Sources et origines de la théorie de l’intellect d’Averroès (II), 2021
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title Sources et origines de la théorie de l’intellect d’Averroès (II)
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 135–232
Categories Psychology, Tradition and Reception, Influence, De anima
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Cette contribution constitue la deuxième partie de la publication, avec quelques mises à jour et aménagements, d’une thèse de doctorat soutenue sous le même intitulé à l’École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris, en décembre 2009 et dont la première partie a été publiée dans les MUSJ 66 (2015-2016). L’auteur entend, selon une perspective strictement historique, déterminer les sources sur lesquelles s’est appuyé, entre les années cinquante et soixante du xiie siècle (première période de son travail philosophique), Averroès (Ibn Rušd, m. 1198) pour concevoir sa théorie de l’âme et de l’intellect, en référence aux sources péripatéticiennes auxquelles il pouvait avoir accès de son temps. Pour celui qui vaut dans la tradition philosophique comme le « Commentateur » d’Aristote par excellence, il peut paraître étonnant qu’Averroès n’ait eu d’emblée accès qu’à des sources indirectes relatives à la théorie de l’âme du Stagirite, mais ce fut pourtant le cas, comme l’auteur le montre ici. On voit en effet que la doctrine de l’âme exposée par Averroès est essentiellement structurée par l’enseignement d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise et par son De anima. L’aristotélisme d’Averroès apparaît de ce point de vue comme un aristotélisme sans Aristote, et ceci allait refluer de manière décisive sur l’exégèse d’Averroès une fois qu’il se serait emparé de l’écrit du Stagirite, notamment et surtout pour expliquer les chapitres 4 et 5 du livre III du De anima (sur l’intellect en puissance et l’intellect agent).

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Pietro Pomponazzi, Averroes, and the Accusation of Imposture, 2021
By: Craig Martin
Title Pietro Pomponazzi, Averroes, and the Accusation of Imposture
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 93–103
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Psychology, Ethics
Author(s) Craig Martin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Les spécialistes ont longtemps accusé Pietro Pomponazzi d’utiliser la duperie comme une technique pour échapper à la censure de l’Église au sujet de ses thèses sur la mortalité de l’âme et le fondement matériel de la religion. Un examen conjoint du De immortalitate animae et du De incantationibus témoigne non pas d’une promotion de la duperie mais plutôt d’une cohérence entre sa compréhension de l’utilisation politique des fables et des mythes et sa compréhension de l’entendement humain, de l’âme et de la nature de la moralité. Ces thèses dépendent en partie de sa lecture d’Averroès. En particulier, il était d’avis que l’écriture n’était porteuse ni de vérité ni de fausseté au sens strict. Cependant, Pomponazzi s’écarta d’Averroès parce que son rejet de la psychologie était mêlé d’une conception pessimiste de la nature humaine qu’il considérait comme étant éloignée de l’intellection et incapable d’obtenir la vérité.

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’Active Intellect’ in Avempace and Averroës: An Interpretative Issue, 2016
By: Daniel Bučan
Title ’Active Intellect’ in Avempace and Averroës: An Interpretative Issue
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Synthesis Philosophica
Volume 62
Issue 2
Pages 345–358
Categories Ibn Bāǧǧa, De anima, Psychology
Author(s) Daniel Bučan
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This essay is about the understanding of the notion of active intellect in Ibn Bāǧǧa (Avempace) and Ibn Rushd (Averroës). The traditional interpretation of both Avempace’s and Averroës’ concept of active intellect is that they both understand it as the lowest celestial intelligence which is dator formarum, and that man thinks and cognizes intelligibles only by “connecting” with it in a quasi-mystic way; cognition being the active intellect’s granting ideas (formae or concepts) to man’s intellect. The author believes that both in Avempace’s and Averroës’ theory of cognition the notion of active intellect is only the highest function of human intellect, not a celestial entity. Based on such a presumption, as well as on the analysis of his theory, Avempace’s notion of iṭṭiṣāl bi-’aql fa’āl is interpreted not as a kind of mystic “conjunction” or “union” with a separate celestial entity, but as reaching the highest level of man’s intellect function in the continuity of the process of thinking. The same goes for Averroës’ theory, which is quite clearly presented in his Epistle on the Possibility of Conjunction with the Active Intellect, where one can find practically direct confirmation for such an interpretation, because Averroës says that “conjunction with it seems to resemble more the conjunction of form in matter than it does the conjunction of agent with effect. The well-known difference between agent and effect is that the agent is external, but here there is no external agent”, or that active intellect “conjoins with us from the outset by conjunction of in-existence”. The author concludes that the issue of the active intellect in Islamic philosophy is not disambiguous – for different thinkers it was a different concept – only the function of the active intellect is always one and the same: producing ideas.

