Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays, 2019
By: Peter Adamson (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.)
Title Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Categories Logic, Natural Philosophy, Psychology, Metaphysics, Law, Medicine, Ethics
Author(s) Peter Adamson , Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 82
Issue 1
Pages 1–60
Categories Thomas, Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article examines two medieval thinkers – Averroes and Aquinas – on the kind of causation exercised by the agent intellect in 'abstracting' or producing intelligibles from images in the imagination. It argues that abstraction in these thinkers should be interpreted in causal terms, as an act whereby images in the imagination, through the power of the agent intellect, educe their intelligible likeness in a receptive intellect. This Averroean-Thomistic causal approach to abstraction offers an intriguing alternative to the usual approach to abstraction as an epistemological content-sorting. The article also demonstrates the extensive common ground uniting these thinkers’ cognition theories, despite Aquinas’s well-known rejection of Averroes’s theory of separate Intellects.

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Ibn Rushd, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hafīd (Averroes), 2011
By: Taneli Kukkonen
Title Ibn Rushd, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hafīd (Averroes)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Philosophy between 500 and 1500
Pages 494–501
Categories Biography, Surveys, Logic, Psychology, Cosmology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Taneli Kukkonen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (1126–1198 CE) was the most famous and prolific commentator on Aristotle in all of medieval philosophy: 38 works are extant, at all levels of instruction. This concentration on Aristotle was not happenstance, instead, it reflects Averroes’ maturing philosophical outlook. For Averroes, Aristotle’s teaching came to represent the pinnacle of philosophical wisdom, and answers to all the most pressing problems in philosophy were to be found in a thorough and careful exploration of what that teaching truly implied. In the course of Averroes’ deepening investigations into Aristotelian lore, alternative interpretations were advanced and different traditions of thinking carefully laid side by side, producing a field guide to the Peripatetic tradition, as it was known to an Arabic scholar of the classical period. The resulting body of texts represents a high watermark in Aristotelian synthesis and systematization, even if Averroes failed in the end to resolve satisfactorily all the problems that had accumulated over the centuries. In addition to his Aristotelian Commentaries, Explications, and Compendia (which, besides Aristotle, encompassed works by Plato, Galen, Ptolemy, and al-Ġazālī), Averroes wrote smaller, independent essays and questions that explored contested issues in Aristotelian teaching; polemical works that argued the religious innocence and intellectual respectability of Peripatetic philosophy, correctly understood; and medical and legal treatises of solid but unspectacular standing. Averroes’ reputation was made in Latin Scholasticism and in Jewish circles of learning, while in the Arabic world his works fell mostly by the wayside. Today, his name is evoked in the Arabic world as a rallying-point for a rationalist Islam – a fitting legacy, if not always especially well grounded (modern-day Averroists displaying at best a cursory knowledge of the Commentator’s philosophy).

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Averroes' Philosophical Conception of Separate Intellect and God, 2011
By: Richard C. Taylor

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Universal Representation, and the Ontology of Individuation, 2011
By: Gyula Klima (Ed.), Alexander W. Hall (Ed.)
Title Universal Representation, and the Ontology of Individuation
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2011
Publication Place Newcastle upon Tyne
Publisher Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Series Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics
Volume 5
Categories Psychology, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Aquinas, Ockham, Henry of Ghent
Author(s) Gyula Klima , Alexander W. Hall
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
There is broad agreement in the medieval tradition that we conceive things in the world owing to the transmission of intelligible content through various media that culminates in the concept by which something in the world is cognitively present for us. Yet how the intelligible content is transmitted along with the nature of the ultimate object of cognition provoked ceaseless debate. The first three essays in Universal Representation, and the Ontology of Individuation consider these issues as they play out in the metaphysics and natural philosophy of Avicenna, Averroes, Thomas Aquinas, Ockham and others. The last three essays turn to the metaphysical problem of the nature of the principle of individuation. Moderate realists believe in the existence of immanent general natures such as humanity and equinity, whereby individuals are members of diverse natural kinds. Accordingly, moderate realists such as Aquinas, Henry of Ghent and Duns Scotus need to investigate the nature of the individuating principle by which members of one and the same natural kind differ from one another. Nominalists, for their part, need not concern themselves with any principle of individuation as, for them, all reality is individual, there being no immanent universals; but this release comes at the cost of a new set of epistemological problems.

