Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant, 2021
By: Ali Benmakhlouf
Title Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 83–92
Categories Aristotle, Tradition and Reception, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Ali Benmakhlouf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
La théorie de la « double-vérité » fut un immense contresens apposé par Thomas d’Aquin sur l’oeuvre d’Averroès dans laquelle elle ne se trouve pas. Le présent article déplace les enjeux vers la notion de validité en explorant la double stratégie qui se met en place chez Averroès : 1) montrer que la sagesse (ḥikma) dont parle le Coran est la philosophie la plus haute, celle qui fait usage de la démonstration ; 2) promouvoir la démonstration comme outil de validité du savoir. L’auteur rappelle le moment inaugural d’al-Kindī, qui met en place la démarche scientifique et s’intéresse donc à la validité et à la forme des arguments, avant de se concentrer sur Averroès et la mise en cohérence du vrai et du valide qui s’opère dans le Discours Décisif. L’article s’achève sur les prolongements de la question de la validité à la Renaissance.

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In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature, 2020
By: Yehuda Halper
Title In One Sense Easy, in Another Difficult: Reverberations of the Opening of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ά έλλάτον in Medieval and Renaissance Hebrew Literature
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Revue des études juives
Volume 179
Issue 1–2
Pages 133–160
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Renaissance
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta, 2019
By: Fernanda Ocampo
Title La doctrina general de los trascendentales en Dietrich von Freiberg, y su filiación aristotélico-averroísta
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2019
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 36
Issue 3
Pages 659–681
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, Thomas
Author(s) Fernanda Ocampo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Aristotelian text Metaphysics IV, 2, and the interpretations carried out by the Muslim philosophers, i.e., Avicenna and Averroes, constitute the theoretical framework in which several Latin authors of the second half of the 13th century from the University of Paris, who have taken a stance around the question of the ‘real distinction’ between esse and essentia, elaborated their doctrines about transcendentals. According to this, our work seeks to trace the dependence of Dietrich’s general doctrine of the transcendentals, with respect to the theses established by Aristotle in the mentioned text, and in particular, with regard to the Averroist reading – critical of that of Avicenna’s –, which “has made school” in the Parisian environment, especially among the teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts, but also, first, in Thomas Aquinas. Thus, in light of this scenario of readings and interpretations, we will seek to delimit the central features of the Theodorian conception of the communia, pointing out the possible differences or coincidences with respect to the doctrines of these preceding authors.

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience, 2019
By: Stephen Ogden
Title Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 595–614
Categories Thomas, Metaphysics, Aristotle, Commentary, Theology
Author(s) Stephen Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
Type Article
Language French
Date 2019
Journal Oriens
Volume 47
Issue 3-4
Pages 244–312
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Della Politica di Aristotele all’”averroismo politico”. Una vicenda paradossale, 2018
By: Gregorio Piaia
Title Della Politica di Aristotele all’”averroismo politico”. Una vicenda paradossale
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2018
Journal Mediterranea
Volume 3
Pages 19–34
Categories Averroism, Politics, Aristotle, Modern Readings
Author(s) Gregorio Piaia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
From the early twentieth century onwards, the concept of ‘political Averroism’ has become widespread, especially with reference to Dante Alighieri and to Marsilius of Padua. It is our intention here to establish and delineate the remotest origin of this concept, which can be fundamentally traced back to two elements: the central role accorded to political reflection as a consequence of the French Revolution, and the adoption of Averroes as a symbol and figure anticipating modern rationalism.

