Category
Revisiting Averroes’ Influence on Western Philosophy, 2022
By: Anthony Raphael Etuk
Title Revisiting Averroes’ Influence on Western Philosophy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research
Volume 19
Issue 1
Pages 174-194
Categories Aristotle, Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Anthony Raphael Etuk
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Better known as Averroes, Ibn Rushd remains one of the greatest Islamic philosophical geniuses of all times. The unparalleled inventiveness of his mind and the ―audacity‖ of his methods are evident in many of his innovative philosophical activities, which tremendous stirred the minds of his contemporaries in the Middle Ages. Perhaps only a few would deny the far-reaching impacts of his profound philosophical activities and ideas on Western philosophy. Prominent among these are his unique status as a paramount guide to Aristotle, based on his influential and massive commentaries on Aristotle, and his strong arguments for the compatibility of philosophy with religion. These and more, have since established the depth of his ideas and his lasting relevance in Western philosophy history. This paper undertakes an exposition of his philosophical activities, to identify the impacts of his enduring legacies on Western philosophy. The expository and hermeneutical methods of analysis are adopted.

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Sul «materialismo» di Averroè. Un bilancio da Renan a oggi, 2022
By: Antonio Lombardi
Title Sul «materialismo» di Averroè. Un bilancio da Renan a oggi
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2022
Journal Intersezioni
Volume 42
Issue 2
Pages 231-247
Categories Averroism, Tradition and Reception, Modern Readings
Author(s) Antonio Lombardi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The historiographical rediscovery of Averroes’ thought in the 19th century coincided with its reading in a materialistic sense. From Renan to Bloch, via Lange and Gentile, this interpretation has been widespread, making the Arab thinker a precursor of modern rationalism and immanentism. Although in the 20th century more philologically accurate research has challenged this long-standing image of Averroes, it continues to persist in current debates, at the risk of some misrepresentation. This article attempts a critical assessment of such interpretations in light of the more recent tendency to focus on «historical» Averroes, assuming that this may contribute to the debate on the meaning of Averroism in the history of Western ideas.

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Pico e Averroè: Alcune note a margine, 2021
By: Pietro Secchi
Title Pico e Averroè: Alcune note a margine
Type Article
Language Icelandic
Date 2021
Journal La Cultura, Rivista di Filosofia e Filologia
Volume 59
Issue 2
Pages 313-331
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Pietro Secchi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The diffusion and the significance of Averroism in the Renaissance European culture has been long investigated so far. Even recently, the issue has been faced by scholars like Loris Sturlese, Sergio Landucci, Guido Giglioni. The very presence of this cultural orientation within Pico della Mirandola's thought has been the goal of the studies of Giovanni Licata, who focused his attention on the pivotal role of Elia Del Medigo. The aim of this paper, even through the new researches of Ovanes Akopyan and Giovanna Murano, is to propose a direct relationship between Pico and Averroes, due to the reading of 'The Incoherence of Incoherence'. Two aspects are decisive: (1) the use of Averroes as a device to reach the Concord and to 'move' Aristotle towards Plato, and (2) his strong influence on the philosophical anthropology, which is based on the autopoietic nature of man. (edited)

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Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century, 2021
By: Jozef Matula (Ed.)
Title Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Nordhausen
Publisher Verlag Traugott Bautz
Series Studia Classica et Mediaevalia
Volume 28
Categories Averroism, Latin Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Jozef Matula
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The collection of papers assesses the impact of the reception of Averroist ideas on philosophy between the 15th and 17th century in the Latin West. Most of the articles in the volume were presented at the conference "Averroism between the 15th and 17th century," which was held on 9th -10th November, 2016 by the Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts at Palacký University, Olomouc, the Czech Republic. The contributors explore the influence of Averroes, identify the difficulties in the interpretation of his works, and study his followers and critics in the Latin, Hebrew, and Byzantine traditions.

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Towards a New Methodology for Natural Philosophy: Latin Averroism Revisited, 2021
By: Pilar Herráiz Oliva
Title Towards a New Methodology for Natural Philosophy: Latin Averroism Revisited
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Mediterranea
Volume 6
Pages 131–155
Categories Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Boethius, Thomas
Author(s) Pilar Herráiz Oliva
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The reception of Aristotelian philosophy with Averroes’s commentaries in the thirteenth-century Latin world promoted a new way of understanding natural philosophy and its method. A very special case among the readers of such commentaries, mostly found at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris, are the so-called averroistae. What these averroistae actually were is still a matter of discussion in current scholarship, whereas there is kind of consensus regarding the main exponents of this philosophical movement, namely Siger of Brabant and Boethius of Dacia. The aim of this paper is to shed light on this topic by providing a re-definition of Averroism in the 13th century. To do this, I will analyse some of the most important works of the aforementioned authors in an attempt to clarify the specificity of their philosophical program.

