Animosity against those "drowned in debt" : an analysis of legal texts in the Marīnid period, 2022
By: Tomoaki Shinoda
Title Animosity against those "drowned in debt" : an analysis of legal texts in the Marīnid period
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal Hespéris-Tamuda
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 301-323
Categories Law, Law
Author(s) Tomoaki Shinoda
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd in the Hanbali tradition: Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Quyyim al-Jawziyya and the continuity of philosophy in Muslim contexts, 2021
By: Fouad Ben Ahmed
Title Ibn Rushd in the Hanbali tradition: Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Quyyim al-Jawziyya and the continuity of philosophy in Muslim contexts
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 561-581
Categories Law, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Fouad Ben Ahmed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article was presented at the conference “Philosophical Perspectives on Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, Christianity and Islam” held at Universidad Panamericana, Mexico City, April 5 and 6, 2018, organized by Luis Xavier López-Farjeat. I would like to thank him warmly for his generous invitation, Louise Agasse for her corrections of my English text, and Richard Taylor for his comments and suggestions. Finally, I thank Yahya Michot for agreeing to publish this text in The Muslim world. Unless otherweise noted, all translations from Arabic are my own.

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A Theory of Judgment in Averroes, 2021
By: Rayyan Dabbous
Title A Theory of Judgment in Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Arab Studies Quarterly
Volume 43
Issue No. 3 (Summer 2021)
Pages 268–281
Categories Linguistics, Politics, Rhetoric, Law, Psychology
Author(s) Rayyan Dabbous
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, 2019
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Oxford Journal of Law and Religion
Volume 8
Issue 1
Pages 174–205
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to the Sunnī legal tradition, legal norms should be derived from the authoritative texts of the Qurʾān and Sunna. However, how exactly to derive such norms remains unclear, when no reference can be found to the matter at hand within these sources. The use of maqāṣid at this point might be a viable solution. Little attention, however, is paid to alternative approaches like the one of Ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd (d 595/1198), which is based on philosophical ethics. Ibn Rushd derives ‘legal precepts’ through analysing the most prominent legal verdicts of Islamic law that were passed by various madhhab. These precepts not only enabled scholars to resolve new legal problems by using ijtihād, they also shed new light on existing legal challenges. This article will analyse Ibn Rushd’s legal hermeneutics in his Bidāyat al-mujtahid by looking at the passages concerning sales of ritually pure (ṭāhir) goods and interest (ribā).

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The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”, 2019
By: Jaan S. Islam
Title The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 43–65
Categories Politics, Law, Commentary, Plato
Author(s) Jaan S. Islam
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is an analysis of the political thought of Ibn Rushd and its significance for the current conflict in Islamic political thought between liberal, secular and conservative Islamist thinkers over the meaning of the “virtuous society” and how it can be implemented. It is argued that the thought of Ibn Rushd offers a concept of the virtuous society that reconciles secular law and religious Sharī‘a law. The article analyzes Ibn Rushd’s Commentary on Plato’s Republic, and assesses it as potentially being able to reconcile the philosophical conflict between logically discerned law and revealed law. It is contended that the separation between “religious” and “political” (i.e., philosophical) domains often attributed to Ibn Rushd does not fully consider the entirety of Ibn Rushd’s writings and interprets his works without regard for their historical and religious contextual significance.

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Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law, 2017
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 1–27
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Rhetoric
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article traces a Muslim tradition of natural law in the thought of Ibn Rushd. I argue that this notion of natural law enriches the concept of law and can mediate conflicts of human law and divine law in Islam. I discuss the ontology, then epistemology, of Ibn Rushd’s natural law, then situate the resultant conception of law within Islamic legal and theological contexts.

