Metaphysics IX) in the context of Ibn Rushd's commentaries on Metaphysics. Ibn Rushd interpreted the Book of Theta in Talkhīs mā ba'da al-ṭabī'ah based on its meaning and content. Ibn Rushd did not pursue the original composition of Metaphysics in Talkhīs mā ba'da al-ṭabī'ah. However, Ibn Rushd interpreted the Book of Theta in Tafsīr mā ba'da al-ṭabī'ah focusing on the expression and based on the original text. Ibn Rushd pursued the original composition of Metaphysics in Tafsīr mā ba'da al-ṭabī'ah. Thus, Ibn Rushd took advantage of Astat and Isḥāq b. Hunain's arabic translations of the Book of Theta in this interpretation process. Astat and Isḥāq b. Hunain are experts in the translation of Aristotle's works from Greek into Arabic. When Astat and Isḥāq b. Hunain's translation styles are looked at, it is understood that they adhered to the text word by word. In this respect, those translations supported the literary interpretation of Ibn Rushd. On the other hand, Ibn Rushd was influenced by the Greek commentator/Alexander of Aphrodisias in the interpretation of Theta. Alexander of Aphrodisias and Ibn Rushd's interpretation methods based on utterance are similar. In this respect, Ibn Rushd's Commentary of Theta reveals his Aristotelian approach. Makalenin gâyesi, Aristoteles'in Θ/Theta (Metafizik IX.) Kitabı'nın hâricî tarihini İbn Rüşd'ün Metafizik şerhleri bağlamında ortaya koymaktır. İbn Rüşd, Telhîsu Mâ ba'de't-tabî'a'da Theta Kitabı'nı mana ve mahiyetini temel alarak yorumlamış, Metafizik'i oluşturan kitapların özgün dizilimini takip etmemiştir. Buna karşın Tefsîru Mâ ba'de't-tabî'a'da Metafizik'in özgün dizilimini takip etmiş, Θ/Theta Kitabı'nı da orijinal metnini temel alarak ibâre odaklı yorumlamıştır. İbn Rüşd ibâre odaklı yaklaşımı dolayısıyla bu yorum sürecinde Θ/Theta Kitabı'nın Astat/Ustâz/Eustathius-İshak b. Huneyn (ö. M.S. 910) tarafından yapılmış Arapça çevirilerinden yararlanmıştır. Astat ve İshak b. Huneyn, Aristoteles'in eserlerinin doğrudan doğruya Grekçe'den Arapça'ya çevirilerinde ihtisaslaşmış mütercimlerdir. Astat'ın ve İshak b. Huneyn'in çeviri tavırlarına bakıldığında Grekçe metne kelime kelime bağlı kaldıkları görülür. Bu yönden söz konusu çeviriler, İbn Rüşd'ün lafzî yorumunu desteklemiştir. Diğer yandan İbn Rüşd, Θ/Theta Kitabı yorumunda Grek şârih İskender Afrodisî'den etkilenmiştir. İskender Afrodisî ile İbn Rüşd'ün lafzı temel alan şerh etme yöntemleri benzerdir. Bu bakımdan İbn Rüşd'ün Theta Kitabı Şerhi, onun saf Aristotelesçi yaklaşımını ortaya koyar