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Dignity and the Foundation of Human Rights: Toward an Averroist Genealogy, 2020
By: Miguel Vatter
Title Dignity and the Foundation of Human Rights: Toward an Averroist Genealogy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Politics and Religion
Volume 13
Issue 2
Pages 304–332
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Miguel Vatter
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of this article is to give a new reconstruction of the conception of human dignity as a pre-associative yet legal status. Such a legal conception of human dignity carries a universal legal obligation to respect the “innate” right to independence and enables us to move beyond the impasse between moral and political views of human rights. The argument has a normative and a genealogical component. The normative component shows why a legal conception of human rights is grounded on the Kantian idea of an innate legal right to independence, as well as showing that Kant adopted a legal status concept of human dignity. The genealogical component shows that the conception of human dignity as legal status undergoes a transvaluation from its ancient aristocratic to its modern democratic meaning in Dante's political thought, which is itself rooted in the western reception of Arabic philosophy, in particular political Averroism. By contrast to the Christian elaboration of dignity, the Averroist genealogy of dignity better describes the modern pursuit of an ideal of worldly happiness essentially linked with the collective attainment of public happiness through the unrestricted public use of reason facilitated by republican constitutions crowned by human rights.

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The Term mitpalsef in Jewish Philosophy and Its Particular Use in Jewish Averroism, 2020
By: Giovanni Licata
Title The Term mitpalsef in Jewish Philosophy and Its Particular Use in Jewish Averroism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2020
Published in Studies in the Formation of Medieval Hebrew Philosophical Terminology
Pages 151–165
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Influence
Author(s) Giovanni Licata
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Dante et l’averroïsme, 2019
By: Alain de Libera (Ed.), Jean-Baptiste Brenet (Ed.), Irène Rosier-Catach (Ed.)
Title Dante et l’averroïsme
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2019
Publication Place Paris
Publisher Les Belles Lettres & Collège de France
Series Docet omina
Volume 5
Categories Averroism, Politics, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Alain de Libera , Jean-Baptiste Brenet , Irène Rosier-Catach
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Dante averroïste ? Le plus grand poète du Moyen Âge fut-il le disciple du plus grand philosophe arabe ? La Divine Comédie place Averroès, l’auteur du « Grand commentaire » d’Aristote, en Enfer, et en Paradis son disciple latin Siger de Brabant qui, dans l’actuelle « rue du Fouarre » à Paris, mettait en syllogismes « des vérités importunes ». Jugement de Salomon ? Ce volume collectif traite en détail l’un des chapitres les plus controversés de l’histoire comme de l’historiographie de la philosophie et de la théologie médiévales. Revisitant les textes philosophiques et poétiques de Dante, de la Vita nova au Convivio, au De vulgari eloquentia et à la Monarchia, examinant les productions et les thèses de ses contemporains, interlocuteurs, amis et adversaires, médecins, philosophes et poètes, rappelant et discutant les thèses de ses lecteurs anciens et modernes, les meilleurs spécialistes des domaines concernés, philosophes et italianistes, dressent le bilan de deux siècles d’études sur Dante, mais aussi sur Cavalcanti et sur l’averroïsme latin. Suivant trois grands axes, le langage et la pensée, les émotions, la politique, c’est au coeur de l’histoire et de la culture européennes, à Paris, à Florence, sur les routes de l’exil, que les contributions ici rassemblées plongeront lectrices et lecteurs amoureux de Dante, de l’Italie et de la littérature.

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Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Métaphysique et politique “en intention seconde”: Jean de Jandun héritier d’Averroès et d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age
Volume 85
Pages 108–127
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias, Averroism, Metaphysics, Politics
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to present the position of the Master of Arts John of Jandun (d. 1328) on the relationship between the metaphysical and the political; and second, to show how his solution, based on the idea of an agency “in second intention,” makes him a follower of Averroes and, more remotely, of Alexander of Aphrodisias’s doctrine on providence. Although the philosopher must play a key role in the city-state as the prince’s teacher on divine truths, this role does not make him a subordinate in any way, because he is turned towards others only in secunda intentione. How does John of Jandun flesh this out? And what does he owe to the metaphysical providence defended by his Greek and Arabic predecessors? These are the issues the paper deals with.

