Author 378
Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin (Ed.)
Title Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2022
Publisher Boydell & Brewer
Categories al-Fārābī, Ibn Bāǧǧa, Logic, Theology, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching, 2022
By: Shlomo Pines, Alexander Orwin
Title Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 133–159
Categories Politics, Transmission
Author(s) Shlomo Pines , Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The original Hebrew was published in Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 8 (April 1957): 65–84. A complete English translation follows. No commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open. Having no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion. The Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance. The Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.

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A complete English translation follows.\r\n\r\nNo commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open.\r\n\r\nHaving no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion.\r\n\r\nThe Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance.\r\n\r\nThe Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.007","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":40,"category_name":"Transmission","link":"bib?categories[]=Transmission"}],"authors":[{"id":840,"full_name":"Shlomo Pines","role":1},{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5352,"section_of":5346,"pages":"133\u2013159","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 212–232
Categories Politics
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Political discourse in the Islamic world has a threefold classical heritage— Islamic, Persian, and Greek, each representing a different genre. These three genres of discourse were first elaborated under the same historical circumstances in the tenth century, often by the same authors. The religious discourse includes the political, since it has a dual function: on the one hand, it aims to safeguard the prophetic tradition; on the other hand, it aims to administer earthly interests. This discourse culminates in the theory of the imamate elaborated by the jurist Al-Māwardī, which we shall address later Of Persian origin, the “mirrors of princes” or royal genre literature portrays the art of ruling and the model of virtue imposed on the prince. It represents a literary genre that predates the emergence of Islam. There are two categories of “mirrors”: those composed through a series of fables, and those organized by ideas and concepts. Those composed of fables, like Kalila and Dimna, tell stories with moral content aimed at teaching moral principles to the ruler; the conceptual “mirrors,” meanwhile, deal with the organization of royal duties, while also conveying political and moral instruction. The influence of Persian and Indian moral thinking in the Islamic tradition precedes the entrance of Greek ethics. Its principal representative is Ibn Muqaffaʿ (ca. 720–ca. 756), a courtier of Persian origin who gained fame as a promoter of the refined culture that developed under the Abbasids. Ibn Muqaffaʿ was known for integrating the literature of Persian and Indian origins into the Arab milieu. His most celebrated work, Kitāb Kalīla wa-Dimna, is an Arabic version of the collection of Indian fables dating back to the Panjatantra and to the Tantrākhyāyka; this was “designed to enrich political talent in the reader, unfolding before his eyes the spectacle of the royal political world, with all its activities, struggles, and evolutions, while at the same time explaining to the reader the interests, passions, and motivations that make each of the players act and the causes and consequences of their behavior.” The transmission of these fables constitutes one of the first monuments of Arabic prose, in which emphasis is given to profane wisdom that teaches political prudence and at the same time celebrates the virtues of friendship.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5356","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5356,"authors_free":[{"id":6207,"entry_id":5356,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1347,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira","free_first_name":"Rosalie Helena","free_last_name":"de Souza Pereira","norm_person":{"id":1347,"first_name":"Rosalie Helena","last_name":"de Souza Pereira","full_name":"Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/121640755","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira"}}],"entry_title":"The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Political discourse in the Islamic world has a threefold classical heritage\u2014 Islamic, Persian, and Greek, each representing a different genre. These three genres of discourse were first elaborated under the same historical circumstances in the tenth century, often by the same authors.\r\n\r\nThe religious discourse includes the political, since it has a dual function: on the one hand, it aims to safeguard the prophetic tradition; on the other hand, it aims to administer earthly interests. This discourse culminates in the theory of the imamate elaborated by the jurist Al-M\u0101ward\u012b, which we shall address later\r\n\r\nOf Persian origin, the \u201cmirrors of princes\u201d or royal genre literature portrays the art of ruling and the model of virtue imposed on the prince. It represents a literary genre that predates the emergence of Islam. There are two categories of \u201cmirrors\u201d: those composed through a series of fables, and those organized by ideas and concepts. Those composed of fables, like Kalila and Dimna, tell stories with moral content aimed at teaching moral principles to the ruler; the conceptual \u201cmirrors,\u201d meanwhile, deal with the organization of royal duties, while also conveying political and moral instruction.