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The concept of “lawfulness” in economic matters: reading Ibn Rushd (Averroes), 2017
By: Ragip Ege
Title The concept of “lawfulness” in economic matters: reading Ibn Rushd (Averroes)
Type Article
Language undefined
Date 2017
Journal The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought
Volume 24
Issue 4
Pages 670-688
Categories Law, Economics
Author(s) Ragip Ege
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La philosophie comme pratique: erreur et droit à l’erreur dans la pensée d’Averroès, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title La philosophie comme pratique: erreur et droit à l’erreur dans la pensée d’Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Les Études Philosophiques
Volume 117
Issue 2
Pages 269–282
Categories al-Ġazālī, Law
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Responding to the accusations of the Ašʿarite theologian al-Ġazālī, in his Decisive Treatise Averroes champions the practice of philosophy, using legal and scriptural arguments. In this article, I wish to place these arguments within the context of legal theory, a discipline to which Averroes devoted one of his earliest treatises, the Abridgment of al-Mustaṣfā . A comparison of these two texts allows us to identify the origin of some arguments of the Decisive Treatise, concerning the taxonomy of errors and the social organization of knowledge. My aim is to set Averroes’ reflection within a continuity of the Islamic meta-legal tradition that provided him with the necessary tools for his conceptualization of the philosopher’s place within society.

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El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes, 2015
By: Diego R. Sarrió
Title El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 36
Issue 1
Pages 45–68
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Diego R. Sarrió
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El presente artículo argumenta que por debajo del marco jurídico del Faṣl al-maqāl subyace el deseo de conciliar los requerimientos de la razón con las exigencias de la fe. Averroes basa tal conciliación en la aceptación de una teoría hermenéutica según la cual, la Palabra Divina se dirige a cada ser humano según su capacidad intelectual. Por consiguiente, Averroes no excluye a los sabios del deber religioso de asentir a la verdad revelada. Contrariamente a interpretaciones exageradamente secularizadoras de su racionalismo, el artículo sugiere que Averroes concibió la filosofía en términos cuasi religiosos, como la obra más noble que se puede llevar a cabo en presencia de Dios, cuyo ejercicio convierte a sus practicantes en los legítimos «herederos de los profetas».

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Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza, 2015
By: Joaquín García-Huidobro
Title Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Anales del seminario de historia de la filosofía
Volume 32
Issue 2
Pages 393–413
Categories Aristotle, Law
Author(s) Joaquín García-Huidobro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
En su comentario a la Ética a Nicómaco, Averroes se ocupó del pasaje donde Aristóteles distingue entre las cosas que son justas por naturaleza y aquéllas que lo son en virtud de la ley (V, 7 1134b18-1135a5). Su comentario es particularmente breve, pero plantea algunas dificultades importantes, como su alusión a un derecho naturale legale, que, según Leo Strauss, vendría a ser simplemente un derecho positivo de aceptación general. En este artículo se busca caracterizar lo justo natural y lo justo positivo en el comentario de Averroes y mostrar el alcance de la variación de los criterios propios de la justicia positiva.

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A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes, 2007
By: Thérèse Bonin
Title A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Peripatetikos
Volume 6
Pages 1-25
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Thérèse Bonin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Theory of Judgment in Averroes, 2021
By: Rayyan Dabbous
Title A Theory of Judgment in Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Arab Studies Quarterly
Volume 43
Issue No. 3 (Summer 2021)
Pages 268–281
Categories Linguistics, Politics, Rhetoric, Law, Psychology
Author(s) Rayyan Dabbous
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Animosity against those "drowned in debt" : an analysis of legal texts in the Marīnid period, 2022
By: Tomoaki Shinoda
Title Animosity against those "drowned in debt" : an analysis of legal texts in the Marīnid period
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal Hespéris-Tamuda
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 301-323
Categories Law, Law
Author(s) Tomoaki Shinoda
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes como muftí, 2003
By: Juan Martos Quesada
Title Averroes como muftí
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval. Miscellanea Mediaevalia en honor de Joaquin Lomba Fuentes
Volume 10
Pages 119–126
Categories Law
Author(s) Juan Martos Quesada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper is about the activity of Averroes as mufti, the role of this occupation in the legal word in al-Andalus; also, about the confusión between Averroes and his grandfather in the donation offetuas and, finally, the legal features of Averroes.

