Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique, 2022
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Oxford
Publisher Oxford University Press
Categories Aristotle, Thomas, Avicenna, De anima, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This book on the Muslim philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) provides a detailed analysis of his (in)famous unicity thesis—the view that there is only one separate and eternal intellect for all human beings. It focuses directly on Averroes’ arguments, both from the text of Aristotle’s De Anima and, more importantly, his own philosophical arguments in the Long Commentary on the De Anima. Ogden defends Averroes’ interpretation of Aristotle’s DA III.4–5 (using Greek, Arabic, Latin, and contemporary sources). Yet, the author insists that Averroes is not merely a “commentator” but also an incisive philosopher in his own right. Ogden thus reconstructs and analyzes Averroes’ two most significant independent philosophical arguments, the Determinate Particular Argument and the Unity Argument. Alternative ancient and medieval views are considered throughout, especially from two important foils before and after Averroes, namely Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas’s most famous and penetrating arguments against the unicity thesis are also addressed. Finally, Ogden considers Averroes’ own objections to broader metaphysical views of the soul such as Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s, which agree with him on several key points (e.g., the immateriality of the intellect and the individuation of human souls by matter), while still diverging on the number and substantial nature of the intellect. The central aim of the book is to provide readers a single study of Averroes’ most pivotal arguments on intellect, consolidating and building on recent scholarship and offering a comprehensive case for his unicity thesis in the wider context of Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics.

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La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa, 2022
By: Meryem Sebti
Title La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2022
Published in The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding
Pages 327–347
Categories Theology, Epistemology, Cosmology, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Meryem Sebti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called falāsifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ashʿarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all falāsifa: Al-Kindī (after 870), Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (864–925), al-Fārābī (d. 950), Avicenna (980–1037), Ibn Bājja (around 1138), Ibn Ṭufayl (1110–1185) and Averroes (1126–1198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it – for some of them – into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.

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The approach by the latter, called fal\u0101sifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ash\u02bfarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all fal\u0101sifa: Al-Kind\u012b (after 870), Ab\u016b Bakr al-R\u0101z\u012b (864\u2013925), al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b (d. 950), Avicenna (980\u20131037), Ibn B\u0101jja (around 1138), Ibn \u1e6cufayl (1110\u20131185) and Averroes (1126\u20131198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it \u2013 for some of them \u2013 into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739_014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"},{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5403,"section_of":5402,"pages":"327\u2013347 ","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5402,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding ","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The three-volume series titled The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of the representation of the Prophet Muhammad in the course of Muslim history until the present.\r\nThis first collective volume outlines his figure in the early Islamic tradition, and its later transformations until recent times that were shaped by Prophet-centered piety and politics. A variety of case studies offers a unique overview of the interplay of Sunn\u012b amd Sh\u012b\u02bf\u012b doctrines with literature and arts in the formation of his image. They trace the integrative and conflictual qualities of a \u201cProphetic culture\u201d, in which the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers. ","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739","book":{"id":5402,"pubplace":"Leiden, Boston","publisher":"Brill","series":"Handbook of Oriental studies; Section 1: The Near and Middle East","volume":"159","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6261,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Denis Gril","free_first_name":"Denis","free_last_name":"Gril","norm_person":null},{"id":6262,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Stefan Reichmuth","free_first_name":"Stefan","free_last_name":"Reichmuth","norm_person":null},{"id":6263,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Dilek Sarmis","free_first_name":"Dilek","free_last_name":"Sarmis","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Metaphysics Last: Agostino on Averroes, Avicenna, and the Order of the Theoretical Sciences, 2021
By: Anna-Katharina Strohschneider
Title Metaphysics Last: Agostino on Averroes, Avicenna, and the Order of the Theoretical Sciences
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 151–187
Categories Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Anna-Katharina Strohschneider
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2021
By: Pietro B. Rossi (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.), Andrea A. Robiglio (Ed.)
Title Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Studia artistarum
Volume 45
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Albert, Avicenna, Renaissance, Metaphysics, Logic
Author(s) Pietro B. Rossi , Matteo Di Giovanni , Andrea A. Robiglio
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The greatest ancient interpreter of Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. 200 AD) exerted a profound and enduring influence upon philosophy from Boethius until the modern era. Alexander’s interpretations laid the foundation for multiple philosophical views which were promoted as quintessentially Aristotelian by both Islamic and Latin thinkers throughout the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, the University of Padua, a leading center of philosophical education and thought, established a scholarly tradition named “Alexandrinism” after him.