\r\n\r\nThe influence of Persian and Indian moral thinking in the Islamic tradition precedes the entrance of Greek ethics. Its principal representative is Ibn Muqaffa\u02bf (ca. 720\u2013ca. 756), a courtier of Persian origin who gained fame as a promoter of the refined culture that developed under the Abbasids. Ibn Muqaffa\u02bf was known for integrating the literature of Persian and Indian origins into the Arab milieu. His most celebrated work, Kit\u0101b Kal\u012bla wa-Dimna, is an Arabic version of the collection of Indian fables dating back to the Panjatantra and to the Tantr\u0101khy\u0101yka; this was \u201cdesigned to enrich political talent in the reader, unfolding before his eyes the spectacle of the royal political world, with all its activities, struggles, and evolutions, while at the same time explaining to the reader the interests, passions, and motivations that make each of the players act and the causes and consequences of their behavior.\u201d The transmission of these fables constitutes one of the first monuments of Arabic prose, in which emphasis is given to profane wisdom that teaches political prudence and at the same time celebrates the virtues of friendship.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.011","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"}],"authors":[{"id":1347,"full_name":"Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5356,"section_of":5346,"pages":"212\u2013232","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 113–132
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Influence
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this chapter, I will focus on Averroes's position on family and property in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I will lay out his views on the role of parents in the education of children, and the place of women and children within the family and in society. I will examine Averroes's stance on private and collective property, as well as his questions pertaining to the transmission of property. Averroes's primary goal in this commentary is arguably to elucidate Plato's analysis of the structure of the ideal political state, given that, by his own admission, he could not find an Arabic translation of Aristotle's Politics. A distinction can in principle be made between Plato's views as expounded by Averroes, and the latter's own views on a given subject. Averroes’ positions can be discerned in the way he introduces personal comments and references to contemporary al-Andalus. In order to discern Averroes's positions and to discover whether he concurs with Plato on issues such as the question of education and the status of women and property, comparisons will be drawn with his main legal work, Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid, so as to uncover his position on such legal matters as family law and property law. It seems that Averroes would have preferred to write a commentary on Aristotle's Politics, since Aristotle's views are closer to his own. In spite of the fact that he is writing on a philosopher with whom he has fewer affinities, he succeeds in presenting many of his own views in this commentary on Plato. This is perhaps owing to the fact that Averroes often quotes Alfarabi, who greatly admired Plato's philosophy and held it to be in harmony with Aristotle’s. Thus Alfarabi, who is a great source of inspiration for Averroes, constitutes in this instance a strong link between Averroes and Plato. Averroes draws on Plato and appears to agree with him in many respects. Writing on Plato's work also allows him to expound some of his own views on issues such as virtue, education, the political state, and religion. In the Commentary on Plato's “Republic” there are echoes of works by Alfarabi, in particular The Attainment of Happiness.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5351","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5351,"authors_free":[{"id":6201,"entry_id":5351,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1254,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Catarina Belo","free_first_name":"Catarina","free_last_name":"Belo","norm_person":{"id":1254,"first_name":"Catarina","last_name":"Belo","full_name":"Catarina Belo","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/132895374","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Catarina Belo"}}],"entry_title":"Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"In this chapter, I will focus on Averroes's position on family and property in his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I will lay out his views on the role of parents in the education of children, and the place of women and children within the family and in society. I will examine Averroes's stance on private and collective property, as well as his questions pertaining to the transmission of property.\r\n\r\nAverroes's primary goal in this commentary is arguably to elucidate Plato's analysis of the structure of the ideal political state, given that, by his own admission, he could not find an Arabic translation of Aristotle's Politics. A distinction can in principle be made between Plato's views as expounded by Averroes, and the latter's own views on a given subject. Averroes\u2019 positions can be discerned in the way he introduces personal comments and references to contemporary al-Andalus. In order to discern Averroes's positions and to discover whether he concurs with Plato on issues such as the question of education and the status of women and property, comparisons will be drawn with his main legal work, Bid\u0101yat al-Mujtahid wa-Nih\u0101yat al-Muqta\u1e63id, so as to uncover his position on such legal matters as family law and property law.