Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 253–274
Categories Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The most famous, or infamous, proposal in Plato's Republic concerns the rule of philosopher-kings. Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole. Averroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics. The form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as “we said,” and “Plato said.” In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5358","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5358,"authors_free":[{"id":6209,"entry_id":5358,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1790,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":"Alexander ","free_last_name":"Orwin","norm_person":{"id":1790,"first_name":" Alexander","last_name":" Orwin","full_name":" Alexander Orwin","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/1153328348","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]= Alexander Orwin"}}],"entry_title":"Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?"},"abstract":"The most famous, or infamous, proposal in Plato's Republic concerns the rule of philosopher-kings. Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole.\r\n\r\nAverroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics.\r\n\r\nThe form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as \u201cwe said,\u201d and \u201cPlato said.\u201d In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.013","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5358,"section_of":5346,"pages":"253\u2013274","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat, 2022
By: Joshua Parens
Title Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 233–252
Categories Nicomachean ethics, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Joshua Parens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume—namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions—that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions—form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics—putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10—and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17–74.12).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5357","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5357,"authors_free":[{"id":6208,"entry_id":5357,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1783,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Joshua Parens","free_first_name":"Joshua","free_last_name":" Parens","norm_person":{"id":1783,"first_name":"Joshua","last_name":"Parens","full_name":"Joshua Parens","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/172958881","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Joshua Parens"}}],"entry_title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat"},"abstract":"As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume\u2014namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions\u2014that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions\u2014form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics\u2014putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10\u2014and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17\u201374.12).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.012","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":70,"category_name":"Nicomachean ethics","link":"bib?categories[]=Nicomachean ethics"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1783,"full_name":"Joshua Parens","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5357,"section_of":5346,"pages":"233\u2013252","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title Leo Strauss and Islamic Political Thought
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press.
Categories Theology, Politics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this book, Rasoul Namazi offers the first in-depth study of Leo Strauss' writings on Islamic political thought, a topic that interested Strauss over the course of his career. Namazi's volume focuses on several important studies by Strauss on Islamic thought. He critically analyzes Strauss's notes on Averroes' commentary on Plato's Republic and also proposes an interpretation of Strauss' theologico-political notes on the Arabian Nights. Namazi also interprets Strauss' essay on Alfarabi's enigmatic treatise, The Philosophy of Plato and provides a detailed commentary on his complex essay devoted to Alfarabi's summary of Plato's Laws. Based on previously unpublished material from Strauss' papers, Namazi's volume provides new insights into Strauss' reflections on religion, philosophy, and politics, and their relationship to wisdom, persecution, divine law, and unbelief in the works of key Muslim thinkers. His work presents Strauss as one of the most innovative historians and scholars of Islamic thought of all time.

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Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin (Ed.)
Title Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2022
Publisher Boydell & Brewer
Categories al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Logic, Theology, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Living in Convivencia: Intertwined Communities of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in Al-Andalus during the Caliphate of Córdoba, 2022
By: Jacob Perkins
Title Living in Convivencia: Intertwined Communities of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in Al-Andalus during the Caliphate of Córdoba
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Series Guilford College Thesis Collection
Categories Surveys, Politics, Theology
Author(s) Jacob Perkins
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 69–86
Categories Politics, Dialectic
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's “Republic” with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is “to abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.” This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city—that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats “volitional actions and habits in general” (haqinyanim wehapeʿulot hareṣoniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences—even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division—as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing. It appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d–511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah harišonah).

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Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city\u2014that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats \u201cvolitional actions and habits in general\u201d (haqinyanim wehape\u02bfulot hare\u1e63oniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences\u2014even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division\u2014as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing.\r\n\r\nIt appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d\u2013511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah hari\u0161onah).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.004","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":79,"category_name":"Dialectic","link":"bib?categories[]=Dialectic"}],"authors":[{"id":1500,"full_name":"Yehuda Halper","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5349,"section_of":5346,"pages":"69\u201386","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 19–39
Categories al-Fārābī, Galen, Aristotle, Plato, Politics, Commentary
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments. The importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27–30, 23.31–33, cf. 47.29–30and 105.25–27). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25–27, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: “Before we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning” (CR 22.6–8). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22–24.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi—mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war—for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5347","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5347,"authors_free":[{"id":6197,"entry_id":5347,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1790,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Orwin","norm_person":{"id":1790,"first_name":" Alexander","last_name":" Orwin","full_name":" Alexander Orwin","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/1153328348","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]= Alexander Orwin"}}],"entry_title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City"},"abstract":"Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments.\r\n\r\nThe importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27\u201330, 23.31\u201333, cf. 47.29\u201330and 105.25\u201327). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25\u201327, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: \u201cBefore we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning\u201d (CR 22.6\u20138). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22\u201324.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi\u2014mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war\u2014for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.002","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5347,"section_of":5346,"pages":"19\u201339","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching, 2022
By: Shlomo Pines, Alexander Orwin
Title Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 133–159
Categories Politics, Transmission
Author(s) Shlomo Pines , Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The original Hebrew was published in Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 8 (April 1957): 65–84. A complete English translation follows. No commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open. Having no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion. The Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance. The Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.