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5563","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5563,"authors_free":[{"id":6457,"entry_id":5563,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Abd\u00fcrrezzak Sevindik","free_first_name":"Abd\u00fcrrezzak","free_last_name":"Sevindik","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Grek \u015e\u00e2rihlerden \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd'e De\u011fin Aristoteles'in Theta (\u0398) Kitab\u0131'n\u0131n H\u00e2ric\u00ee Tarihi","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Grek \u015e\u00e2rihlerden \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd'e De\u011fin Aristoteles'in Theta (\u0398) Kitab\u0131'n\u0131n H\u00e2ric\u00ee Tarihi"},"abstract":"The purpose of the article is to discuss the external history of the Book of Theta (Metaphysics IX) in the context of Ibn Rushd's commentaries on Metaphysics. Ibn Rushd interpreted the Book of Theta in Talkh\u012bs m\u0101 ba'da al-\u1e6dab\u012b'ah based on its meaning and content. Ibn Rushd did not pursue the original composition of Metaphysics in Talkh\u012bs m\u0101 ba'da al-\u1e6dab\u012b'ah. However, Ibn Rushd interpreted the Book of Theta in Tafs\u012br m\u0101 ba'da al-\u1e6dab\u012b'ah focusing on the expression and based on the original text. Ibn Rushd pursued the original composition of Metaphysics in Tafs\u012br m\u0101 ba'da al-\u1e6dab\u012b'ah. Thus, Ibn Rushd took advantage of Astat and Is\u1e25\u0101q b. Hunain's arabic translations of the Book of Theta in this interpretation process. Astat and Is\u1e25\u0101q b. Hunain are experts in the translation of Aristotle's works from Greek into Arabic. When Astat and Is\u1e25\u0101q b. Hunain's translation styles are looked at, it is understood that they adhered to the text word by word. In this respect, those translations supported the literary interpretation of Ibn Rushd. On the other hand, Ibn Rushd was influenced by the Greek commentator\/Alexander of Aphrodisias in the interpretation of Theta. Alexander of Aphrodisias and Ibn Rushd's interpretation methods based on utterance are similar. In this respect, Ibn Rushd's Commentary of Theta reveals his Aristotelian approach.\r\n\r\nMakalenin g\u00e2yesi, Aristoteles'in \u0398\/Theta (Metafizik IX.) Kitab\u0131'n\u0131n h\u00e2ric\u00ee tarihini \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd'\u00fcn Metafizik \u015ferhleri ba\u011flam\u0131nda ortaya koymakt\u0131r. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd, Telh\u00eesu M\u00e2 ba'de't-tab\u00ee'a'da Theta Kitab\u0131'n\u0131 mana ve mahiyetini temel alarak yorumlam\u0131\u015f, Metafizik'i olu\u015fturan kitaplar\u0131n \u00f6zg\u00fcn dizilimini takip etmemi\u015ftir. Buna kar\u015f\u0131n Tefs\u00eeru M\u00e2 ba'de't-tab\u00ee'a'da Metafizik'in \u00f6zg\u00fcn dizilimini takip etmi\u015f, \u0398\/Theta Kitab\u0131'n\u0131 da orijinal metnini temel alarak ib\u00e2re odakl\u0131 yorumlam\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd ib\u00e2re odakl\u0131 yakla\u015f\u0131m\u0131 dolay\u0131s\u0131yla bu yorum s\u00fcrecinde \u0398\/Theta Kitab\u0131'n\u0131n Astat\/Ust\u00e2z\/Eustathius-\u0130shak b. Huneyn (\u00f6. M.S. 910) taraf\u0131ndan yap\u0131lm\u0131\u015f Arap\u00e7a \u00e7evirilerinden yararlanm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Astat ve \u0130shak b. Huneyn, Aristoteles'in eserlerinin do\u011frudan do\u011fruya Grek\u00e7e'den Arap\u00e7a'ya \u00e7evirilerinde ihtisasla\u015fm\u0131\u015f m\u00fctercimlerdir. Astat'\u0131n ve \u0130shak b. Huneyn'in \u00e7eviri tav\u0131rlar\u0131na bak\u0131ld\u0131\u011f\u0131nda Grek\u00e7e metne kelime kelime ba\u011fl\u0131 kald\u0131klar\u0131 g\u00f6r\u00fcl\u00fcr. Bu y\u00f6nden s\u00f6z konusu \u00e7eviriler, \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd'\u00fcn lafz\u00ee yorumunu desteklemi\u015ftir. Di\u011fer yandan \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd, \u0398\/Theta Kitab\u0131 yorumunda Grek \u015f\u00e2rih \u0130skender Afrodis\u00ee'den etkilenmi\u015ftir. \u0130skender Afrodis\u00ee ile \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd'\u00fcn lafz\u0131 temel alan \u015ferh etme y\u00f6ntemleri benzerdir. Bu bak\u0131mdan \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd'\u00fcn Theta Kitab\u0131 \u015eerhi, onun saf Aristoteles\u00e7i yakla\u015f\u0131m\u0131n\u0131 ortaya koyar","btype":3,"date":"2019","language":"Turkish","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":15,"category_name":"Alexander of Aphrodisias","link":"bib?categories[]=Alexander of Aphrodisias"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5563,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Sirnak University Journal of Divinity Faculty \/ Sirnak \u00dcniversitesi Ilahiyat Fak\u00fcltesi Dergisi","volume":"10","issue":"23","pages":"469-486"}},"sort":[2019]}