\r\n\r\nIt seems that Averroes would have preferred to write a commentary on Aristotle's Politics, since Aristotle's views are closer to his own. In spite of the fact that he is writing on a philosopher with whom he has fewer affinities, he succeeds in presenting many of his own views in this commentary on Plato. This is perhaps owing to the fact that Averroes often quotes Alfarabi, who greatly admired Plato's philosophy and held it to be in harmony with Aristotle\u2019s. Thus Alfarabi, who is a great source of inspiration for Averroes, constitutes in this instance a strong link between Averroes and Plato. Averroes draws on Plato and appears to agree with him in many respects. Writing on Plato's work also allows him to expound some of his own views on issues such as virtue, education, the political state, and religion. In the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d there are echoes of works by Alfarabi, in particular The Attainment of Happiness.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.006","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":24,"category_name":"Influence","link":"bib?categories[]=Influence"}],"authors":[{"id":1254,"full_name":"Catarina Belo","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5351,"section_of":5346,"pages":"113\u2013132","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5353","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5353,"authors_free":[{"id":6204,"entry_id":5353,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rasoul Namazi","free_first_name":"Rasoul ","free_last_name":"Namazi","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called \u201cla legende d\u2019Averroes.\u201d Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however\u2014presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time\u2014made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as \u201cun rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]\u201d without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and As\u00ecn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the fal\u0101sifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.008","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5353,"section_of":5346,"pages":"160\u2013181","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Douglas Kries
Title Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 87–110
Categories Poetics, Politics, Plato
Author(s) Douglas Kries
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As our title announces, the current essay will explore three subjects that, in Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” lead from one into another, almost like a short series of stepping-stones. The first part of the essay will consider the treatment of music in the Commentary, arguing that Averroes effectively reduces music to poetry. The second of the stepping-stones will show that the Commentary credits poetry with educating the young especially and in that way transforms poetry into a political art for disciplining and educating citizens. The third will take up the question of the Andalusian's extended criticism of poetry's common practice of offering pleasurable prizes and rewards for virtue and show how the Commentator applies this criticism of poetry to the very author on whom he is commenting. In pursuing all three of these questions, we will focus squarely on Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” attempting to understand that text on its own terms but against its obvious background, the Republic of Plato. Nevertheless, in pursuing the teaching of The Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” we cannot neglect the important research that has been done in recent decades on classical Islamic philosophy's understanding of Aristotle's Organon generally and of the Poetics in particular. We will therefore turn to the reports of other scholars on these aspects of Averroes, at least to the extent that such reports will be helpful in enabling us to understand better the Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” In the Republic, Plato initiates his analysis of the education of the guardians with a discussion of music in the latter portions of book 2; that discussion extends through much of book 3. Averroes's corresponding treatment of the education of the guardians through music is in the “First Treatise” of the Commentary, mostly in a relatively lengthy and isolable section that extends from 29.9 through 36.5. During his treatment of music, Plato divides his subject into three parts: “melody is composed of three things—speech, harmonic mode, and rhythm.” Averroes seems to accept this division, although he inverts the order of the three elements: “A melody occurring in a narrative is composed of three things: rhythm, harmonic mode, and the speech to which the melody is set” (34.30–31).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5350","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5350,"authors_free":[{"id":6200,"entry_id":5350,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Douglas Kries","free_first_name":"Douglas","free_last_name":"Kries","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"As our title announces, the current essay will explore three subjects that, in Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d lead from one into another, almost like a short series of stepping-stones. The first part of the essay will consider the treatment of music in the Commentary, arguing that Averroes effectively reduces music to poetry. The second of the stepping-stones will show that the Commentary credits poetry with educating the young especially and in that way transforms poetry into a political art for disciplining and educating citizens. The third will take up the question of the Andalusian's extended criticism of poetry's common practice of offering pleasurable prizes and rewards for virtue and show how the Commentator applies this criticism of poetry to the very author on whom he is commenting. In pursuing all three of these questions, we will focus squarely on Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d attempting to understand that text on its own terms but against its obvious background, the Republic of Plato. Nevertheless, in pursuing the teaching of The Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d we cannot neglect the important research that has been done in recent decades on classical Islamic philosophy's understanding of Aristotle's Organon generally and of the Poetics in particular. We will therefore turn to the reports of other scholars on these aspects of Averroes, at least to the extent that such reports will be helpful in enabling us to understand better the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d\r\n\r\nIn the Republic, Plato initiates his analysis of the education of the guardians with a discussion of music in the latter portions of book 2; that discussion extends through much of book 3. Averroes's corresponding treatment of the education of the guardians through music is in the \u201cFirst Treatise\u201d of the Commentary, mostly in a relatively lengthy and isolable section that extends from 29.9 through 36.5. During his treatment of music, Plato divides his subject into three parts: \u201cmelody is composed of three things\u2014speech, harmonic mode, and rhythm.