Gersonides as Commentator in the Light of his Supercommentary on Averroes's Epitome of the Physics, 2022
By: Esti Eisenmann
Title Gersonides as Commentator in the Light of his Supercommentary on Averroes's Epitome of the Physics
Type Article
Language French
Date 2022
Journal Revue des Études Juives
Volume 181
Issue 1-2
Pages 185–222
Categories Tradition and Reception, Gersonides, Commentary, Method
Author(s) Esti Eisenmann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The article analyzes Gersonides (1288-1344) as a commentator, through the lens of his supercommentary on Averroes’s Epitome of Aristotle’s Physics. In the first section of the article, we question the assumption that this work is indeed a supercommentary and explain why it may nevertheless be included in the genre. In the second section, the article provides examples of Gersonides’ exegetical procedure. Given that the supercommentary on the Epitome of the Physics was the first supercommentary Gersonides wrote, the analysis of Gersonides’ methods sheds light on his image as an exegete and can help us determine his objective in commenting on this text and the readership he envisaged. He seems to be adressing readers who were taking their first steps in Aristotle’s works on nature and to have endeavored to guide them in this field.

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Porphyry’s First Definition of Difference in the Hebrew Logical Tradition, 2021
By: Charles Manekin
Title Porphyry’s First Definition of Difference in the Hebrew Logical Tradition
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Studia graeco-arabica
Volume 11
Issue 2
Pages 107–124
Categories Tradition and Reception, Boethius
Author(s) Charles Manekin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Although most students during the Middle Ages began their study of the Organon with Porphyry’s summary of the predicables in the Isagoge, Jewish students in Christian lands studied it mostly via Averroes’ paraphrase or “Middle Commentary”, since Porphyry’s text was not translated into Hebrew. The popularity of Averroes’ paraphrase was impressive; it is extant in over 80 Hebrew manuscripts, upon which there are thirteen extant Hebrew commentaries. This article introduces and illustrates those commentaries by taking one short passage from Averroes and seeing how it was subsequently interpreted. It argues that there was a Hebrew commentarial tradition in which later commentaries built upon earlier ones, which migrated with itinerant scholars. It also shows the influence of the Latin translation of Porphyry, chiefly that of Boethius, which differs from the paraphrase. And finally, it distinguishes the commentary of Judah Messer Leon (15th c. Italy) from its predecessors in its whole-scale adaption of Christian commentarial practices.

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Sources et origines de la théorie de l’intellect d’Averroès (II), 2021
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title Sources et origines de la théorie de l’intellect d’Averroès (II)
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 135–232
Categories Psychology, Tradition and Reception, Influence, De anima
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Cette contribution constitue la deuxième partie de la publication, avec quelques mises à jour et aménagements, d’une thèse de doctorat soutenue sous le même intitulé à l’École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris, en décembre 2009 et dont la première partie a été publiée dans les MUSJ 66 (2015-2016). L’auteur entend, selon une perspective strictement historique, déterminer les sources sur lesquelles s’est appuyé, entre les années cinquante et soixante du xiie siècle (première période de son travail philosophique), Averroès (Ibn Rušd, m. 1198) pour concevoir sa théorie de l’âme et de l’intellect, en référence aux sources péripatéticiennes auxquelles il pouvait avoir accès de son temps. Pour celui qui vaut dans la tradition philosophique comme le « Commentateur » d’Aristote par excellence, il peut paraître étonnant qu’Averroès n’ait eu d’emblée accès qu’à des sources indirectes relatives à la théorie de l’âme du Stagirite, mais ce fut pourtant le cas, comme l’auteur le montre ici. On voit en effet que la doctrine de l’âme exposée par Averroès est essentiellement structurée par l’enseignement d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise et par son De anima. L’aristotélisme d’Averroès apparaît de ce point de vue comme un aristotélisme sans Aristote, et ceci allait refluer de manière décisive sur l’exégèse d’Averroès une fois qu’il se serait emparé de l’écrit du Stagirite, notamment et surtout pour expliquer les chapitres 4 et 5 du livre III du De anima (sur l’intellect en puissance et l’intellect agent).

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Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant, 2021
By: Ali Benmakhlouf
Title Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 83–92
Categories Aristotle, Tradition and Reception, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Ali Benmakhlouf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
La théorie de la « double-vérité » fut un immense contresens apposé par Thomas d’Aquin sur l’oeuvre d’Averroès dans laquelle elle ne se trouve pas. Le présent article déplace les enjeux vers la notion de validité en explorant la double stratégie qui se met en place chez Averroès : 1) montrer que la sagesse (ḥikma) dont parle le Coran est la philosophie la plus haute, celle qui fait usage de la démonstration ; 2) promouvoir la démonstration comme outil de validité du savoir. L’auteur rappelle le moment inaugural d’al-Kindī, qui met en place la démarche scientifique et s’intéresse donc à la validité et à la forme des arguments, avant de se concentrer sur Averroès et la mise en cohérence du vrai et du valide qui s’opère dans le Discours Décisif. L’article s’achève sur les prolongements de la question de la validité à la Renaissance.