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On a Possible Argument for Averroes’s Single Separate Intellect, 2016
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title On a Possible Argument for Averroes’s Single Separate Intellect
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy
Volume 4
Pages 27–63
Categories De anima, Psychology
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Pensée, dénomination extrinsèque et changement chez Averroès. Une lecture d’Aristote, Physique, VII, 3, 2015
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Pensée, dénomination extrinsèque et changement chez Averroès. Une lecture d’Aristote, Physique, VII, 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2015
Journal Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge
Volume 82
Pages 23–43
Categories Aristotle, Physics, Psychology
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi, 2015
By: Davoud Zandi
Title A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Journal of Islamic Studies and Culture
Volume 3
Issue 2
Pages 39-41
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Davoud Zandi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The relationship between the material intellect and the active intellect is an important issue in the realm of epistemology in Islamic philosophy. The aim of the present study is to compare the views of Averroes and Al-Farabi in this regard. Reviewing their theories, this study shows that both the mentioned philosophers agree upon the fact that the Active Intellect exists apart from human soul and acts as a creator of forms, but as for the relationship between the Material Intellect and the Active Intellect, there is disagreement between Averroes and Al-Farabi. Averroes believes that in some aspects both of them are the same yet they are different in some other aspects, namely regarding their acts they are different because the active intellect acts as creator of forms while the material intellect is just receiver of the forms. Nevertheless, they are the same, since the material intellect achieves perfection through the active intellect, whereas in Al-Farabi’s opinion, ontologically speaking; the material intellect and the active intellect are different in their existence. The material intellect in al-Farabi’s perspective is one of the stages of human intellect that is inherent in human soul, whereas the active intellect is an immaterial substance that exists apart from human soul.

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Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 82
Issue 1
Pages 1–60
Categories Thomas, Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article examines two medieval thinkers – Averroes and Aquinas – on the kind of causation exercised by the agent intellect in 'abstracting' or producing intelligibles from images in the imagination. It argues that abstraction in these thinkers should be interpreted in causal terms, as an act whereby images in the imagination, through the power of the agent intellect, educe their intelligible likeness in a receptive intellect. This Averroean-Thomistic causal approach to abstraction offers an intriguing alternative to the usual approach to abstraction as an epistemological content-sorting. The article also demonstrates the extensive common ground uniting these thinkers’ cognition theories, despite Aquinas’s well-known rejection of Averroes’s theory of separate Intellects.

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Sources et origines de la théroie de l’intellect d’Averroès (I), 2014
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title Sources et origines de la théroie de l’intellect d’Averroès (I)
Type Article
Language French
Date 2014
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 66
Issue 2014-2015
Pages 181–302
Categories Psychology, Tradition and Reception, Influence, De anima
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Pierre Bayle et la critique d’Averroès à Coimbra. Deux épisodes de la réception d’Averroès, 2013
By: Mário Santiago de Carvalho
Title Pierre Bayle et la critique d’Averroès à Coimbra. Deux épisodes de la réception d’Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Revista Filosófica de Coimbra
Volume 22
Issue 44
Pages 417–432
Categories De anima, Commentary, Psychology
Author(s) Mário Santiago de Carvalho
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on the Ontology of the Human Soul, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes on the Ontology of the Human Soul
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 102
Issue 3–4
Pages 580–596
Categories Ontology, Psychology
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"... set hominem anima". Thomas d'Aquin et la pensée humaine comme acte du composé , 2006
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title "... set hominem anima". Thomas d'Aquin et la pensée humaine comme acte du composé
Type Article
Language French
Date 2006
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 59
Pages 69–96
Categories Psychology, Thomas
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi, 2015
By: Davoud Zandi
Title A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Journal of Islamic Studies and Culture
Volume 3
Issue 2
Pages 39-41
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Davoud Zandi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The relationship between the material intellect and the active intellect is an important issue in the realm of epistemology in Islamic philosophy. The aim of the present study is to compare the views of Averroes and Al-Farabi in this regard. Reviewing their theories, this study shows that both the mentioned philosophers agree upon the fact that the Active Intellect exists apart from human soul and acts as a creator of forms, but as for the relationship between the Material Intellect and the Active Intellect, there is disagreement between Averroes and Al-Farabi. Averroes believes that in some aspects both of them are the same yet they are different in some other aspects, namely regarding their acts they are different because the active intellect acts as creator of forms while the material intellect is just receiver of the forms. Nevertheless, they are the same, since the material intellect achieves perfection through the active intellect, whereas in Al-Farabi’s opinion, ontologically speaking; the material intellect and the active intellect are different in their existence. The material intellect in al-Farabi’s perspective is one of the stages of human intellect that is inherent in human soul, whereas the active intellect is an immaterial substance that exists apart from human soul.

