Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press.
Categories Theology, Politics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this book, Rasoul Namazi offers the first in-depth study of Leo Strauss' writings on Islamic political thought, a topic that interested Strauss over the course of his career. Namazi's volume focuses on several important studies by Strauss on Islamic thought. He critically analyzes Strauss's notes on Averroes' commentary on Plato's Republic and also proposes an interpretation of Strauss' theologico-political notes on the Arabian Nights. Namazi also interprets Strauss' essay on Alfarabi's enigmatic treatise, The Philosophy of Plato and provides a detailed commentary on his complex essay devoted to Alfarabi's summary of Plato's Laws. Based on previously unpublished material from Strauss' papers, Namazi's volume provides new insights into Strauss' reflections on religion, philosophy, and politics, and their relationship to wisdom, persecution, divine law, and unbelief in the works of key Muslim thinkers. His work presents Strauss as one of the most innovative historians and scholars of Islamic thought of all time.

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An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

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هل كتب ابن رشد شق بعنوانة “الضميمة“؟ ملا حظات نقدية حول غموض عمّر أكثر من قرن و نصف, 2021
By: Fouad Ben Ahmed
Title هل كتب ابن رشد شق بعنوانة “الضميمة“؟ ملا حظات نقدية حول غموض عمّر أكثر من قرن و نصف
Translation Hat Ibn Rusd ein Werk mit dem Titel "Damīna" geschrieben? Kritische Anmerkungen um ein Geheimnis, das mehr als ein und ein halbes Jahrhundert dauert
Type Article
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Journal Philosophy and Sciences in Islamic Contexts
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Transmission
Author(s) Fouad Ben Ahmed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this study, I examine the “identities” that a short work by the Andalusian philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes, d. 595/1198), in which he deals with the question of “Does God know particulars?” has accumulated throughout its history. This work, which is usually published as an appendix to the Faṣl almaqāl (Decisive Treatises), is known in modern times under several names, including an Appendix on Divine Knowledge, or the Appendix or Dhayl to the Faṣl al-Maqal, or simply Ḍamīma or the Epistle Dedicatory entitled the Ḍamīma. This makes one wonder: did Ibn Rushd really write a work with this title? In order to answer this straightforward question and to identify the origin of the problem, I tried to return to the indexes, catalogs, historical and biographical works in which data of this work appeared, as well as to its unique manuscript (Escorial: 632). This survey helped us to clarify the forms of ambiguity that surrounded its title, since its first publication in the middle of the nineteenth century until today. My aim is to show that this work, unlike most of Ibn Rushd's works, is not supposed to have a specific title, as it was an answer to a question put to Ibn Rushd; which means that what has been mentioned in the index of Ibn Rushd's works (Escorial: 884) remains most relevant and closest to the identity of this short text.

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Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis, 2021
By: Arthur Klik
Title Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis
Translation Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes’ Fasl al-maqal
Type Article
Language Portuguese
Date 2021
Journal DoisPontos
Volume 18
Issue 1
Pages 113-132
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Arthur Klik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averróis, se destaca por seu caráter polêmico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jurídico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei islâmica, ao verificar qual é a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cenário em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em questão, o diagnóstico e a solução propostos por Averróis se destacam ao apresentar uma interpretação singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necessário para a saúde da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpretação, na qual três pontos se colocam na consideração da relação entre filosofia e revelação: o (1) asseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manutenção do bem-estar geral junto à (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um intérprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes não filósofos An original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of common welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5560","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5560,"authors_free":[{"id":6454,"entry_id":5560,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Arthur Klik","free_first_name":"Arthur ","free_last_name":"Klik","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averr\u00f3is","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019 Fasl al-maqal","main_title":{"title":"Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averr\u00f3is"},"abstract":"O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averr\u00f3is, se destaca por seu car\u00e1ter pol\u00eamico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jur\u00eddico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei isl\u00e2mica, ao verificar qual \u00e9 a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cen\u00e1rio em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em quest\u00e3o, o diagn\u00f3stico e a solu\u00e7\u00e3o propostos por Averr\u00f3is se destacam ao apresentar uma interpreta\u00e7\u00e3o singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necess\u00e1rio para a sa\u00fade da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpreta\u00e7\u00e3o, na qual tr\u00eas pontos se colocam na considera\u00e7\u00e3o da rela\u00e7\u00e3o entre filosofia e revela\u00e7\u00e3o: o (1) \r\nasseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manuten\u00e7\u00e3o do bem-estar geral junto \u00e0 (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um int\u00e9rprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes n\u00e3o fil\u00f3sofos \r\n\r\nAn original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of \r\ncommon welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Portuguese","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5560,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"DoisPontos","volume":"18","issue":"1","pages":"113-132"}},"sort":[2021]}

Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5566","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5566,"authors_free":[{"id":6460,"entry_id":5566,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Saja Parvizian","free_first_name":"Saja ","free_last_name":"Parvizian","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averro\u00ebs' Takfir of al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b: Ta'w\u012bl and Causal Kufr","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averro\u00ebs' Takfir of al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b: Ta'w\u012bl and Causal Kufr"},"abstract":"Al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fa\u0304ra\u0304bi\u0304 and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroe\u0308s claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fa\u0304ra\u0304bi\u0304 and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroe\u0308s\u2019 legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroe\u0308s\u2019 argument is that al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people\u2019s unbelief, al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 is an unbeliever as well.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.35632\/ajis.v38i1-2.735","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":14,"category_name":"al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5566,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"American journal of Islam and society","volume":"38","issue":"1\/2","pages":"60-92"}},"sort":[2021]}

La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?, 2021
By: Mounia Aît Kabboura
Title La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de théologie
Volume 73
Issue 1-2
Pages 177-196
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Mounia Aît Kabboura
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maqâl' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tahâfut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5570","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5570,"authors_free":[{"id":6464,"entry_id":5570,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mounia A\u00eet Kabboura","free_first_name":"Mounia A\u00eet","free_last_name":"Kabboura","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"La v\u00e9rit\u00e9 dans l'\u00e9pist\u00e9m\u00e8 islamique post-averroecien. La th\u00e9orie de la v\u00e9rit\u00e9 chez Averro\u00e8s pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"La v\u00e9rit\u00e9 dans l'\u00e9pist\u00e9m\u00e8 islamique post-averroecien. La th\u00e9orie de la v\u00e9rit\u00e9 chez Averro\u00e8s pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?"},"abstract":"Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maq\u00e2l' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tah\u00e2fut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5570,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de th\u00e9ologie","volume":"73","issue":" 1-2","pages":"177-196"}},"sort":[2021]}

Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant, 2021
By: Ali Benmakhlouf
Title Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 83–92
Categories Aristotle, Tradition and Reception, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Ali Benmakhlouf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
La théorie de la « double-vérité » fut un immense contresens apposé par Thomas d’Aquin sur l’oeuvre d’Averroès dans laquelle elle ne se trouve pas. Le présent article déplace les enjeux vers la notion de validité en explorant la double stratégie qui se met en place chez Averroès : 1) montrer que la sagesse (ḥikma) dont parle le Coran est la philosophie la plus haute, celle qui fait usage de la démonstration ; 2) promouvoir la démonstration comme outil de validité du savoir. L’auteur rappelle le moment inaugural d’al-Kindī, qui met en place la démarche scientifique et s’intéresse donc à la validité et à la forme des arguments, avant de se concentrer sur Averroès et la mise en cohérence du vrai et du valide qui s’opère dans le Discours Décisif. L’article s’achève sur les prolongements de la question de la validité à la Renaissance.

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الفلسفة والدين ؟ : النفري، ابن رشد، القرآن والتأويل المحايث، فكر الاجتهاد‬, 2021
By: Mustafa Alkilani
Title الفلسفة والدين ؟ : النفري، ابن رشد، القرآن والتأويل المحايث، فكر الاجتهاد‬
Transcription al-falsafa wa al-dīn?: al-Niffarī, Ibn Rushd, al-Qur'ān wa al-tāwīl al-muḥāyth, fikr al-ijtihād
Translation Philosophy and religion?: al-Niffarī, Ibn Rushd, the Qur'ān and the immament interpretation, idea of effort
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Susa
Publisher dār lūghūs li al-nashr
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Mustafa Alkilani
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu, 2021
By: Rafiz Manafov, Adem Akman
Title Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu
Translation The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
Volume 9 (İDEKTA)
Pages 131-139
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafiz Manafov , Adem Akman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
İbn Rüşd İslam düşüncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi düşüncenin gerilemeye yüz tuttuğu bir dönemin filozofudur. O, felsefi açıdan dinin konumunu gerekli gördüğü kadar, din açısından da felsefenin kaçınılmazlığına inanır. Çalışmamızın özünü ve amacını İbn Rüşd’ün felsefesindeki temel kavram ve düşünceler oluşturmaktadır. Makalede felsefenin İbn Rüşd açısından akli zorunluluk ve dinsel meşruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün felsefe savunusunun özellikleri ortaya konmakta ve önemi vurgulanmaktadır. Averroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes’ defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.

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A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes, 2007
By: Thérèse Bonin
Title A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Peripatetikos
Volume 6
Pages 1-25
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Thérèse Bonin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu, 2021
By: Rafiz Manafov, Adem Akman
Title Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu
Translation The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
Volume 9 (İDEKTA)
Pages 131-139
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafiz Manafov , Adem Akman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
İbn Rüşd İslam düşüncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi düşüncenin gerilemeye yüz tuttuğu bir dönemin filozofudur. O, felsefi açıdan dinin konumunu gerekli gördüğü kadar, din açısından da felsefenin kaçınılmazlığına inanır. Çalışmamızın özünü ve amacını İbn Rüşd’ün felsefesindeki temel kavram ve düşünceler oluşturmaktadır. Makalede felsefenin İbn Rüşd açısından akli zorunluluk ve dinsel meşruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün felsefe savunusunun özellikleri ortaya konmakta ve önemi vurgulanmaktadır. Averroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes’ defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.