\u201d Averroes seems to accept this division, although he inverts the order of the three elements: \u201cA melody occurring in a narrative is composed of three things: rhythm, harmonic mode, and the speech to which the melody is set\u201d (34.30\u201331).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.005","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":44,"category_name":"Poetics","link":"bib?categories[]=Poetics"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5350,"section_of":5346,"pages":"87\u2013110","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Averroes between Jihad and McWorld, 2022
By: Michael S. Kochin
Title Averroes between Jihad and McWorld
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 203–211
Categories Modern Interpretations and Adaptations
Author(s) Michael S. Kochin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Those with memories long enough will remember the terms “Jihad” and “McWorld” as used in a 1992 Atlantic magazine article and 1995 book by Benjamin Barber. Back in 1992, “Jihad” was used by Barber as shorthand for tribalism: Jihad, wrote Barber in 1992, “is a retribalization of large swaths of humankind by war and bloodshed: a threatened Lebanonization of national states in which culture is pitted against culture, people against people, tribe against tribe—a Jihad in the name of a hundred narrowly conceived faiths against every kind of interdependence, every kind of artificial social cooperation and civic mutuality.” Barber's account fails to take seriously the universal claims put forward by actual jihadis: part of the very expensive education we have all acquired since 1992 is that we all know now that jihad for a universal religion is as much opposed to tribalism as is McWorld. In fact, global jihad seems in many respects to be the effective truth of McWorld. Islamic State in its own way stands for “think globally, act locally” as much as does Greenpeace, Barber's preferred example. McDonalds isn't what it was in 1992, so perhaps we should update Barber's lingo and write MacWorld for McWorld. Apple may have made a sensible business decision when they refused to cooperate with the FBI to open the phones of the 2015 San Bernardino terrorists, one of whom had come from Pakistan to America on a spousal visa in order to wage war against the infidels; Apple's calculation seems to have been that there are many more hard and soft Islamists among Apple's customers throughout the world than patriotic Americans. Could it be that the best practical alternative to endless jihad isn't the closed tribal society, or even the closed commercial state idealized by Fichte, but a global commercial society in which every McDonalds is Halal, regardless of the language in which the menu appears on the ordering screens? Both universalist religion and universalist reason challenge the goodness and justice of the particular political community. In his Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” Averroes expounds Plato's purported justification the closed and bounded political community on the basis of universally valid principles to which all rational people ought to agree.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5355","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5355,"authors_free":[{"id":6206,"entry_id":5355,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Michael S. Kochin","free_first_name":"Michael S. ","free_last_name":"Kochin","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Averroes between Jihad and McWorld","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes between Jihad and McWorld"},"abstract":"Those with memories long enough will remember the terms \u201cJihad\u201d and \u201cMcWorld\u201d as used in a 1992 Atlantic magazine article and 1995 book by Benjamin Barber. Back in 1992, \u201cJihad\u201d was used by Barber as shorthand for tribalism: Jihad, wrote Barber in 1992, \u201cis a retribalization of large swaths of humankind by war and bloodshed: a threatened Lebanonization of national states in which culture is pitted against culture, people against people, tribe against tribe\u2014a Jihad in the name of a hundred narrowly conceived faiths against every kind of interdependence, every kind of artificial social cooperation and civic mutuality.\u201d Barber's account fails to take seriously the universal claims put forward by actual jihadis: part of the very expensive education we have all acquired since 1992 is that we all know now that jihad for a universal religion is as much opposed to tribalism as is McWorld. In fact, global jihad seems in many respects to be the effective truth of McWorld. Islamic State in its own way stands for \u201cthink globally, act locally\u201d as much as does Greenpeace, Barber's preferred example.\r\n\r\nMcDonalds isn't what it was in 1992, so perhaps we should update Barber's lingo and write MacWorld for McWorld. Apple may have made a sensible business decision when they refused to cooperate with the FBI to open the phones of the 2015 San Bernardino terrorists, one of whom had come from Pakistan to America on a spousal visa in order to wage war against the infidels; Apple's calculation seems to have been that there are many more hard and soft Islamists among Apple's customers throughout the world than patriotic Americans. Could it be that the best practical alternative to endless jihad isn't the closed tribal society, or even the closed commercial state idealized by Fichte, but a global commercial society in which every McDonalds is Halal, regardless of the language in which the menu appears on the ordering screens?