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Abstraction in al-Fārābī, 2006
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Abstraction in al-Fārābī
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association
Volume 80
Pages 151–168
Categories Psychology
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach, 2006
By: David Bloch
Title Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin (Université de Copenhague)
Volume 77
Pages 127–146
Categories Psychology, Natural Philosophy, Aristotle
Author(s) David Bloch
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 82
Issue 1
Pages 1–60
Categories Thomas, Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article examines two medieval thinkers – Averroes and Aquinas – on the kind of causation exercised by the agent intellect in 'abstracting' or producing intelligibles from images in the imagination. It argues that abstraction in these thinkers should be interpreted in causal terms, as an act whereby images in the imagination, through the power of the agent intellect, educe their intelligible likeness in a receptive intellect. This Averroean-Thomistic causal approach to abstraction offers an intriguing alternative to the usual approach to abstraction as an epistemological content-sorting. The article also demonstrates the extensive common ground uniting these thinkers’ cognition theories, despite Aquinas’s well-known rejection of Averroes’s theory of separate Intellects.

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Averroes on the Ontology of the Human Soul, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes on the Ontology of the Human Soul
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 102
Issue 3–4
Pages 580–596
Categories Ontology, Psychology
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes, Tafsîr del De Anima: sobre el intelecto, 2003
By: Averroes,
Title Averroes, Tafsîr del De Anima: sobre el intelecto
Type Article
Language undefined
Date 2003
Journal Endoxa
Volume 17
Pages 9–61
Categories Psychology
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Andrés Martínez Lorca

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Averroes, Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome on How this Man Understands, 2007
By: Brian Francis Conolly
Title Averroes, Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome on How this Man Understands
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Vivarium
Volume 45
Pages 69–92
Categories Psychology, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Brian Francis Conolly
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes, sobre las facultades locomotriz y desiderativa en al Taljîs del De Anima, 2008
By: Carmen Makki, Carmen Makki, Andrés Martínez Lorca
Title Averroes, sobre las facultades locomotriz y desiderativa en al Taljîs del De Anima
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2008
Journal La Ciudad de Dios
Volume 221
Issue 1
Pages 201–221
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Carmen Makki , Carmen Makki , Andrés Martínez Lorca
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroès a-t-il inventé une théorie des deux sujets de la pensée, 2005
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès a-t-il inventé une théorie des deux sujets de la pensée
Type Article
Language French
Date 2005
Journal Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía
Volume 29
Pages 53–86
Categories Psychology
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to Thomas Aquinas, Averroes's philosophy of the mind is characterized by the doctrine of the "double subject", which is found in his Long Commentary on the De anima. As it is well-known, Averroes asserts that the intelligibles in act or theoretical intelligibles may be said to have two subjects (duo subiecta): the material intellect and the image of the cogitative power, whose connection allows individual human beings to think. We try here to know if it is properly a "theory" produced by Averroes. By analysing all the texts dealing with it, we both intend to justify the use of the term "subiectum" applied to the image and to show that the expression "duo subiecta", equivocal from a lexical point of view, is totally clear from a conceptual one. The doctrine of the double subject is certainly a thesis of Averroes consequent with his latter stage of his philosophy and his new teaching on the material intellect, but it is not, contrary to the interpretation of his Latin opponents, the doctrine of the two "substrates" which would make man the second place of the intelligible in act.

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