Category
Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press.
Categories Theology, Politics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this book, Rasoul Namazi offers the first in-depth study of Leo Strauss' writings on Islamic political thought, a topic that interested Strauss over the course of his career. Namazi's volume focuses on several important studies by Strauss on Islamic thought. He critically analyzes Strauss's notes on Averroes' commentary on Plato's Republic and also proposes an interpretation of Strauss' theologico-political notes on the Arabian Nights. Namazi also interprets Strauss' essay on Alfarabi's enigmatic treatise, The Philosophy of Plato and provides a detailed commentary on his complex essay devoted to Alfarabi's summary of Plato's Laws. Based on previously unpublished material from Strauss' papers, Namazi's volume provides new insights into Strauss' reflections on religion, philosophy, and politics, and their relationship to wisdom, persecution, divine law, and unbelief in the works of key Muslim thinkers. His work presents Strauss as one of the most innovative historians and scholars of Islamic thought of all time.

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Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin (Ed.)
Title Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2022
Publisher Boydell & Brewer
Categories al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Logic, Theology, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Living in Convivencia: Intertwined Communities of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in Al-Andalus during the Caliphate of Córdoba, 2022
By: Jacob Perkins
Title Living in Convivencia: Intertwined Communities of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in Al-Andalus during the Caliphate of Córdoba
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Series Guilford College Thesis Collection
Categories Surveys, Politics, Theology
Author(s) Jacob Perkins
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

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La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa, 2022
By: Meryem Sebti
Title La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2022
Published in The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding
Pages 327–347
Categories Theology, Epistemology, Cosmology, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Meryem Sebti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called falāsifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ashʿarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all falāsifa: Al-Kindī (after 870), Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (864–925), al-Fārābī (d. 950), Avicenna (980–1037), Ibn Bājja (around 1138), Ibn Ṭufayl (1110–1185) and Averroes (1126–1198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it – for some of them – into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5403","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5403,"authors_free":[{"id":6264,"entry_id":5403,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Meryem Sebti","free_first_name":"Meryem Sebti","free_last_name":"Meryem Sebti","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"La dimension \u00e9thique et politique de la r\u00e9v\u00e9lation proph\u00e9tique chez les fal\u0101sifa","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"La dimension \u00e9thique et politique de la r\u00e9v\u00e9lation proph\u00e9tique chez les fal\u0101sifa"},"abstract":"The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called fal\u0101sifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ash\u02bfarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all fal\u0101sifa: Al-Kind\u012b (after 870), Ab\u016b Bakr al-R\u0101z\u012b (864\u2013925), al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b (d. 950), Avicenna (980\u20131037), Ibn B\u0101jja (around 1138), Ibn \u1e6cufayl (1110\u20131185) and Averroes (1126\u20131198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it \u2013 for some of them \u2013 into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739_014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"},{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5403,"section_of":5402,"pages":"327\u2013347 ","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5402,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding ","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The three-volume series titled The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of the representation of the Prophet Muhammad in the course of Muslim history until the present.\r\nThis first collective volume outlines his figure in the early Islamic tradition, and its later transformations until recent times that were shaped by Prophet-centered piety and politics. A variety of case studies offers a unique overview of the interplay of Sunn\u012b amd Sh\u012b\u02bf\u012b doctrines with literature and arts in the formation of his image. They trace the integrative and conflictual qualities of a \u201cProphetic culture\u201d, in which the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers. ","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739","book":{"id":5402,"pubplace":"Leiden, Boston","publisher":"Brill","series":"Handbook of Oriental studies; Section 1: The Near and Middle East","volume":"159","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6261,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Denis Gril","free_first_name":"Denis","free_last_name":"Gril","norm_person":null},{"id":6262,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Stefan Reichmuth","free_first_name":"Stefan","free_last_name":"Reichmuth","norm_person":null},{"id":6263,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Dilek Sarmis","free_first_name":"Dilek","free_last_name":"Sarmis","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding , 2022
By: Denis Gril (Ed.), Stefan Reichmuth (Ed.), Dilek Sarmis (Ed.)
Title The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2022
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Handbook of Oriental studies; Section 1: The Near and Middle East
Volume 159
Categories Theology, Surveys
Author(s) Denis Gril , Stefan Reichmuth , Dilek Sarmis
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The three-volume series titled The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of the representation of the Prophet Muhammad in the course of Muslim history until the present. This first collective volume outlines his figure in the early Islamic tradition, and its later transformations until recent times that were shaped by Prophet-centered piety and politics. A variety of case studies offers a unique overview of the interplay of Sunnī amd Shīʿī doctrines with literature and arts in the formation of his image. They trace the integrative and conflictual qualities of a “Prophetic culture”, in which the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers.