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Al-Miklātī, a Twelfth Century Aš’arite Reader of Averroes, 2012
By: Yamina Adouhane, Yamina Adouhane
Title Al-Miklātī, a Twelfth Century Aš’arite Reader of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 22
Issue 2
Pages 155–197
Categories Proceedings, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, al-Ġazālī
Author(s) Yamina Adouhane , Yamina Adouhane
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of this article is to present a new witness of Averroes' reception in the Muslim world, in the years that immediately followed his death. Indeed Abū al-Ḥağğāğ al-Miklātī (d. 1237) is an Ašʿarite theologian, who was born in Fez. He is the author of a Quintessence of the Intellects in Response to Philosophers on the Science of Principles in which he aims at refuting the Peripatetic philosophers in their own field, using their own weapons. This article will first attempt to draw the portrait of this atypical theologian. It will then focus on showing that al-Miklātī – although he never mentions his name – is a reader of Averroes and in particular, of his Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, of which he makes various and unexpected uses. A close look at these uses will enable us to better define the nature of al-Miklātī's work. More importantly, this article will try to prove that al-Miklātī provides us with a key passage of Averroes' lost treatise On the Prime Mover. At the heart of the Rushdian criticism of Avicenna's “metaphysical” proof, this passage should throw new light on Averroes' precise understanding of this proof.

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Allegorical Interpretation of the Role of Philosophy in the Discourse of Philo and Ibn Rushd, 2012
By: Shuhaimi M. Bin Haji Ishak
Title Allegorical Interpretation of the Role of Philosophy in the Discourse of Philo and Ibn Rushd
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal Al-Masāq
Volume 24
Issue 3
Pages 253–264
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Shuhaimi M. Bin Haji Ishak
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Instead of dismissing traditional mythology and poetry as heresies, Greek philosophy introduced a methodology of understanding known as allegory. Philo of Alexandria (20 BC-50 AD) was one of the first to employ allegory for understanding religious scriptures whose writings survived in the Christian traditions. In the Arab world, the philosopher Ibn Rushd (520-595/1126-1198) initiated the same method of commentary with his demonstration of the essential harmony between philosophy properly understood and scripture properly interpreted. This essay posits that Greek philosophy laid down a common tool for understanding the scriptures that exist in the Christian and Muslim traditions.

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An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5354","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5354,"authors_free":[{"id":6205,"entry_id":5354,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1741,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Karen Taliaferro","free_first_name":"Karen","free_last_name":"Taliaferro","norm_person":{"id":1741,"first_name":"Karen","last_name":"Taliaferro","full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1021039934","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Karen Taliaferro"}}],"entry_title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"\u201cOf what use,\u201d Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d \u201cis this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a shar\u012b\u02bfa?\u201d In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis, 2021
By: Arthur Klik
Title Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis
Translation Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes’ Fasl al-maqal
Type Article
Language Portuguese
Date 2021
Journal DoisPontos
Volume 18
Issue 1
Pages 113-132
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Arthur Klik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averróis, se destaca por seu caráter polêmico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jurídico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei islâmica, ao verificar qual é a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cenário em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em questão, o diagnóstico e a solução propostos por Averróis se destacam ao apresentar uma interpretação singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necessário para a saúde da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpretação, na qual três pontos se colocam na consideração da relação entre filosofia e revelação: o (1) asseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manutenção do bem-estar geral junto à (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um intérprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes não filósofos An original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of common welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Averroes and Hegel on Philosophy and Religion, 2013
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes and Hegel on Philosophy and Religion
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2013
Publication Place Farnham
Publisher Ashgate
Series Ashgate New Critical Thinking in Religion, Theology and Biblical Studies
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Comparing Averroes’ and Hegel’s positions on the relation between philosophy and religion, this book explores the theme of the authorities of faith and reason, and the origin of truth, in a medieval Islamic and a modern Christian context respectively. Through an in-depth analysis of Averroes’ and Hegel’s parallel views on the nature of philosophical and religious discourse, Belo presents new insights into their perspectives on the relation between philosophical knowledge and religious knowledge, and the differences between philosophy and religion. In addition, Belo explores particular works which have not yet been studied by modern scholarship.

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Averroes on the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy. A translation with introduction and notes, 1961
By: Averroes,
Title Averroes on the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy. A translation with introduction and notes
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 1961
Publication Place London
Publisher Luzac
Series E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series
Volume XXI
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) George F. Hourani

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Averroes y su lectura del Corán, 2010
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Averroes y su lectura del Corán
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 2010
Published in El pensamiento politico en la Edad Media
Pages 611–618
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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