\r\n\r\nBoth universalist religion and universalist reason challenge the goodness and justice of the particular political community. In his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d Averroes expounds Plato's purported justification the closed and bounded political community on the basis of universally valid principles to which all rational people ought to agree.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.010","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":52,"category_name":"Modern Interpretations and Adaptations","link":"bib?categories[]=Modern Interpretations and Adaptations"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5355,"section_of":5346,"pages":"203\u2013211","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Gersonides as Commentator in the Light of his Supercommentary on Averroes's Epitome of the Physics, 2022
By: Esti Eisenmann
Title Gersonides as Commentator in the Light of his Supercommentary on Averroes's Epitome of the Physics
Type Article
Language French
Date 2022
Journal Revue des Études Juives
Volume 181
Issue 1-2
Pages 185–222
Categories Tradition and Reception, Gersonides, Commentary, Method
Author(s) Esti Eisenmann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The article analyzes Gersonides (1288-1344) as a commentator, through the lens of his supercommentary on Averroes’s Epitome of Aristotle’s Physics. In the first section of the article, we question the assumption that this work is indeed a supercommentary and explain why it may nevertheless be included in the genre. In the second section, the article provides examples of Gersonides’ exegetical procedure. Given that the supercommentary on the Epitome of the Physics was the first supercommentary Gersonides wrote, the analysis of Gersonides’ methods sheds light on his image as an exegete and can help us determine his objective in commenting on this text and the readership he envisaged. He seems to be adressing readers who were taking their first steps in Aristotle’s works on nature and to have endeavored to guide them in this field.

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La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa, 2022
By: Meryem Sebti
Title La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2022
Published in The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding
Pages 327–347
Categories Theology, Epistemology, Cosmology, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Meryem Sebti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called falāsifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ashʿarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all falāsifa: Al-Kindī (after 870), Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (864–925), al-Fārābī (d. 950), Avicenna (980–1037), Ibn Bājja (around 1138), Ibn Ṭufayl (1110–1185) and Averroes (1126–1198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it – for some of them – into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.

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The approach by the latter, called fal\u0101sifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ash\u02bfarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all fal\u0101sifa: Al-Kind\u012b (after 870), Ab\u016b Bakr al-R\u0101z\u012b (864\u2013925), al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b (d. 950), Avicenna (980\u20131037), Ibn B\u0101jja (around 1138), Ibn \u1e6cufayl (1110\u20131185) and Averroes (1126\u20131198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it \u2013 for some of them \u2013 into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739_014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"},{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5403,"section_of":5402,"pages":"327\u2013347 ","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5402,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding ","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The three-volume series titled The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of the representation of the Prophet Muhammad in the course of Muslim history until the present.\r\nThis first collective volume outlines his figure in the early Islamic tradition, and its later transformations until recent times that were shaped by Prophet-centered piety and politics. A variety of case studies offers a unique overview of the interplay of Sunn\u012b amd Sh\u012b\u02bf\u012b doctrines with literature and arts in the formation of his image. They trace the integrative and conflictual qualities of a \u201cProphetic culture\u201d, in which the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers. ","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739","book":{"id":5402,"pubplace":"Leiden, Boston","publisher":"Brill","series":"Handbook of Oriental studies; Section 1: The Near and Middle East","volume":"159","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6261,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Denis Gril","free_first_name":"Denis","free_last_name":"Gril","norm_person":null},{"id":6262,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Stefan Reichmuth","free_first_name":"Stefan","free_last_name":"Reichmuth","norm_person":null},{"id":6263,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Dilek Sarmis","free_first_name":"Dilek","free_last_name":"Sarmis","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

'Substance' in Averroes' Three Commentaries on the Metaphysics, 2009
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title 'Substance' in Averroes' Three Commentaries on the Metaphysics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2009