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Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote, 2018
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Oriens
Volume 46
Issue No. 3/4
Pages 332–367
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Following an exegetical method similar to the one used two years earlier in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Averroes usually stays very close to the Arabic version of the Nicomachean Ethics in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. For he mostly reproduces Aristotle’s text without reformulating it. When necessary he nonetheless deletes the most obscure passages and develops those requiring more explanation, adding examples and replacing some terms with other terms, usually technical ones. By doing so, Averroes gives the ten Books of Aristotle’s treatise a greater unity and coherence. One of the commonest modifications that Averroes introduced in the Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics on the microstructural level is the use of the term scientia/ ḥokhma to refer to the content of the Ethics, whereas Aristotle’s text had no specific word for this. Likewise, Averroes makes clear in the first lines of his Commentary on the Republic that the discursive mode he is going to follow is the mode of scientific or theoretical arguments, not dialectical arguments. Hence, bestowing the status of a «science» on ethics (and on politics) clearly seems problematic – from a strictly Aristotelian perspective at any rate. This contribution seeks to understand, from Books I and X of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, how the «scientific» status of ethics shall be understood, by observing in particular the inscription of the Ethics in the knowledge system as Averroes conceives it, and by raising the question of the addressee of his Middle Commentary, who obviously is no longer the Aristotelian figure of the legislator ἐπιειϰής.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5407","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5407,"authors_free":[{"id":6268,"entry_id":5407,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1286,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","free_first_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique","free_last_name":"Woerther","norm_person":{"id":1286,"first_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique","last_name":"Woerther","full_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/13670932X","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther"}}],"entry_title":"Le statut \u00abscientifique\u00bb de l\u2019\u00e9thique d\u2019apr\u00e8s le Commentaire moyen d\u2019Averro\u00e8s \u00e0 l\u2019\u00c9thique \u00e0 Nicomaque d\u2019Aristote","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Le statut \u00abscientifique\u00bb de l\u2019\u00e9thique d\u2019apr\u00e8s le Commentaire moyen d\u2019Averro\u00e8s \u00e0 l\u2019\u00c9thique \u00e0 Nicomaque d\u2019Aristote"},"abstract":"Following an exegetical method similar to the one used two years earlier in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle\u2019s Rhetoric, Averroes usually stays very close to the Arabic version of the Nicomachean Ethics in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle\u2019s Nicomachean Ethics. For he mostly reproduces Aristotle\u2019s text without reformulating it. When necessary he nonetheless deletes the most obscure passages and develops those requiring more explanation, adding examples and replacing some terms with other terms, usually technical ones. By doing so, Averroes gives the ten Books of Aristotle\u2019s treatise a greater unity and coherence. One of the commonest modifications that Averroes introduced in the Middle Commentary on Aristotle\u2019s Nicomachean Ethics on the microstructural level is the use of the term scientia\/ \u1e25okhma to refer to the content of the Ethics, whereas Aristotle\u2019s text had no specific word for this. Likewise, Averroes makes clear in the first lines of his Commentary on the Republic that the discursive mode he is going to follow is the mode of scientific or theoretical arguments, not dialectical arguments. Hence, bestowing the status of a \u00abscience\u00bb on ethics (and on politics) clearly seems problematic \u2013 from a strictly Aristotelian perspective at any rate. This contribution seeks to understand, from Books I and X of Averroes\u2019 Middle Commentary on Aristotle\u2019s Nicomachean Ethics, how the \u00abscientific\u00bb status of ethics shall be understood, by observing in particular the inscription of the Ethics in the knowledge system as Averroes conceives it, and by raising the question of the addressee of his Middle Commentary, who obviously is no longer the Aristotelian figure of the legislator \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03b5\u03b9\u03f0\u1f75\u03c2.","btype":3,"date":"2018","language":"French","online_url":"https:\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/26572345","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":70,"category_name":"Nicomachean ethics","link":"bib?categories[]=Nicomachean ethics"}],"authors":[{"id":1286,"full_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5407,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Oriens","volume":"46","issue":"No. 3\/4 ","pages":"332\u2013367"}},"sort":[2018]}

Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino, 2017
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Dianoia
Volume 24
Pages 15-32
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Thomas
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A widespread historiographic commonplace, established by Thomas Aquinas himself in his Tractatus de unitate intellectus (1270), takes Siger of Brabant’s Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1265) to be a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the unity of the material intellect as exposed in the Tafsīr Kitāb al-Nafs (Long Commentary on the De anima, ca. 1186); according to the same view, Aquinas’ philosophy of mind would be the expression of a strongly antiaverroistic – and therefore more orthodox – kind of aristotelianism. Building on a thorough analysis of key texts in Aquinas’ Commentary on the Sentences (1255), I argue in this paper that those who hold Aquinas’ noetic to be anti-averroistic are greatly mistaken: while Siger’s always superficial rushdian inspiration is better understood against the background of a neoplatonic-tinged mind-body dualism clearly at odds with Ibn Rušd’s own strictly peripatetic ontology, Aquinas’ psychology, hylomorfic and not-dualist at its core, is aristotelian mainly inasmuch as it is rushdian.