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Wonder in Aristotelian Arabic Poetics, 2020
By: Lara Harb
Title Wonder in Aristotelian Arabic Poetics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2020
Published in Arabic Poetics: Aesthetic Experience in Classical Arabic Literature
Pages 75–134
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Poetics
Author(s) Lara Harb
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Chapter 2 demonstrates that a similar shift took place in the reception of Aristotle’s Poetics in Arabic. Arabic philosophy was faced with the problem of making sense of the poetic as a type of syllogism, since it inherited a classification of Aristotle’s treatise as part of his books on logic (the Organon). While initial attempts in late antiquity distinguished the poetic from other types of syllogism based on its falsehood, Arabic philosophy, especially with Avicenna (d. 1037), decoupled the poetic from truth and falsehood and distinguished the kind of conclusion that one attains through the poetic syllogism as “make-believe” (takhyīl). This new solution shifted the assessment of the poetic from a statement’s truth and falsehood to its ability to conjure a make-believe image. This process was also expected to allow for an experience of discovery and wonder in the listener according to the philosophers. While Aristotle discussed wonder as resulting from manipulations of a tragic plot, Arabic philosophy developed a theory of wonder resulting from the verbal arts, especially simile and metaphor. The chapter follows the development of these ideas in the works of Averroes (d. 1198), al-Qarṭājannī (d. 1285), and al-Sijilmāsi (d. c. 1330).

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The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic: Perspectives in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought, 2020
By: Nadja Germann (Ed.), Steven Harvey (Ed.)
Title The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic: Perspectives in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2020
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Rencontres de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 20
Categories Logic, Theology, Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Avicenna, Maimonides
Author(s) Nadja Germann , Steven Harvey
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The annual colloquium of the SIEPM in Freiburg, Germany, was groundbreaking in that it featured a more or less equal number of talks on all three medieval cultures that contributed to the formation of Western philosophical thought: the Islamic, Jewish, and Christian traditions. Indeed, the subject of the colloquium, ‘The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought’, lent itself to such a cross-cultural approach. In all these traditions, partially inspired by ancient Greek philosophy, partially by other sources, language and thought, semantics and logic occupied a central place. As a result, the chapters of the present volume effortlessly traverse philosophical, religious, cultural, and linguistic boundaries and thus in many respects open up new perspectives. It should not be surprising if readers delight in chapters of a philosophical tradition outside of their own as much as they do in those in their area of expertise. Among the topics discussed are the significance of language for logic; the origin of language: inspiration or convention; imposition or coinage; the existence of an original language; the correctness of language; divine discourse; animal language; the meaningfulness of animal sounds; music as communication; the scope of dialectical disputation; the relation between rhetoric and demonstration; the place of logic and rhetoric in theology; the limits of human knowledge; the meaning of categories; the problem of metaphysical entailment; the need to disentangle the metaphysical implications of language; the quantification of predicates; and the significance of linguistic custom for judging logical propositions.

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Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna, 2020
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 20
Issue 1
Pages 1–26
Categories Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with the divine knowledge of particulars in Averroes’ Tahāfut al-tahāfut and Ḍamīma. It examines how the concept of relation, generally neglected, is at the heart of the dispute between Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, and the Commentator. In al-Ġazālī’s eyes, Avicenna's misconception of divine knowledge “in a universal way” is based on a misuse of relation in the case of God's knowledge. If particulars change and God does not, his knowledge of particulars, insofar as it undergoes change, can be considered a pure relation without ontological consequences. Averroes contests both al-Ġazālī’s criticism and his proposal, despite the fact that, for different reasons involving the coming-to-be of human knowledge, he too employs the notion of pure relation in his Long Commentary on the Physics.