Published in Florilegium mediaevale. Études offertes à Jacqueline Hamesse à l'occasion de son éméritat
Pages 491–524
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten, 2006
By: Sven K. Knebel
Title 'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2006
Published in Wissen über Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter
Pages 662–676
Categories Tradition and Reception, Avicenna
Author(s) Sven K. Knebel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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(Re)traduction et restitution du texte d’Ibn Rushd dans sa langue d’origine: Commentaire de la République de Platon, 2013
By: Abdennour Benantar
Title (Re)traduction et restitution du texte d’Ibn Rushd dans sa langue d’origine: Commentaire de la République de Platon
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Noesis
Volume 21
Pages 163–186
Categories Politics, Transmission
Author(s) Abdennour Benantar
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The article analyses the problematics of retranslation and restitution of Ibn Rushd’s Commentary of Plato’s Republic, in its original language, Arabic. Being at the confluents of politics and philosophy, this book is a real political treatise. The manuscript, probably lost during the time of Ibn Rushd’s disgrace, has reached us through its Hebrew translation by Samuel Ben Juda. Ahmed Chahlane and Mohamed A. al-Jabri have tried hard to return the manuscript from Hebrew into its original language. After determining the context in which Ibn Rushd’s book was written and its consequences for the author, the article analyses the problematics of (re)translation in the absence of the original (manuscript) and particularly the task of restitution conducted by Chahlane and al-Jabri. The focus is on their methodology of restitution and on the annotations made by Chahlane to the Hebrew and English translations from Hebrew by Rosenthal and Lerner, in which mistakes and approximations are numerous. The article shows how Chahlane and al-Jabri have considered the text in its original perspective and given back its frame using the work of Ibn Rushd himself and the Arab-Islamic philosophical corpus.

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?Cuál es el objeto de nuestro conocimiento? Tomás de Aquino intérprete de Averroes, 2012
By: Mariano Pérez Carrasco
Title ?Cuál es el objeto de nuestro conocimiento? Tomás de Aquino intérprete de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2012
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 29
Issue 1
Pages 45–63
Categories Aquinas
Author(s) Mariano Pérez Carrasco
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
¿Cuál es el objeto de nuestro conocimiento? ¿Qué es lo que de hecho conocemos? Este problema epistemológico fue uno de los ejes de las discusiones filosóficas suscitadas dentro del aristotelismo del siglo XIII, y Tomás de Aquino no sólo fue uno de los principales protagonistas de esa querelle filosófica, sino que ha escrito, incluso, alguno de esos capítulos centrales. Uno de esos capítulos es el así llamado ‘‘averroísmo latino’’, fuertemente criticado por Tomás en varias obras, especialmente en el De unitate intellectus contra averroistas. Este artículo examina algunos de los argumentos mediante los cuales Tomás no sólo procura refutar la epistemología de Averroes, sino que, además, postula y desarrolla algunas tesis luego consideradas como características del ‘‘averroísmo’’. Más específicamente, el artículo llama la atención acerca del modo en que Tomás (mal)interpreta la teoría de Averroes del intellectum speculativum (objeto del conocimiento) en términos de su propia teoría de la species intelligibilis (medio o instrumento del conocimiento).

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A Case of "Author's Variant Readings" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics , 2006
By: Mauro Zonta
Title A Case of "Author's Variant Readings" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2006
Published in Écriture et réécriture des textes philosophiques médiévaux. Volume d'hommage offert à Colette Sirat
Pages 465–483
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"609","_score":null,"_source":{"id":609,"authors_free":[{"id":760,"entry_id":609,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":401,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mauro Zonta","free_first_name":"Mauro","free_last_name":"Zonta","norm_person":{"id":401,"first_name":"Mauro","last_name":"Zonta","full_name":"Mauro Zonta","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1068186860","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/51773741","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mauro Zonta"}}],"entry_title":"A Case of \"Author's Variant Readings\" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics\n ","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"A Case of \"Author's Variant Readings\" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics\n "},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2006","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"}],"authors":[{"id":401,"full_name":"Mauro Zonta","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":609,"section_of":48,"pages":"465\u2013483","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":48,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"\u00c9criture et r\u00e9\u00e9criture des textes philosophiques m\u00e9di\u00e9vaux. Volume d'hommage offert \u00e0 Colette Sirat","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2006","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2006","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":48,"pubplace":"Turnhout","publisher":"Brepols","series":"Textes et \u00e9tudes du moyen \u00e2ge","volume":"34","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["A Case of \"Author's Variant Readings\" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics\n "]}

A Companion to the Latin Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Metaphysics, 2013
By: Fabrizio Amerini (Ed.), Gabriele Galluzzo (Ed.)