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Pietro Pomponazzi, Averroes, and the Accusation of Imposture, 2021
By: Craig Martin
Title Pietro Pomponazzi, Averroes, and the Accusation of Imposture
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 93–103
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Psychology, Ethics
Author(s) Craig Martin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Les spécialistes ont longtemps accusé Pietro Pomponazzi d’utiliser la duperie comme une technique pour échapper à la censure de l’Église au sujet de ses thèses sur la mortalité de l’âme et le fondement matériel de la religion. Un examen conjoint du De immortalitate animae et du De incantationibus témoigne non pas d’une promotion de la duperie mais plutôt d’une cohérence entre sa compréhension de l’utilisation politique des fables et des mythes et sa compréhension de l’entendement humain, de l’âme et de la nature de la moralité. Ces thèses dépendent en partie de sa lecture d’Averroès. En particulier, il était d’avis que l’écriture n’était porteuse ni de vérité ni de fausseté au sens strict. Cependant, Pomponazzi s’écarta d’Averroès parce que son rejet de la psychologie était mêlé d’une conception pessimiste de la nature humaine qu’il considérait comme étant éloignée de l’intellection et incapable d’obtenir la vérité.

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La position de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès dans son Commentaire sur le De anima, 2021
By: Jules Janssens
Title La position de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès dans son Commentaire sur le De anima
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 105–135
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Jules Janssens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Dans son commentaire sur le De anima d’Aristote Zabarella fait un usage non négligeable du Grand Commentaire sur le même ouvrage d’Averroès, le grand penseur andalou. On a pris l’habitude de considérer que Zabarella n’a pas pu finaliser son commentaire, étant donné qu’il fut publié à titre posthume. Il s’agirait donc d’un ouvrage incomplet. Toutefois, si on tient compte du fait que Zabarella s’intéresse avant tout, voire presque exclusivement, à l’étude de l’âme humaine, tout indique qu’il a consciemment choisi de ne pas commenter certains chapitres de l’ouvrage du Stagirite. Quant à l’impact d’Averroès sur la doctrine de l’âme exposée par Zabarella, elle a été diversement évaluée dans la recherche contemporaine, mais dans l’ensemble on y perçoit une attitude fortement critique du dernier envers le premier. Il est nécessaire de nuancer ce jugement. En effet, sur la base de trois fragments, répartis sur les trois livres, la présente recherche met en lumière qu’Averroès est considéré par Zabarella comme une vraie autorité, « auctoritas » ; que Zabarella souscrit parfois pleinement à l’interprétation du maître arabe ; et, enfin, que Zabarella explique certaines explications « erronées » de ce dernier comme l’effet inévitable de la traduction fautive du texte aristotélicien dont Averroès disposait. En somme, l’attitude de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès s’avère complexe, évitant aussi bien l’excès d’un rejet total que celui d’une acceptation aveugle.

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Il confronto di Averroè con Alessandro di Afrodisia, 2020
By: Anna Minerbi Belgrado
Title Il confronto di Averroè con Alessandro di Afrodisia
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2020
Journal Medioevo
Volume 45
Pages 111–126
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Anna Minerbi Belgrado
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Among the numberless critics of the theory of the soul defended by Alexander of Aphrodisias none is perhaps at the same time so accurate and so harsh as Averroes has been.

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Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

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Problemi della tradizione a stampa del De substantia orbis di Averroè, 2019
By: Giovanni Licata
Title Problemi della tradizione a stampa del De substantia orbis di Averroè
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2019
Journal Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Classe di Lettere e Filosofia, V Serie
Volume 11
Issue 2
Pages 559–580
Categories Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Giovanni Licata
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta, 2019
By: Fernanda Ocampo
Title La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2019
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 36
Issue 3
Pages 659–681
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, Thomas
Author(s) Fernanda Ocampo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the ‘real distinction’ between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich’s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading – critical of that of Avicenna’s –, which “has made school” in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.