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Ultima perfezione’ e ‘ultima felicitade’. Ancora su Dante e l’averroismo, 2018
By: Luca Bianchi
Title Ultima perfezione’ e ‘ultima felicitade’. Ancora su Dante e l’averroismo
Type Book Section
Language Italian
Date 2018
Published in Edizioni, traduzioni e tradizioni filosofiche (secoli XII-XVI). Studi per Pietro B. Rossi
Pages 315–328
Categories Tradition and Reception, Averroism
Author(s) Luca Bianchi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century, 2015
By: Ali Ghorbani, Fath ali Akbari
Title A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century
Type Article
Language Persian
Date 2015
Journal Comparative Theology
Volume 5
Issue 12
Pages 69-84
Categories Epistemology, Averroism, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Ali Ghorbani , Fath ali Akbari
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

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A propos de l'averroïsme. Prémisses pour une lecture philosophique, 2001
By: Bensalem Himmich
Title A propos de l'averroïsme. Prémisses pour une lecture philosophique
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 238–241
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Bensalem Himmich
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist, 2015
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 309–318
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The 15th century Jewish Aragonian thinker, Abraham Bibago treats conjunction in his two main works, Derekh Emunah (“The Way of Faith”) and Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In the former, which explicitly interprets Biblical and Talmudic stories along philosophical lines, Bibago promotes a neo-Platonic intellectual emanation schema and boldly asserts that human happiness is attained through conjunction with higher intellects. In the Commentary, which primarily treats Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Averroes’ commentaries on it, Bibago gives an account of conjunction that does not necessarily fit with the intellectual conjunction of Derekh Emunah. Indeed, his remarks in the Commentary are much less decisive about human happiness, suggesting that Bibago qua philosopher is more open minded about the summum bonum than he is qua religious thinker.

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Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism, 2012
By: James T. Robinson
Title Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in The Judeo-Christian-Islamic Heritage: Philosophical & Theological Perspectives
Pages 59–88
Categories Averroism, Transmission, Jewish Averroism
Author(s) James T. Robinson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1623","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1623,"authors_free":[{"id":1864,"entry_id":1623,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1008,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"James T. Robinson","free_first_name":"James T.","free_last_name":"Robinson","norm_person":{"id":1008,"first_name":"James T.","last_name":"Robinson","full_name":"James T. Robinson","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/13275097X","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/98154324","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=James T. Robinson"}}],"entry_title":"Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2012","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":40,"category_name":"Transmission","link":"bib?categories[]=Transmission"},{"id":8,"category_name":"Jewish Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Jewish Averroism"}],"authors":[{"id":1008,"full_name":"James T. Robinson","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1623,"section_of":244,"pages":"59\u201388","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":244,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"The Judeo-Christian-Islamic Heritage: Philosophical & Theological Perspectives","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2012","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2012","abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":244,"pubplace":"Milwaukee","publisher":"Marquette University Press","series":"Marquette Studies in Philosophy","volume":"75","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":371,"entry_id":244,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":966,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Richard C. Taylor","free_first_name":"Richard C.","free_last_name":"Taylor","norm_person":{"id":966,"first_name":"Richard C.","last_name":"Taylor","full_name":"Richard C. Taylor","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/139866353","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/49247370","db_url":"","from_claudius":1}},{"id":372,"entry_id":244,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1419,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Irfan A. Omar","free_first_name":"Irfan A.","free_last_name":"Omar","norm_person":{"id":1419,"first_name":"Irfan A.","last_name":"Omar","full_name":"Irfan A. Omar","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1011757362","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/53550293","db_url":"","from_claudius":1}}]}},"article":null},"sort":["Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism"]}