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Intentionality in Medieval Arabic Philosophy, 2010
By: Deborah L. Black
Title Intentionality in Medieval Arabic Philosophy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Quaestio
Volume 10
Pages 65-81
Categories Avicenna, Psychology, Metaphysics, Linguistics
Author(s) Deborah L. Black
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
It has long been a truism of the history of philosophy that intentionality is an invention of the medieval period, and within this standard narrative, the central place of Arabic philosophy has always been acknowledged. Yet there are many misconceptions surrounding the theories of intentionality advanced by the two main Arabic thinkers whose works were available to the West, Avicenna and Averroes. In the first part of this paper I offer an overview of the general accounts of intentionality and intentional being found in the linguistic, psychological, and metaphysical writings of Avicenna and Averroes, and I trace the terminology of “intentions” to a neglected passage from Avicenna’s logic. In the second part of the paper I examine the way that Avicenna and Averroes apply their general theories of intentionality to the realm of sense perception. I offer an explanation of why Avicenna might have chosen to denominate the objects of the internal sense faculty of estimation as “intentions”, and I explore the implications of Averroes’s decision to attribute intentionality to the external senses and the media of perception.

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The Ontological Entailment of Averroes' Understanding of Perception, 2008
By: Alfred L. Ivry
Title The Ontological Entailment of Averroes' Understanding of Perception
Type Book Section
Language undefined
Date 2008
Published in Theories of Perception in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy
Pages 73–86
Categories Metaphysics, Psychology
Author(s) Alfred L. Ivry
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 82
Issue 1
Pages 1–60
Categories Thomas, Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article examines two medieval thinkers – Averroes and Aquinas – on the kind of causation exercised by the agent intellect in 'abstracting' or producing intelligibles from images in the imagination. It argues that abstraction in these thinkers should be interpreted in causal terms, as an act whereby images in the imagination, through the power of the agent intellect, educe their intelligible likeness in a receptive intellect. This Averroean-Thomistic causal approach to abstraction offers an intriguing alternative to the usual approach to abstraction as an epistemological content-sorting. The article also demonstrates the extensive common ground uniting these thinkers’ cognition theories, despite Aquinas’s well-known rejection of Averroes’s theory of separate Intellects.

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Averroes' Philosophical Conception of Separate Intellect and God, 2011
By: Richard C. Taylor

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Ibn Rushd, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hafīd (Averroes), 2011
By: Taneli Kukkonen
Title Ibn Rushd, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hafīd (Averroes)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Philosophy between 500 and 1500
Pages 494–501
Categories Biography, Surveys, Logic, Psychology, Cosmology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Taneli Kukkonen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (1126–1198 CE) was the most famous and prolific commentator on Aristotle in all of medieval philosophy: 38 works are extant, at all levels of instruction. This concentration on Aristotle was not happenstance, instead, it reflects Averroes’ maturing philosophical outlook. For Averroes, Aristotle’s teaching came to represent the pinnacle of philosophical wisdom, and answers to all the most pressing problems in philosophy were to be found in a thorough and careful exploration of what that teaching truly implied. In the course of Averroes’ deepening investigations into Aristotelian lore, alternative interpretations were advanced and different traditions of thinking carefully laid side by side, producing a field guide to the Peripatetic tradition, as it was known to an Arabic scholar of the classical period. The resulting body of texts represents a high watermark in Aristotelian synthesis and systematization, even if Averroes failed in the end to resolve satisfactorily all the problems that had accumulated over the centuries. In addition to his Aristotelian Commentaries, Explications, and Compendia (which, besides Aristotle, encompassed works by Plato, Galen, Ptolemy, and al-Ġazālī), Averroes wrote smaller, independent essays and questions that explored contested issues in Aristotelian teaching; polemical works that argued the religious innocence and intellectual respectability of Peripatetic philosophy, correctly understood; and medical and legal treatises of solid but unspectacular standing. Averroes’ reputation was made in Latin Scholasticism and in Jewish circles of learning, while in the Arabic world his works fell mostly by the wayside. Today, his name is evoked in the Arabic world as a rallying-point for a rationalist Islam – a fitting legacy, if not always especially well grounded (modern-day Averroists displaying at best a cursory knowledge of the Commentator’s philosophy).