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Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon, 2017
By: Ilyas Altuner
Title Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Entelekya Logico-Metaphysical Review
Volume 1
Issue 1-2
Pages 5–17
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Ilyas Altuner
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes, considered to be the greatest Aristotelian commentator in the Middle Ages, has written three different types of commentary on almost all the works of this great philosopher: short, middle and long. These commentaries have been translated into Latin and Hebrew in the early period, and profoundly influenced both Medieval Europe and Jewish thought for centuries. The effect of Averroes in the West was to spread the whole of Europe under the name of Latin Averroism. The text what you have consists of some remarks about the translation of the commentary on the ‘Book Alpha Meizon’, the second book of Averroes’ Tafsīr Mā Ba’d at-Ṭabī’a.

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A propos de trois anciennes éditions latines d'Aristote avec commentaires d'Averroès. Dont les incunables GW 2340/3106; IGI 796/1106, 2005
By: Roland Hissette
Title A propos de trois anciennes éditions latines d'Aristote avec commentaires d'Averroès. Dont les incunables GW 2340/3106; IGI 796/1106
Type Article
Language French
Date 2005
Journal Miscellanea Bibliothecae Apostolicae Vaticanae
Volume 12
Pages 181–238
Categories Logic, Latin Averroism, Aristotle
Author(s) Roland Hissette
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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An Abstractionist Correction of Avicenna's Theory of Intentionality in the Early Averroes, 2011
By: Francisco Romero Carasquillo
Title An Abstractionist Correction of Avicenna's Theory of Intentionality in the Early Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2011
Journal Acta Philosophica
Volume 20
Issue 2
Pages 405-420
Categories Aristotle, Avicenna
Author(s) Francisco Romero Carasquillo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper offers an account of Averroes’ early doctrine of the internal senses with special reference to the role that intentionality plays in internal sense cognition. The author points out that, whereas for Avicenna an “intention” is the object of a specific faculty, for Averroes it is the formal aspect at any level of internal-sense cognition. This interpretation is required by the need to find coherence among those passages in Averroes’ Epitome de Parva naturalia that ascribe the joining of images and intentions to both the cogitative and memorative faculties. Consequently, Averroes’ account is hopelessly incoherent unless one interprets him as departing from, and indeed revising, the Avicennian doctrine of intentionality along more a faithful Aristotelian-abstractionist framework.

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Aristotle, Averroes and Thomas Aquinas on the Nature of Essence, 2003
By: Fabrizio Amerini
Title Aristotle, Averroes and Thomas Aquinas on the Nature of Essence
Type Article
Language English
Date 2003
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 14
Pages 79–122
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle, Aquinas
Author(s) Fabrizio Amerini
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach, 2006
By: David Bloch
Title Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin (Université de Copenhague)
Volume 77
Pages 127–146
Categories Psychology, Natural Philosophy, Aristotle
Author(s) David Bloch
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza, 2015
By: Joaquín García-Huidobro
Title Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Anales del seminario de historia de la filosofía
Volume 32
Issue 2
Pages 393–413
Categories Aristotle, Law
Author(s) Joaquín García-Huidobro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
En su comentario a la Ética a Nicómaco, Averroes se ocupó del pasaje donde Aristóteles distingue entre las cosas que son justas por naturaleza y aquéllas que lo son en virtud de la ley (V, 7 1134b18-1135a5). Su comentario es particularmente breve, pero plantea algunas dificultades importantes, como su alusión a un derecho naturale legale, que, según Leo Strauss, vendría a ser simplemente un derecho positivo de aceptación general. En este artículo se busca caracterizar lo justo natural y lo justo positivo en el comentario de Averroes y mostrar el alcance de la variación de los criterios propios de la justicia positiva.