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A complete English translation follows.\r\n\r\nNo commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open.\r\n\r\nHaving no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion.\r\n\r\nThe Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance.\r\n\r\nThe Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.007","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":40,"category_name":"Transmission","link":"bib?categories[]=Transmission"}],"authors":[{"id":840,"full_name":"Shlomo Pines","role":1},{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5352,"section_of":5346,"pages":"133\u2013159","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 212–232
Categories Politics
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Political discourse in the Islamic world has a threefold classical heritage— Islamic, Persian, and Greek, each representing a different genre. These three genres of discourse were first elaborated under the same historical circumstances in the tenth century, often by the same authors. The religious discourse includes the political, since it has a dual function: on the one hand, it aims to safeguard the prophetic tradition; on the other hand, it aims to administer earthly interests. This discourse culminates in the theory of the imamate elaborated by the jurist Al-Māwardī, which we shall address later Of Persian origin, the “mirrors of princes” or royal genre literature portrays the art of ruling and the model of virtue imposed on the prince. It represents a literary genre that predates the emergence of Islam. There are two categories of “mirrors”: those composed through a series of fables, and those organized by ideas and concepts. Those composed of fables, like Kalila and Dimna, tell stories with moral content aimed at teaching moral principles to the ruler; the conceptual “mirrors,” meanwhile, deal with the organization of royal duties, while also conveying political and moral instruction. The influence of Persian and Indian moral thinking in the Islamic tradition precedes the entrance of Greek ethics. Its principal representative is Ibn Muqaffaʿ (ca. 720–ca. 756), a courtier of Persian origin who gained fame as a promoter of the refined culture that developed under the Abbasids. Ibn Muqaffaʿ was known for integrating the literature of Persian and Indian origins into the Arab milieu. His most celebrated work, Kitāb Kalīla wa-Dimna, is an Arabic version of the collection of Indian fables dating back to the Panjatantra and to the Tantrākhyāyka; this was “designed to enrich political talent in the reader, unfolding before his eyes the spectacle of the royal political world, with all its activities, struggles, and evolutions, while at the same time explaining to the reader the interests, passions, and motivations that make each of the players act and the causes and consequences of their behavior.” The transmission of these fables constitutes one of the first monuments of Arabic prose, in which emphasis is given to profane wisdom that teaches political prudence and at the same time celebrates the virtues of friendship.

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Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Douglas Kries
Title Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 87–110
Categories Poetics, Politics, Plato
Author(s) Douglas Kries
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As our title announces, the current essay will explore three subjects that, in Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” lead from one into another, almost like a short series of stepping-stones. The first part of the essay will consider the treatment of music in the Commentary, arguing that Averroes effectively reduces music to poetry. The second of the stepping-stones will show that the Commentary credits poetry with educating the young especially and in that way transforms poetry into a political art for disciplining and educating citizens. The third will take up the question of the Andalusian's extended criticism of poetry's common practice of offering pleasurable prizes and rewards for virtue and show how the Commentator applies this criticism of poetry to the very author on whom he is commenting. In pursuing all three of these questions, we will focus squarely on Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” attempting to understand that text on its own terms but against its obvious background, the Republic of Plato. Nevertheless, in pursuing the teaching of The Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” we cannot neglect the important research that has been done in recent decades on classical Islamic philosophy's understanding of Aristotle's Organon generally and of the Poetics in particular. We will therefore turn to the reports of other scholars on these aspects of Averroes, at least to the extent that such reports will be helpful in enabling us to understand better the Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” In the Republic, Plato initiates his analysis of the education of the guardians with a discussion of music in the latter portions of book 2; that discussion extends through much of book 3. Averroes's corresponding treatment of the education of the guardians through music is in the “First Treatise” of the Commentary, mostly in a relatively lengthy and isolable section that extends from 29.9 through 36.5. During his treatment of music, Plato divides his subject into three parts: “melody is composed of three things—speech, harmonic mode, and rhythm.” Averroes seems to accept this division, although he inverts the order of the three elements: “A melody occurring in a narrative is composed of three things: rhythm, harmonic mode, and the speech to which the melody is set” (34.30–31).

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Irrtum - Error - Erreur, 2018
By: Andreas Speer (Ed.), Maxime Mauriège (Ed.)
Title Irrtum - Error - Erreur
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2018
Publication Place Berlin; Boston
Publisher De Gruyter
Series Miscellanea Mediaevalia
Volume 40
Categories Science, Medicine, Psychology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Andreas Speer , Maxime Mauriège
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The volume is a comprehensive evaluation of epistemic, practical, veridical issues from the perspective of every kind of failure, disruption, or confusion that comes under the general rubric of “error.” The analysis is not limited to the element of negativity, but rather, an inquiry about the extent that error can be transformed into a starting point or precondition for successful epistemic practices.