Arabic philosophy and Averroism, 2007
By: Dag Nikolaus Hasse
Title Arabic philosophy and Averroism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2007
Published in The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Philosophy
Pages 113-136
Categories Averroism, Intellect, Metaphysics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Dag Nikolaus Hasse
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The names of the famous Arabic philosophers Averroes and Avicenna, alongside those of Alkindi, Alfarabi, and Algazel, appear in countless philosophical writings of the Renaissance. These authors are well-known figures of the classical period of Arabic philosophy, which stretches from the ninth to the twelfth century AD. The history of Arabic philosophy began in the middle of the ninth century, when a substantial part of ancient Greek philosophy had become available in Arabic translations: almost the complete Aristotle, numerous Greek commentaries on Aristotle, and many Platonic and Neoplatonic sources. A major centre of intellectual activity was Baghdad, the new capital of the Abbasid caliphs. It was here that Alkindi (al-Kindī, d. after AD 870), the first important philosopher of Arabic culture, and the Aristotelian philosopher Alfarabi (al-Fārābī, d. 950/1) spent the greater part of their life. A major turning point in the history of Arabic philosophy was the activity of Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, d. 1037), the court philosopher of various local rulers in Persia, who recast Aristotelian philosophy in a way that made it highly influential among Islamic theologians. The famous Baghdad theologian Algazel (al-Ghazālī, d. 1111) accepted much of Avicenna’s philosophy, but criticized it on central issues such as the eternity of the world. Averroes (Ibn Rushd, d. 1198), the Andalusian commentator on Aristotle, reacted to both Avicenna and Algazel: he censured Avicenna for deviating from Aristotle and criticized Algazel for misunderstanding the philosophical tradition.

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These authors are well-known figures of the classical period of Arabic philosophy, which stretches from the ninth to the twelfth century AD. The history of Arabic philosophy began in the middle of the ninth century, when a substantial part of ancient Greek philosophy had become available in Arabic translations: almost the complete Aristotle, numerous Greek commentaries on Aristotle, and many Platonic and Neoplatonic sources. A major centre of intellectual activity was Baghdad, the new capital of the Abbasid caliphs. It was here that Alkindi (al-Kind\u012b, d. after AD 870), the first important philosopher of Arabic culture, and the Aristotelian philosopher Alfarabi (al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b, d. 950\/1) spent the greater part of their life. A major turning point in the history of Arabic philosophy was the activity of Avicenna (Ibn S\u012bn\u0101, d. 1037), the court philosopher of various local rulers in Persia, who recast Aristotelian philosophy in a way that made it highly influential among Islamic theologians. The famous Baghdad theologian Algazel (al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b, d. 1111) accepted much of Avicenna\u2019s philosophy, but criticized it on central issues such as the eternity of the world. Averroes (Ibn Rushd, d. 1198), the Andalusian commentator on Aristotle, reacted to both Avicenna and Algazel: he censured Avicenna for deviating from Aristotle and criticized Algazel for misunderstanding the philosophical tradition.","btype":2,"date":"2007","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/CCOL052184648X.007","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":75,"category_name":"Intellect","link":"bib?categories[]=Intellect"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1722,"full_name":"Dag Nikolaus Hasse","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5344,"section_of":5343,"pages":"113-136","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5343,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Philosophy","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2007","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Philosophy, published in 2007, provides an introduction to a complex period of change in the subject matter and practice of philosophy. 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Aufstieg und Niedergang des Averroismus in der Renaissance. Niccolò Tignosi, Agostino Nifo, Francesco Vimercato, 2004
By: Dag N. Hasse
Title Aufstieg und Niedergang des Averroismus in der Renaissance. Niccolò Tignosi, Agostino Nifo, Francesco Vimercato
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2004
Published in Herbst des Mittelalters?. Fragen zur Bewertung des 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts
Pages 447–473
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Dag N. Hasse
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and Arabic Philosophy in the Modern Historia Philosophica: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, 2013
By: Gregorio Piaia
Title Averroes and Arabic Philosophy in the Modern Historia Philosophica: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 237–254
Categories Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Gregorio Piaia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’s role as Aristotle’s commentator par excellence guaranteed him widespread and certain fame up to the first decades of the seventeenth century; but the crisis of Peripateticism and the establishment of the new philosophy and new science also find an echo in the image of Averreoes and, more generally, in that of Arabic philosophy and science. Here we find Averroes taking on the role of a symbol of perverse intellectual activity (Malebranche), an unscrupulous thinker as regards religion, or even, at times, of an unbeliever (Bayle, Hume). The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the place given to Averroes and to Islamic thought in the historiography of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, when historia philosophica established itself as a literary genre in its own right. The inquiry starts with Georg Horn’s Historia philosophica (1655), in which ‘Arabic philosophy’ is said to begin with the Biblical figure of Job and where the presentation of Averroes is particularly brief compared with the lengthy biographical treatment meted out to Avicenna. In effect, it is only with Johann Heinrich Hottinger’s publication (1664) of the De scriptoribus Arabicis by Johannes Leo Africanus (Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad al-Wazzān) that European intellectuals became aware of some of the details of Averroes’s life. Our inquiry moves on to look at such writers as Johannes Gerhard Vossius, Daniel Georg Morhof, René Rapin, Pierre de Villemandy, Laurent Bordelon, Dupont-Bertris, and Georg Volckmar Hartmann, and ends with a critical examination of André-François Boureau-Deslandes Histoire critique de la philosophie (1737). Boureau-Deslandes does not limit himself to quoting information and anecdotes, but in line with his ‘critical’ approach, also expresses some judgements on the historical, religious, and cultural context of science in Islam. The attitude of these writers towards ‘Arabic’ thought is ambivalent: their recognition of the cultural and philosophical splendour of the caliphate of Baghdad is in practice frequently accompanied by a criticism of the Arabic philosophers’ excessive subtlety. In the case of Averroes their negative judgement also springs from the fact that he had no knowledge of Greek, which prevented him from reaching an adequate understanding of Aristotelian doctrine. We must note however – in the work of Dupont Bertris (1726), for example – attempts to bring Averroes to the fore as a rationalist philosopher, indifferent to all positive religion, all the while defending him from accusation of impiety. These are the first signs of a historiographical trend which– thanks above all to Renan’s famous thèse – was later to lead to a philosophical reappraisal of Averroes, no longer viewed merely as the ‘commentator’ of Aristotle.