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Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, 2014
By: Steven Harvey, Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Oriens
Volume 42
Issue 1-2
Pages 254-287
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The conventional view of the previous century that Averroes’ middle commentaries (talāḫīṣ) on Aristotle are all of the same form and style is no longer tenable. A full and accurate account of the similarities and differences among Averroes’ talāḫīṣ on Aristotle must consider all of them. Perhaps the least studied and least known of these middle commentaries is the one on the Nicomachean Ethics, a text which is extant today only in a critically edited medieval Hebrew translation and an as yet unedited medieval Latin translation. The two authors of the present article have each studied chapters of this commentary independently of each other and have reached different conclusions concerning its value. In this article they present a careful examination of the first book of Averroes’ commentary via its Hebrew translation and Latin translation (primarily through the two oldest and most reliable manuscripts of it) in comparison with the medieval Arabic translation of the Nicomachean Ethics that was used by Averroes (and in light of Aristotle’s Greek text). This study shows an Averroean middle commentary that is not very original and not particularly helpful, especially, for example, when compared to the quite different middle commentaries on Aristotle’s books on natural science. Indeed, he often seems to do little more than copy—not even paraphrase—the Arabic translation. On the other hand, Averroes does not hesitate to insert words as he copies in order to make the text clearer and easier to understand. Where lengthier explanations are needed, they too are attempted, at times in response to problematic translations in the Arabic text before him.

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Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry, 2015
By: Francesca Forte
Title Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 287–296
Categories Aristotle, Poetics, Commentary, Logic, Politics
Author(s) Francesca Forte
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The theme of the pleasure of knowledge is central in Averroes’ aesthetical reflection of Aristotle’s Poetics, regardless whether we side with the logical or with the moral interpretation. The first one stresses the continuity between Averroes and previous commentators in his attempt to reconstruct the Poetics as an integral part of the Logic itself, whereby poetic discourse is conceived as a form of reasoning based on syllogisms. According to the latter perspective, however, pleasure is central in that poetry is a tool towards the pursuit of happiness: in this perspective it is necessary to bear in mind some common themes present in other works by Averroes (particularly in the commentaries on the Aristotelian Organon – and especially the commentary on the Rhetoric –, in the commentaries on Plato’s Republic, and, last but not least, in the Decisive Treatise). The pleasure of contemplative knowledge must go hand in hand with the pursuit of communal happiness and therefore with the good and proper order of community and society. Poetry represents a central tool towards this aim in that it expresses moral truths which cannot not be communicated (to everybody) by means of logic and philosophy alone.

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino, 2017
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Dianoia
Volume 24
Pages 15-32
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Thomas
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A widespread historiographic commonplace, established by Thomas Aquinas himself in his Tractatus de unitate intellectus (1270), takes Siger of Brabant’s Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1265) to be a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the unity of the material intellect as exposed in the Tafsīr Kitāb al-Nafs (Long Commentary on the De anima, ca. 1186); according to the same view, Aquinas’ philosophy of mind would be the expression of a strongly antiaverroistic – and therefore more orthodox – kind of aristotelianism. Building on a thorough analysis of key texts in Aquinas’ Commentary on the Sentences (1255), I argue in this paper that those who hold Aquinas’ noetic to be anti-averroistic are greatly mistaken: while Siger’s always superficial rushdian inspiration is better understood against the background of a neoplatonic-tinged mind-body dualism clearly at odds with Ibn Rušd’s own strictly peripatetic ontology, Aquinas’ psychology, hylomorfic and not-dualist at its core, is aristotelian mainly inasmuch as it is rushdian.

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Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle, 2015
By: Marta Borgo
Title Between Avicenna and Averroes: Considerations on the Early Aquinas’ Aristotle
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 26
Pages 211–240
Categories Avicenna, Aristotle, Thomas, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Marta Borgo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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