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(Re)traduction et restitution du texte d’Ibn Rushd dans sa langue d’origine: Commentaire de la République de Platon, 2013
By: Abdennour Benantar
Title (Re)traduction et restitution du texte d’Ibn Rushd dans sa langue d’origine: Commentaire de la République de Platon
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Noesis
Volume 21
Pages 163–186
Categories Politics, Transmission
Author(s) Abdennour Benantar
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The article analyses the problematics of retranslation and restitution of Ibn Rushd’s Commentary of Plato’s Republic, in its original language, Arabic. Being at the confluents of politics and philosophy, this book is a real political treatise. The manuscript, probably lost during the time of Ibn Rushd’s disgrace, has reached us through its Hebrew translation by Samuel Ben Juda. Ahmed Chahlane and Mohamed A. al-Jabri have tried hard to return the manuscript from Hebrew into its original language. After determining the context in which Ibn Rushd’s book was written and its consequences for the author, the article analyses the problematics of (re)translation in the absence of the original (manuscript) and particularly the task of restitution conducted by Chahlane and al-Jabri. The focus is on their methodology of restitution and on the annotations made by Chahlane to the Hebrew and English translations from Hebrew by Rosenthal and Lerner, in which mistakes and approximations are numerous. The article shows how Chahlane and al-Jabri have considered the text in its original perspective and given back its frame using the work of Ibn Rushd himself and the Arab-Islamic philosophical corpus.

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A Theory of Judgment in Averroes, 2021
By: Rayyan Dabbous
Title A Theory of Judgment in Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Arab Studies Quarterly
Volume 43
Issue No. 3 (Summer 2021)
Pages 268–281
Categories Linguistics, Politics, Rhetoric, Law, Psychology
Author(s) Rayyan Dabbous
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Alfonso X „the Wise“: the last Almohad caliph?, 2009
By: Maribel Fierro
Title Alfonso X „the Wise“: the last Almohad caliph?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2009
Journal Medieval Encounters
Volume 15
Issue 2-4
Pages 175-198
Categories Politics, Science
Author(s) Maribel Fierro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Aristotelismus und Averroismus in der politischen Theorie bei Marsilius von Padua und Wilhelm von Ockham, 2019
By: Jürgen Miethke
Title Aristotelismus und Averroismus in der politischen Theorie bei Marsilius von Padua und Wilhelm von Ockham
Type Article
Language German
Date 2019
Journal Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia
Volume 75
Issue 3
Pages 1739–1762
Categories Politics, Latin Averroism, Tradition and Reception, Ockham
Author(s) Jürgen Miethke
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The paper is aiming to look at the importance of the Arabian political philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rušd) for the reception of the political philosophy of the Greek philosopher Aristotle in the Latin West by analyzing the exemple of two maior medieval authors (Marsiglio of Padua and William Ockham) for “averroistic” doctrines, in order to check the often discussed so called “Political Averroism” in the medieval Latin political philosophy. As result there seems to emerge the insight, that “Political Averroism” is only a “historiographical myth”, for Marsiglio is showing only some minor points of reference to averroistic topics, whereas Ockham seems free of clear relationship to “Averroism”.

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Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes, 2019
By: John W. Watt
Title Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in The Aristotelian Tradition in Syriac
Pages 249–259
Categories Rhetoric, Politics, al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Aristotle
Author(s) John W. Watt
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Given the remarkable fact that Aristotle’s Rhetoric appears to have had little influence outside the area of logic in late antiquity, but was very influential in Islamic political philosophy, the chapter examines whether the Syriac tradition can help to explain this development. The late antique Platonic concept of philosophical rhetoric, Themistius’ political thought, and their echoes in the Rhetoric of Antony of Tagrit are examined, and compared with the ideas expressed in the writings on rhetoric of al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Averroes, and Bar Hebraeus.

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Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes, 2011
By: John W. Watt
Title Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Political Thought in the Christian Orient and in al-Fârâbî, Avicenna and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Well Begun is Only Half Done: Tracing Aristotle’s Political Ideas in Medieval Arabic, Syriac, Byzantine, and Jewish Sources
Pages 17–47
Categories Rhetoric, Politics, al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Aristotle
Author(s) John W. Watt
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
see also the Chapter under the same title in John W. Watt "The Aristotelian Tradition in Syriac".

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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Averroes on Law and Political Well-Being, 2007
By: Charles E. Butterworth
Title Averroes on Law and Political Well-Being
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2007
Published in Averroes et les Averroïsmes juif et latin. Actes du Colloque International. Paris, 16–18 juin 2005
Pages 183–192
Categories Politics
Author(s) Charles E. Butterworth
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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