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Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza, 2015
By: Joaquín García-Huidobro
Title Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Anales del seminario de historia de la filosofía
Volume 32
Issue 2
Pages 393–413
Categories Aristotle, Law
Author(s) Joaquín García-Huidobro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
En su comentario a la Ética a Nicómaco, Averroes se ocupó del pasaje donde Aristóteles distingue entre las cosas que son justas por naturaleza y aquéllas que lo son en virtud de la ley (V, 7 1134b18-1135a5). Su comentario es particularmente breve, pero plantea algunas dificultades importantes, como su alusión a un derecho naturale legale, que, según Leo Strauss, vendría a ser simplemente un derecho positivo de aceptación general. En este artículo se busca caracterizar lo justo natural y lo justo positivo en el comentario de Averroes y mostrar el alcance de la variación de los criterios propios de la justicia positiva.

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Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi, 2012
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi
Type Article
Language French
Date 2012
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 64
Pages 239-259
Categories Law
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes, 2015
By: Diego R. Sarrió
Title El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 36
Issue 1
Pages 45–68
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Diego R. Sarrió
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El presente artículo argumenta que por debajo del marco jurídico del Faṣl al-maqāl subyace el deseo de conciliar los requerimientos de la razón con las exigencias de la fe. Averroes basa tal conciliación en la aceptación de una teoría hermenéutica según la cual, la Palabra Divina se dirige a cada ser humano según su capacidad intelectual. Por consiguiente, Averroes no excluye a los sabios del deber religioso de asentir a la verdad revelada. Contrariamente a interpretaciones exageradamente secularizadoras de su racionalismo, el artículo sugiere que Averroes concibió la filosofía en términos cuasi religiosos, como la obra más noble que se puede llevar a cabo en presencia de Dios, cuyo ejercicio convierte a sus practicantes en los legítimos «herederos de los profetas».

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Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law, 2017
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 1–27
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Rhetoric
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article traces a Muslim tradition of natural law in the thought of Ibn Rushd. I argue that this notion of natural law enriches the concept of law and can mediate conflicts of human law and divine law in Islam. I discuss the ontology, then epistemology, of Ibn Rushd’s natural law, then situate the resultant conception of law within Islamic legal and theological contexts.

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Ibn Rushd in the Hanbali tradition: Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Quyyim al-Jawziyya and the continuity of philosophy in Muslim contexts, 2021
By: Fouad Ben Ahmed
Title Ibn Rushd in the Hanbali tradition: Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Quyyim al-Jawziyya and the continuity of philosophy in Muslim contexts
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 561-581
Categories Law, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Fouad Ben Ahmed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article was presented at the conference “Philosophical Perspectives on Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, Christianity and Islam” held at Universidad Panamericana, Mexico City, April 5 and 6, 2018, organized by Luis Xavier López-Farjeat. I would like to thank him warmly for his generous invitation, Louise Agasse for her corrections of my English text, and Richard Taylor for his comments and suggestions. Finally, I thank Yahya Michot for agreeing to publish this text in The Muslim world. Unless otherweise noted, all translations from Arabic are my own.

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Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, 2019
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Oxford Journal of Law and Religion
Volume 8
Issue 1
Pages 174–205
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to the Sunnī legal tradition, legal norms should be derived from the authoritative texts of the Qurʾān and Sunna. However, how exactly to derive such norms remains unclear, when no reference can be found to the matter at hand within these sources. The use of maqāṣid at this point might be a viable solution. Little attention, however, is paid to alternative approaches like the one of Ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd (d 595/1198), which is based on philosophical ethics. Ibn Rushd derives ‘legal precepts’ through analysing the most prominent legal verdicts of Islamic law that were passed by various madhhab. These precepts not only enabled scholars to resolve new legal problems by using ijtihād, they also shed new light on existing legal challenges. This article will analyse Ibn Rushd’s legal hermeneutics in his Bidāyat al-mujtahid by looking at the passages concerning sales of ritually pure (ṭāhir) goods and interest (ribā).

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