La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta, 2019
By: Fernanda Ocampo
Title La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2019
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 36
Issue 3
Pages 659–681
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, Thomas
Author(s) Fernanda Ocampo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the ‘real distinction’ between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich’s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading – critical of that of Avicenna’s –, which “has made school” in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.

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Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis, 2019
By: Ahmad Ahmadi
Title Ibn Sînâ and Ibn Rushd on Essence and Existence: A Critical Analysis
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Ishraq
Volume 9
Pages 13–22
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics, Ontology
Author(s) Ahmad Ahmadi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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A Comparative Study of Some Aspects of the Metaphysics of Aristotle and Ibn Rushd, 1995
By: A. Q. Fazlul Wahid
Title A Comparative Study of Some Aspects of the Metaphysics of Aristotle and Ibn Rushd
Type Article
Language English
Date 1995
Journal Dhaka University Studies: Journal of the Faculty of Arts
Volume 51
Pages 113–126
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) A. Q. Fazlul Wahid
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century, 2015
By: Ali Ghorbani, Fath ali Akbari
Title A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century
Type Article
Language Persian
Date 2015
Journal Comparative Theology
Volume 5
Issue 12
Pages 69-84
Categories Epistemology, Averroism, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Ali Ghorbani , Fath ali Akbari
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

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A essência da matéria prima em Averróis Latino (con una referência a Henrique de Gand), 1996
By: Mário A. Santiago de Carvalho
Title A essência da matéria prima em Averróis Latino (con una referência a Henrique de Gand)
Type Article
Language Portuguese
Date 1996
Pages 197–221
Categories Metaphysics, Latin Averroism
Author(s) Mário A. Santiago de Carvalho
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A propos de fondamental et de l'essentiel dans le commentaire d'Averroès sur la Métaphysique d'Aristote, 1995
By: Laurence Bauloye
Title A propos de fondamental et de l'essentiel dans le commentaire d'Averroès sur la Métaphysique d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 1995
Journal Revue de philosophie ancienne
Volume 13
Pages 225–238
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle
Author(s) Laurence Bauloye
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist, 2015
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 309–318
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The 15th century Jewish Aragonian thinker, Abraham Bibago treats conjunction in his two main works, Derekh Emunah (“The Way of Faith”) and Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In the former, which explicitly interprets Biblical and Talmudic stories along philosophical lines, Bibago promotes a neo-Platonic intellectual emanation schema and boldly asserts that human happiness is attained through conjunction with higher intellects. In the Commentary, which primarily treats Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Averroes’ commentaries on it, Bibago gives an account of conjunction that does not necessarily fit with the intellectual conjunction of Derekh Emunah. Indeed, his remarks in the Commentary are much less decisive about human happiness, suggesting that Bibago qua philosopher is more open minded about the summum bonum than he is qua religious thinker.

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Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica, 2019
By: Adam Takahashi
Title Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 30
Pages 625–654
Categories Albert, Tradition and Reception, Cosmology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Adam Takahashi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Albert the Great on the Subject of Metaphysics and Demonstrating the Existence of God, 1992
By: Timothy B. Noone
Title Albert the Great on the Subject of Metaphysics and Demonstrating the Existence of God
Type Article
Language English
Date 1992
Journal Medieval Philosophy and Theology
Volume 2
Pages 31–52
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Timothy B. Noone
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal The Thomist
Volume 76
Issue 4
Pages 509–550
Categories Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Avicenna, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
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Aristote et Averroës dans le Commentaire de Ferrandus de Hispania sur la 'Métaphysique' d'Aristote, 1980
By: Albert Zimmermann
Title Aristote et Averroës dans le Commentaire de Ferrandus de Hispania sur la 'Métaphysique' d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 1980
Journal Diotima
Volume 8
Pages 159–163
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle
Author(s) Albert Zimmermann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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