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Avicenne et Averroès contre Galien: Quelques lectures universitaires de leurs critiques (XIVe-XVe S.), 2020
By: Danielle Jacquart
Title Avicenne et Averroès contre Galien: Quelques lectures universitaires de leurs critiques (XIVe-XVe S.)
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2020
Published in Contre Galien. Critiques d’une autorité médicale de l’Antiquité à l’âge moderne
Pages 199–214
Categories Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Danielle Jacquart
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

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The First as Pure Act and Causality: The Case of Ibn Rushd, 2020
By: Özgür Koca
Title The First as Pure Act and Causality: The Case of Ibn Rushd
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2020
Published in Islam, causality, and freedom: from the medieval to the modern era
Pages 83–99
Categories Metaphysics, Neoplatonism, Avicenna, al-Ġazālī
Author(s) Özgür Koca
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The fourth chapter examines Ibn Rushd’s account of causality. It will be argued that Ibn Rushd’s theory of causality comes very close to Neo-Platonistic participatory accounts, despite his strong Aristotelian tendencies. Ibn Rushd, like Ibn Sīnā, finds the basis of causal efficacy of entities in their participation in the pure existence-act of the First. The most important implication of this understanding of causality is that despite the occasionalist critique that we do not and cannot observe a necessary connection between cause and effect, for Ibn Rushd, the moment one defines existence as pure act, it metaphysically makes more sense to accept causal efficacy of entities, for they participate in the pure existence-act of the First. The chapter also examines the differences between Ibn Sīnā and Ibn Rushd that stem from the latter’s efforts to address some of Ghazālī’s challenges. Ibn Rushd agrees with Ghazālī in that plurality can emanate from the First without emanationist intermediation and solely based on the nature-capacity-form of beings. This view establishes a closer connection between the First’s existence-act and the world than Ibn Sīnā’s metaphysics allows.

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'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten, 2006
By: Sven K. Knebel
Title 'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2006
Published in Wissen über Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter
Pages 662–676
Categories Tradition and Reception, Avicenna
Author(s) Sven K. Knebel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"874","_score":null,"_source":{"id":874,"authors_free":[{"id":1041,"entry_id":874,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1003,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Sven K. Knebel","free_first_name":"Sven K.","free_last_name":"Knebel","norm_person":{"id":1003,"first_name":"Sven K.","last_name":"Knebel","full_name":"Sven K. Knebel","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/122283600","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/71525882","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/pnd122283600.html","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Sven K. Knebel"}}],"entry_title":"'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2006","language":"German","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"}],"authors":[{"id":1003,"full_name":"Sven K. Knebel","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":874,"section_of":24,"pages":"662\u2013676","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":24,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Wissen \u00fcber Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2006","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2006","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":24,"pubplace":"Berlin, New York","publisher":"Walter de Gruyter","series":"Miscellanea Mediaevalia","volume":"33","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten"]}

A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, 2018
By: Silvia Di Vincenzo
Title A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 29
Pages 125–136
Categories Avicenna, Commentary
Author(s) Silvia Di Vincenzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Map of Averroes’ Criticism against Avicenna: Physics, De caelo, De generatione et corruptione and Meteorology, 2018
By: Cristina Cerami
Title A Map of Averroes’ Criticism against Avicenna: Physics, De caelo, De generatione et corruptione and Meteorology
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna’s Physics and Cosmology
Pages 163–240
Categories Avicenna, De caelo, Physics, Meteorology, Commentary, Surveys
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2021
By: Pietro B. Rossi (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.), Andrea A. Robiglio (Ed.)
Title Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Studia artistarum
Volume 45
Categories Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Albert, Avicenna, Renaissance, Metaphysics, Logic
Author(s) Pietro B. Rossi , Matteo Di Giovanni , Andrea A. Robiglio
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The greatest ancient interpreter of Aristotle, Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. 200 AD) exerted a profound and enduring influence upon philosophy from Boethius until the modern era. Alexander’s interpretations laid the foundation for multiple philosophical views which were promoted as quintessentially Aristotelian by both Islamic and Latin thinkers throughout the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, the University of Padua, a leading center of philosophical education and thought, established a scholarly tradition named “Alexandrinism” after him.