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Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis, 2021
By: Arthur Klik
Title Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis
Translation Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes’ Fasl al-maqal
Type Article
Language Portuguese
Date 2021
Journal DoisPontos
Volume 18
Issue 1
Pages 113-132
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Arthur Klik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averróis, se destaca por seu caráter polêmico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jurídico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei islâmica, ao verificar qual é a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cenário em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em questão, o diagnóstico e a solução propostos por Averróis se destacam ao apresentar uma interpretação singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necessário para a saúde da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpretação, na qual três pontos se colocam na consideração da relação entre filosofia e revelação: o (1) asseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manutenção do bem-estar geral junto à (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um intérprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes não filósofos An original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of common welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5560","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5560,"authors_free":[{"id":6454,"entry_id":5560,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Arthur Klik","free_first_name":"Arthur ","free_last_name":"Klik","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averr\u00f3is","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019 Fasl al-maqal","main_title":{"title":"Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averr\u00f3is"},"abstract":"O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averr\u00f3is, se destaca por seu car\u00e1ter pol\u00eamico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jur\u00eddico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei isl\u00e2mica, ao verificar qual \u00e9 a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cen\u00e1rio em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em quest\u00e3o, o diagn\u00f3stico e a solu\u00e7\u00e3o propostos por Averr\u00f3is se destacam ao apresentar uma interpreta\u00e7\u00e3o singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necess\u00e1rio para a sa\u00fade da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpreta\u00e7\u00e3o, na qual tr\u00eas pontos se colocam na considera\u00e7\u00e3o da rela\u00e7\u00e3o entre filosofia e revela\u00e7\u00e3o: o (1) \r\nasseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manuten\u00e7\u00e3o do bem-estar geral junto \u00e0 (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um int\u00e9rprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes n\u00e3o fil\u00f3sofos \r\n\r\nAn original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of \r\ncommon welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Portuguese","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5560,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"DoisPontos","volume":"18","issue":"1","pages":"113-132"}},"sort":[2021]}

Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5566","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5566,"authors_free":[{"id":6460,"entry_id":5566,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Saja Parvizian","free_first_name":"Saja ","free_last_name":"Parvizian","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"Averro\u00ebs' Takfir of al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b: Ta'w\u012bl and Causal Kufr","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averro\u00ebs' Takfir of al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b: Ta'w\u012bl and Causal Kufr"},"abstract":"Al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fa\u0304ra\u0304bi\u0304 and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroe\u0308s claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fa\u0304ra\u0304bi\u0304 and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroe\u0308s\u2019 legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroe\u0308s\u2019 argument is that al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people\u2019s unbelief, al-Ghaza\u0304l\u0131\u0304 is an unbeliever as well.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.35632\/ajis.v38i1-2.735","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":14,"category_name":"al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5566,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"American journal of Islam and society","volume":"38","issue":"1\/2","pages":"60-92"}},"sort":[2021]}

الفلسفة والدين ؟ : النفري، ابن رشد، القرآن والتأويل المحايث، فكر الاجتهاد‬, 2021
By: Mustafa Alkilani
Title الفلسفة والدين ؟ : النفري، ابن رشد، القرآن والتأويل المحايث، فكر الاجتهاد‬
Transcription al-falsafa wa al-dīn?: al-Niffarī, Ibn Rushd, al-Qur'ān wa al-tāwīl al-muḥāyth, fikr al-ijtihād
Translation Philosophy and religion?: al-Niffarī, Ibn Rushd, the Qur'ān and the immament interpretation, idea of effort
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Publication Place Susa
Publisher dār lūghūs li al-nashr
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Mustafa Alkilani
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5382","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5382,"authors_free":[{"id":6234,"entry_id":5382,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mustafa Alkilani","free_first_name":"Mustafa","free_last_name":"Alkilani","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646 \u061f : \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0641\u0631\u064a\u060c \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0622\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u0648\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0627\u064a\u062b\u060c \u0641\u0643\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0647\u0627\u062f\u202c","title_transcript":"al-falsafa wa al-d\u012bn?: al-Niffar\u012b, Ibn Rushd, al-Qur'\u0101n wa al-t\u0101w\u012bl al-mu\u1e25\u0101yth, fikr al-ijtih\u0101d","title_translation":"Philosophy and religion?: al-Niffar\u012b, Ibn Rushd, the Qur'\u0101n and the immament interpretation, idea of effort","main_title":{"title":"\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646 \u061f : \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0641\u0631\u064a\u060c \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0622\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u0648\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0627\u064a\u062b\u060c \u0641\u0643\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0647\u0627\u062f\u202c"},"abstract":"","btype":1,"date":"2021","language":"Arabic","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":{"id":5382,"pubplace":"Susa","publisher":"d\u0101r l\u016bgh\u016bs li al-nashr","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"booksection":null,"article":null},"sort":[2021]}

"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century, 2015
By: Ali Ghorbani, Fath ali Akbari
Title A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century
Type Article
Language Persian
Date 2015
Journal Comparative Theology
Volume 5
Issue 12
Pages 69-84
Categories Epistemology, Averroism, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Ali Ghorbani , Fath ali Akbari
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