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Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica, 2019
By: Adam Takahashi
Title Albert the Great as a Reader of Averroes: A Study of His Notion of the Celestial Soul in De caelo et mundo and Metaphysica
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 30
Pages 625–654
Categories Albert, Tradition and Reception, Cosmology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Adam Takahashi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Arabic-Latin Reception of Aristotle’s Physica and Averroes’ Commentarium magnum. Two Versions in a Manuscript from Toledo, 2012
By: Horst Schmieja
Title Arabic-Latin Reception of Aristotle’s Physica and Averroes’ Commentarium magnum. Two Versions in a Manuscript from Toledo
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal Oriens
Volume 40
Issue 1
Pages 149–167
Categories Physics, Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Horst Schmieja
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Sixty-two thirteenth and fourteenth-century Latin manuscripts of Averroes’ commentary of Aristotle’s Physics are currently known. Many of these manuscripts have a substantial gap in Book 8, stretching from about the middle of commentary 76 to the end of commentary 79. The Cathedral Library of Toledo holds a thirteenth-century manuscript which not only contains Book 8 in its entirety, but also two different Arabic-Latin translations of significant parts of textus and commentum 76. Analysis of these two versions allows important insights into the translator’s work.

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Aristotelismus und Averroismus in der politischen Theorie bei Marsilius von Padua und Wilhelm von Ockham, 2019
By: Jürgen Miethke
Title Aristotelismus und Averroismus in der politischen Theorie bei Marsilius von Padua und Wilhelm von Ockham
Type Article
Language German
Date 2019
Journal Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia
Volume 75
Issue 3
Pages 1739–1762
Categories Politics, Latin Averroism, Tradition and Reception, Ockham
Author(s) Jürgen Miethke
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The paper is aiming to look at the importance of the Arabian political philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rušd) for the reception of the political philosophy of the Greek philosopher Aristotle in the Latin West by analyzing the exemple of two maior medieval authors (Marsiglio of Padua and William Ockham) for “averroistic” doctrines, in order to check the often discussed so called “Political Averroism” in the medieval Latin political philosophy. As result there seems to emerge the insight, that “Political Averroism” is only a “historiographical myth”, for Marsiglio is showing only some minor points of reference to averroistic topics, whereas Ockham seems free of clear relationship to “Averroism”.

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Averroes latinus / Averroes arabus, 2015
By: Franz Schupp
Title Averroes latinus / Averroes arabus
Type Article
Language German
Date 2015
Journal Studia Leibnitiana
Volume 47
Issue 2
Pages 220–232
Categories Averroism, Latin Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Franz Schupp
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes – Ein Aufklärer im Mittelalter?, 2012
By: Stefan Schick
Title Averroes – Ein Aufklärer im Mittelalter?
Type Article
Language German
Date 2012
Journal Philosophische Rundschau
Volume 59
Issue 1
Pages 78–91
Categories Influence, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Stefan Schick
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes, Maimónides y la crisis en la comunidad judía medieval, 2005
By: Ahmed Chahlane
Title Averroes, Maimónides y la crisis en la comunidad judía medieval
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2005
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 22
Pages 111–123
Categories Tradition and Reception, Maimonides
Author(s) Ahmed Chahlane
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes, Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome on How this Man Understands, 2007
By: Brian Francis Conolly
Title Averroes, Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome on How this Man Understands
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Vivarium
Volume 45
Pages 69–92
Categories Psychology, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Brian Francis Conolly
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroès et la censure de l'histoire, 2016
By: Francesca Forte
Title Averroès et la censure de l'histoire
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Doctor Virtualis
Volume 13 (Filologia e filosofia)
Pages 135–152
Categories Tradition and Reception, Modern Readings, Modern Interpretations and Adaptations
Author(s) Francesca Forte
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper aims to outline the historical debate about the Averroes’ heritage since its beginning, with the revival of Averroes by French Orientalism (Renan) coming up to contemporary Arab-Muslim intellectuals, who made this author an Enlightenment’s representative before its time. The aim of the contribution is therefore to recall briefly the history of this debate to highlight the political and ideological utilization of a medieval author and, ultimately, to emphasize that every history of philosophy implies a view oriented and never neutral on its tradition.

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Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle, 2015
By: Marta Borgo
Title Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 26
Pages 211–240
Categories Avicenna, Aristotle, Thomas, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Marta Borgo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Citer/traduire. La traduction arabo-latine de la Rhétorique d’Aristote par Hermann l’Allemand et les citations d’al-Fârâbî et Averroès, 2017
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Citer/traduire. La traduction arabo-latine de la Rhétorique d’Aristote par Hermann l’Allemand et les citations d’al-Fârâbî et Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2017
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 28
Pages 177–218
Categories Aristotle, al-Fārābī, Tradition and Reception, Rhetoric
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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