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An Abstractionist Correction of Avicenna's Theory of Intentionality in the Early Averroes, 2011
By: Francisco Romero Carasquillo
Title An Abstractionist Correction of Avicenna's Theory of Intentionality in the Early Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2011
Journal Acta Philosophica
Volume 20
Issue 2
Pages 405-420
Categories Aristotle, Avicenna
Author(s) Francisco Romero Carasquillo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper offers an account of Averroes’ early doctrine of the internal senses with special reference to the role that intentionality plays in internal sense cognition. The author points out that, whereas for Avicenna an “intention” is the object of a specific faculty, for Averroes it is the formal aspect at any level of internal-sense cognition. This interpretation is required by the need to find coherence among those passages in Averroes’ Epitome de Parva naturalia that ascribe the joining of images and intentions to both the cogitative and memorative faculties. Consequently, Averroes’ account is hopelessly incoherent unless one interprets him as departing from, and indeed revising, the Avicennian doctrine of intentionality along more a faithful Aristotelian-abstractionist framework.

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Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Arabic/Islamic Philosophy in Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of the Beatific Vision in IV Sent., D. 49, Q. 2, A.1
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal The Thomist
Volume 76
Issue 4
Pages 509–550
Categories Metaphysics, al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Avicenna, Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes, 2019
By: John W. Watt
Title Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in The Aristotelian Tradition in Syriac
Pages 249–259
Categories Rhetoric, Politics, al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Aristotle
Author(s) John W. Watt
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Given the remarkable fact that Aristotle’s Rhetoric appears to have had little influence outside the area of logic in late antiquity, but was very influential in Islamic political philosophy, the chapter examines whether the Syriac tradition can help to explain this development. The late antique Platonic concept of philosophical rhetoric, Themistius’ political thought, and their echoes in the Rhetoric of Antony of Tagrit are examined, and compared with the ideas expressed in the writings on rhetoric of al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Averroes, and Bar Hebraeus.

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Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes, 2011
By: John W. Watt
Title Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Well Begun is Only Half Done: Tracing Aristotle’s Political Ideas in Medieval Arabic, Syriac, Byzantine, and Jewish Sources
Pages 17–47
Categories Rhetoric, Politics, al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Aristotle
Author(s) John W. Watt
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
see also the Chapter under the same title in John W. Watt "The Aristotelian Tradition in Syriac".

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Averroes against Avicenna on Human Spontaneous Generation: The Starting-Point of a Lasting Debate, 2013
By: Amos Bertolacci
Title Averroes against Avicenna on Human Spontaneous Generation: The Starting-Point of a Lasting Debate
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 37–54
Categories Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Amos Bertolacci
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The first criticism of Avicenna in Averroes’s Long Commentary on Metaphysica (II, 993a30-995a20) regards Avicenna’s doctrine of the asexual (so-called ‘spontaneous’) generation of human beings. This criticism is interesting in two main regards. When considered in the general historical context of the confrontation between advocates and opponents of spontaneous generation, the specific debate between Averroes and Avicenna on this issue can be said to have had a long-lasting impact on Latin philosophy up until the Renaissance. Doctrinally, the criticism in question can be taken as a paradigm of Averroes’s more general anti-Avicennian polemic and of the ideological reasons of his dissent towards his illustrious predecessor. In fact, the criticism in questions displays three leitmotivs of Averroes’s dissent towards Avicenna: the harsh tone and the ad personam character of the attack, stressing an error unworthy of Avicenna’s alleged fame in philosophy; the insistence on Avicenna’s agreement and consonance with contemporary thinkers, a fact that in Averroes’s eyes evidences the profound gap separating Avicenna from the ancient masters, depositaries of authentic philosophy; the reproach addressed to Avicenna of being too conversant with, and receptive of, Islamic theology, thus disregarding the requirements of true philosophy. The article shows that in each of these three respects Averroes in fact presents Avicenna’s position in a biased way: indeed Avicenna does not uphold the specific version of human spontaneous generation that Averroes ascribes to him; his doctrine of human spontaneous generation is deeply rooted in ancient philosophy; and his account of this doctrine evidences clear non-religious (and therefore non-theological) traits.

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