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A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes, 2007
By: Thérèse Bonin
Title A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Peripatetikos
Volume 6
Pages 1-25
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Thérèse Bonin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Al-Farabi and Ibn Rushd on the Correlation between Philosophy and Religion, 2007
By: Ainur D. Kurmanalieva
Title Al-Farabi and Ibn Rushd on the Correlation between Philosophy and Religion
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Comparative Islamic Studies
Volume 3
Issue 2
Pages 247–253
Categories al-Fārābī, Theology
Author(s) Ainur D. Kurmanalieva
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen? Zum Umgang des Averroes mit dem Koran und seiner Rezeption im zeitgenössischen islamischen Denken, 2010
By: Georg Tamer
Title Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen? Zum Umgang des Averroes mit dem Koran und seiner Rezeption im zeitgenössischen islamischen Denken
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2010
Published in Kritische Religionsgeschichte. Eine Gedenkschrift für Friedrich Niewöhner
Pages 47–83
Categories Theology
Author(s) Georg Tamer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. 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An introduction to classical Islamic philosophy , 2002
By: Oliver Leaman
Title An introduction to classical Islamic philosophy
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2002
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Categories Surveys, Theology
Author(s) Oliver Leaman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Islamic philosophy is a unique and fascinating form of thought, and particular interest lies in its classical (Greek-influenced) period, when many of the ideas of Greek philosophy were used to explore the issues and theoretical problems which arise in trying to understand the Qur'an and Islamic practice. In this revised and expanded 2001 edition of his classic introductory work, Oliver Leaman examines the distinctive features of Classical Islamic philosophy and offers detailed accounts of major individual thinkers. In contrast to many previous studies that have treated this subject as only of historical interest, he offers analysis of the key arguments within Islamic philosophy so that the reader can engage with them and assess their strengths and weaknesses. His book will interest a wide range of readers in philosophy, religious studies and Islamic studies.

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Appropriation, Interpretation and Criticism: Philosophical and Theological Exchanges between the Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Intellectual Traditions, 2017
By: Alexander Fidora (Ed.), Nicola Polloni (Ed.)
Title Appropriation, Interpretation and Criticism: Philosophical and Theological Exchanges between the Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Intellectual Traditions
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2017
Publication Place Barcelona, Roma
Publisher Fédération Internationale des Instituts d'études Médiévales
Series Textes et Études du Moyen Âge
Volume 88
Categories Theology, Influence, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Fidora , Nicola Polloni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Studying different hermeneutical approaches by Christian philosophers and theologians - such as appropriation, interpretation and criticism - to the Arabic and Hebrew intellectual traditions during the Middle Ages, the fourteen articles contained in this volume show how these processes both challenged and shaped the Western philosophical discourse. The contributions in this volume are dedicated to cross-cultural exchanges during the Middle Ages among exponents of the Arabic, Hebrew and Latin philosophical and theological traditions. They draw particular attention to the intellectual approaches which shaped the interplays among these traditions - interplays that were characterized by the contact of various languages being used by people of different religious beliefs in their quest for knowledge: Spanish Jews writing in Arabic, Jews collaborating in the translation of Arabic texts into Latin through the vernacular, Western Muslims whose writings were read mainly by Jews and Christians in Hebrew and Latin, etc. Altogether, the eleven studies contained in this book wish to offer new insights into the rich exchanges of knowledge among communities of learning and their scholarly traditions during the Middle Ages and beyond.

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Aquinas, Ghazali, and Averroes on the Age of the Universe. Response to Massey, 2008
By: Chryssi Sidiropoulou
Title Aquinas, Ghazali, and Averroes on the Age of the Universe. Response to Massey
Type Article
Language English
Date 2008
Journal Divinatio
Volume 28
Pages 171–194
Categories al-Ġazālī, Thomas, Theology, Cosmology
Author(s) Chryssi Sidiropoulou
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Arguments for God's existence in classical Islamic thought: A Reappraisal of the Discourse, 2019
By: Hannah C. Erlwein
Title Arguments for God's existence in classical Islamic thought: A Reappraisal of the Discourse
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place Berlin; Boston
Publisher De Gruyter
Categories Theology, Cosmology, Ontology
Author(s) Hannah C. Erlwein
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The endeavour to prove God’s existence through rational argumentation was an integral part of classical Islamic theology (kalām) and philosophy (falsafa), thus the frequently articulated assumption in the academic literature. The Islamic discourse in question is then often compared to the discourse on arguments for God’s existence in the western tradition, not only in terms of its objectives but also in terms of the arguments used: Islamic thinkers, too, put forward arguments that have been labelled as cosmological, teleological, and ontological. This book, however, argues that arguments for God’s existence are absent from the theological and philosophical works of the classical Islamic era. This is not to say that the arguments encountered there are flawed arguments for God’s existence. Rather, it means that the arguments under consideration serve a different purpose than to prove that God exists. Through a close reading of the works of several mutakallimūn and falāsifa from the 3rd‒7th/9th‒13th century, such as al-Bāqillānī and Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī as well as Ibn Sīnā and Ibn Rushd, this book proffers a re-evaluation of the discourse in question, and it suggests what its participants sought to prove if it is not that God exists.

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