Title A Companion to the Latin Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Metaphysics
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2013
Publication Place Leiden
Publisher Brill Academic Publishers
Series Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition
Volume 43
Categories Tradition and Reception, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Fabrizio Amerini , Gabriele Galluzzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Few philosophical books have been so influential in the development of Western thought as Aristotle’s Metaphysics. For centuries Aristotle’s most celebrated work has been regarded as a source of inspiration as well as the starting point for every investigation into the structure of reality. Not surprisingly, the topics discussed in the book – the scientific status of ontology and metaphysics, the foundations of logical truths, the notions of essence and existence, the nature of material objects and their properties, the status of mathematical entities, just to mention some – are still at the centre of the current philosophical debate and are likely to excite philosophical minds for many years to come. This volume reconstructs in fourteen chapters a particular phase in the long history of the Metaphysics by focusing on the medieval reception of Aristotle’s masterpiece, specifically from its introduction in the Latin West in the twelfth through fifteenth centuries. Contributors include: Marta Borgo, Matteo di Giovanni, Amos Bertolacci, Silvia Donati, Gabriele Galluzzo, Alessandro D. Conti, Sten Ebbesen, Fabrizio Amerini, Giorgio Pini, Roberto Lambertini, William O. Duba, Femke J. Kok, and Paul J.J.M. Bakker.

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A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi, 2015
By: Davoud Zandi
Title A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Journal of Islamic Studies and Culture
Volume 3
Issue 2
Pages 39-41
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Davoud Zandi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The relationship between the material intellect and the active intellect is an important issue in the realm of epistemology in Islamic philosophy. The aim of the present study is to compare the views of Averroes and Al-Farabi in this regard. Reviewing their theories, this study shows that both the mentioned philosophers agree upon the fact that the Active Intellect exists apart from human soul and acts as a creator of forms, but as for the relationship between the Material Intellect and the Active Intellect, there is disagreement between Averroes and Al-Farabi. Averroes believes that in some aspects both of them are the same yet they are different in some other aspects, namely regarding their acts they are different because the active intellect acts as creator of forms while the material intellect is just receiver of the forms. Nevertheless, they are the same, since the material intellect achieves perfection through the active intellect, whereas in Al-Farabi’s opinion, ontologically speaking; the material intellect and the active intellect are different in their existence. The material intellect in al-Farabi’s perspective is one of the stages of human intellect that is inherent in human soul, whereas the active intellect is an immaterial substance that exists apart from human soul.

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A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, 2018
By: Silvia Di Vincenzo
Title A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 29
Pages 125–136
Categories Avicenna, Commentary
Author(s) Silvia Di Vincenzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Literary History of Medicine - The ʿUyūn al-anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbāʾ of Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿah, 2020
By: Aḥmad Ibn-al-Qāsim Ibn-Abī-Uṣaibiʿa, Emilie Savage-Smith (Ed.), Simon Swain (Ed.), Geert Jan van Gelder (Ed.)
Title A Literary History of Medicine - The ʿUyūn al-anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbāʾ of Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿah
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2020
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1 The Near and Middle East
Volume 134
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Aḥmad Ibn-al-Qāsim Ibn-Abī-Uṣaibiʿa , Emilie Savage-Smith , Simon Swain , Geert Jan van Gelder
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A Literary History of Medicine by the Syrian physician Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿah (d. 1270) is the earliest comprehensive history of medicine. It contains biographies of over 432 physicians, ranging from the ancient Greeks to the author’s contemporaries, describing their training and practice, often as court physicians, and listing their medical works; all this interlaced with poems and anecdotes. These volumes present the first complete and annotated translation along with a new edition of the Arabic text showing the stages in which the author composed the work. Introductory essays provide important background. The reader will find on these pages an Islamic society that worked closely with Christians and Jews, deeply committed to advancing knowledge and applying it to health and wellbeing.

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A Map of Averroes’ Criticism against Avicenna: Physics, De caelo, De generatione et corruptione and Meteorology, 2018
By: Cristina Cerami
Title A Map of Averroes’ Criticism against Avicenna: Physics, De caelo, De generatione et corruptione and Meteorology
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna’s Physics and Cosmology
Pages 163–240
Categories Avicenna, De caelo, Physics, Meteorology, Commentary, Surveys
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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