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Here we find Averroes taking on the role of a symbol of perverse intellectual activity (Malebranche), an unscrupulous thinker as regards religion, or even, at times, of an unbeliever (Bayle, Hume). The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the place given to Averroes and to Islamic thought in the historiography of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, when historia philosophica established itself as a literary genre in its own right. The inquiry starts with Georg Horn\u2019s Historia philosophica (1655), in which \u2018Arabic philosophy\u2019 is said to begin with the Biblical figure of Job and where the presentation of Averroes is particularly brief compared with the lengthy biographical treatment meted out to Avicenna. In effect, it is only with Johann Heinrich Hottinger\u2019s publication (1664) of the De scriptoribus Arabicis by Johannes Leo Africanus (\u1e24asan ibn Mu\u1e25ammad al-Wazz\u0101n) that European intellectuals became aware of some of the details of Averroes\u2019s life. Our inquiry moves on to look at such writers as Johannes Gerhard Vossius, Daniel Georg Morhof, Ren\u00e9 Rapin, Pierre de Villemandy, Laurent Bordelon, Dupont-Bertris, and Georg Volckmar Hartmann, and ends with a critical examination of Andr\u00e9-Fran\u00e7ois Boureau-Deslandes Histoire critique de la philosophie (1737). Boureau-Deslandes does not limit himself to quoting information and anecdotes, but in line with his \u2018critical\u2019 approach, also expresses some judgements on the historical, religious, and cultural context of science in Islam. The attitude of these writers towards \u2018Arabic\u2019 thought is ambivalent: their recognition of the cultural and philosophical splendour of the caliphate of Baghdad is in practice frequently accompanied by a criticism of the Arabic philosophers\u2019 excessive subtlety. In the case of Averroes their negative judgement also springs from the fact that he had no knowledge of Greek, which prevented him from reaching an adequate understanding of Aristotelian doctrine. We must note however \u2013 in the work of Dupont Bertris (1726), for example \u2013 attempts to bring Averroes to the fore as a rationalist philosopher, indifferent to all positive religion, all the while defending him from accusation of impiety. 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Averroes and Averroisms in Portuguese. Medieval and Early Modern Scholastic Authors, 2014
By: José Meirinhos
Title Averroes and Averroisms in Portuguese. Medieval and Early Modern Scholastic Authors
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2014
Published in Mapping knowledge: cross-pollination in late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Pages 231–251
Categories Averroism, Tradition and Reception, Influence
Author(s) José Meirinhos
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes im Werk des Magisters Ferrandus de Hispania, 2002
By: Albert Zimmermann
Title Averroes im Werk des Magisters Ferrandus de Hispania
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2002
Published in Averroes (1126–1198) oder der Triumph des Rationalismus. Internationales Symposium anlässlich des 800. Todestages des islamischen Philosophen. Heidelberg, 7.-11. Oktober 1998
Pages 297–306
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Albert Zimmermann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes in Henry Bate's Metaphysics, 2001
By: Guy Guldentops
Title Averroes in Henry Bate's Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2001
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 12
Pages 523–547
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Guy Guldentops
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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