La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Rima Pavalko
Title The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in La lumière de l'intellect. La pensée scientifique et philosophique d'Averroès dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Société internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9–12 décembre 1998
Pages 487–492
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Rima Pavalko
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook
Pages 123–140
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Charles E. Butterworth

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2010
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions
Pages 289–304
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) George F. Hourani

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Die entscheidende Abhandlung und die Urteilsfällung über das Verhältnis von Gesetz und Philosophie. Arabisch-deutsch. Mit einer Einleitung und kommentierdenden Anmerkungen, 2009
By: Averroes,
Title Die entscheidende Abhandlung und die Urteilsfällung über das Verhältnis von Gesetz und Philosophie. Arabisch-deutsch. Mit einer Einleitung und kommentierdenden Anmerkungen
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2009
Publication Place Hamburg
Publisher Meiner
Series Philosophische Bibliothek
Volume 600
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Franz Schupp

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A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes, 2007
By: Thérèse Bonin
Title A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Peripatetikos
Volume 6
Pages 1-25
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Thérèse Bonin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh, 2006
By: Delfina Serrano Ruano, Delfina Serrano Ruano
Title Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Der Islam
Volume 83
Pages 137–156
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Delfina Serrano Ruano , Delfina Serrano Ruano
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord", 2006
By: Averroes,
Title Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord"
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2006
Publication Place Kampen
Publisher Klement
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Remke Kruk

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2005
By: Averroes
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2005
Published in Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology
Pages 309–330
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2010
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions
Pages 289–304
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) George F. Hourani

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The Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook
Pages 123–140
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Charles E. Butterworth

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The Decisive Treatise: The Connection Between Islamic Religious Law and Philosophy, 2017
By: Averroes, Massimo Campanini (Ed.)
Title The Decisive Treatise: The Connection Between Islamic Religious Law and Philosophy
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2017
Publication Place Piscataway, NJ
Publisher Gorgias Press
Series Gorgias Islamic Studies
Volume 7
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Averroes , Massimo Campanini
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Massimo Campanini
The Decisive Treatise is perhaps the most controversial work of Averroes (Ibn Rushd, 1126-1198) and belongs to a trilogy which boldly represent the philosophical contribution to Islamic theology of this famous Andalusian commentator on Aristotle. The Decisive Treatise is a fatwa (a legal opinion) that the judge, Averroes, promulgated for his fellow Malikite jurists in order to demonstrate that the study of philosophy is not only licit from the point of view of religious law, but even mandatory for the skilled people. However, many subjects are dealt with in this comparatively short book: An epistemology aimed to show that philosophical truth and religious truth are not in contradiction; a sociology of knowledge pointing out that humans are classified in three classes (philosophers, theologians, common folk); a Qur’anic hermeneutics suggesting how to approach philosophically the Holy Book in agreement with religious requirements and linguistic rules.

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The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Rima Pavalko
Title The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in La lumière de l'intellect. La pensée scientifique et philosophique d'Averroès dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Société internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9–12 décembre 1998
Pages 487–492
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Rima Pavalko
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy, 2016
By: Khaled El-Rouayheb (Ed.), Sabine Schmidtke (Ed.)
Title The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2016
Publication Place New York, NY
Publisher Oxford University Press
Series Oxford handbooks
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Metaphysics, Law, Logic
Author(s) Khaled El-Rouayheb , Sabine Schmidtke
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The study of Islamic philosophy has recently entered a new and exciting phase. Both the received canon of Islamic philosophers and the grand narrative of the course of Islamic philosophy are in the process of being radically questioned and revised. The bulk of twentieth-century Western scholarship on Arabic or Islamic philosophy focused on the period from the ninth century to the twelfth. It is a measure of the transformation that is currently underway in the field that the present Handbook gives roughly equal weight to every century from the ninth to the twentieth. The Handbook differs from previous overviews in another significant way: It is work-centered rather than person- or theme-centered. This format is intended to give readers a better sense of what a work in Islamic philosophy looks like, and of the issues, concepts, and arguments that are at play in works belonging to various periods and subfields within Islamic philosophy.

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The Possibility of Religious Freedom: Early Natural Law and the Abrahamic Faiths, 2019
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title The Possibility of Religious Freedom: Early Natural Law and the Abrahamic Faiths
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Series Law and Christianity
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Religious freedom is one of the most debated and controversial human rights in contemporary public discourse. At once a universally held human right and a flash point in the political sphere, religious freedom has resisted scholarly efforts to define its parameters. Taliaferro explores a different way of examining the tensions between the aims of religion and the needs of political communities, arguing that religious freedom is a uniquely difficult human right to uphold because it rests on two competing conceptions, human and divine. Drawing on classical natural law, Taliaferro expounds a new, practical theory of religious freedom for the modern world. By examining conceptions of law such as Sophocles' Antigone, Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed, Ibn Rushd's Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and Tertullian's writings, The Possibility of Religious Freedom explains how expanding our notion of law to incorporate such theories can mediate conflicts of human and divine law and provide a solid foundation for religious liberty in modernity's pluralism.

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