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Intentionality in Medieval Arabic Philosophy, 2010
By: Deborah L. Black
Title Intentionality in Medieval Arabic Philosophy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Quaestio
Volume 10
Pages 65-81
Categories Avicenna, Psychology, Metaphysics, Linguistics
Author(s) Deborah L. Black
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
It has long been a truism of the history of philosophy that intentionality is an invention of the medieval period, and within this standard narrative, the central place of Arabic philosophy has always been acknowledged. Yet there are many misconceptions surrounding the theories of intentionality advanced by the two main Arabic thinkers whose works were available to the West, Avicenna and Averroes. In the first part of this paper I offer an overview of the general accounts of intentionality and intentional being found in the linguistic, psychological, and metaphysical writings of Avicenna and Averroes, and I trace the terminology of “intentions” to a neglected passage from Avicenna’s logic. In the second part of the paper I examine the way that Avicenna and Averroes apply their general theories of intentionality to the realm of sense perception. I offer an explanation of why Avicenna might have chosen to denominate the objects of the internal sense faculty of estimation as “intentions”, and I explore the implications of Averroes’s decision to attribute intentionality to the external senses and the media of perception.

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Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays, 2019
By: Peter Adamson (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.)
Title Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Categories Logic, Natural Philosophy, Psychology, Metaphysics, Law, Medicine, Ethics
Author(s) Peter Adamson , Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Ontological Entailment of Averroes' Understanding of Perception, 2008
By: Alfred L. Ivry
Title The Ontological Entailment of Averroes' Understanding of Perception
Type Book Section
Language undefined
Date 2008
Published in Theories of Perception in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy
Pages 73–86
Categories Metaphysics, Psychology
Author(s) Alfred L. Ivry
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Universal Representation, and the Ontology of Individuation, 2011
By: Gyula Klima (Ed.), Alexander W. Hall (Ed.)
Title Universal Representation, and the Ontology of Individuation
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2011
Publication Place Newcastle upon Tyne
Publisher Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Series Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics
Volume 5
Categories Psychology, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Aquinas, Ockham, Henry of Ghent
Author(s) Gyula Klima , Alexander W. Hall
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
There is broad agreement in the medieval tradition that we conceive things in the world owing to the transmission of intelligible content through various media that culminates in the concept by which something in the world is cognitively present for us. Yet how the intelligible content is transmitted along with the nature of the ultimate object of cognition provoked ceaseless debate. The first three essays in Universal Representation, and the Ontology of Individuation consider these issues as they play out in the metaphysics and natural philosophy of Avicenna, Averroes, Thomas Aquinas, Ockham and others. The last three essays turn to the metaphysical problem of the nature of the principle of individuation. Moderate realists believe in the existence of immanent general natures such as humanity and equinity, whereby individuals are members of diverse natural kinds. Accordingly, moderate realists such as Aquinas, Henry of Ghent and Duns Scotus need to investigate the nature of the individuating principle by which members of one and the same natural kind differ from one another. Nominalists, for their part, need not concern themselves with any principle of individuation as, for them, all reality is individual, there being no immanent universals; but this release comes at the cost of a new set of epistemological problems.

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