Leo Strauss and the Alethiometer, 2013
By: James E. Montgomery
Title Leo Strauss and the Alethiometer
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 285–320
Categories Averroism
Author(s) James E. Montgomery
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Phantasms of Reason and Shadows of Matter: Averroes’s Notion of the Imagination and Its Renaissance Interpreters, 2013
By: Guido Giglioni
Title Phantasms of Reason and Shadows of Matter: Averroes’s Notion of the Imagination and Its Renaissance Interpreters
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 173–196
Categories Averroism, Renaissance, Psychology
Author(s) Guido Giglioni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Averroes’s view of the cosmos, living beings discern, animals imagine, individual human beings cogitate, humankind as a whole thinks, and intellects intuit and understand themselves. In other words, natural operations in living organisms are capable of discriminating between the useful and the harmful, animal nature processes images (intentions is Averroes’s term) from matter, individual men cogitate those images and the human intellect thinks insofar as it is considered a species, i.e., the human species. In this sense, the intellect of the human species thinks the sublunary world as one collective representation of the universe to be further abstracted and processed by higher levels of intellectual activity. A number of Renaissance philosophers, depending on how they interpreted the special relationship between intellects, the material intellect and bodily imaginations, elaborated a series of fascinating solutions in response to Averroes’s challenging view. This chapter focuses on the notion of the imagination – and dream imagination in particular – and intends to demonstrate the important role played by this faculty in unravelling some of the most notorious puzzles of Averroes’s philosophy. As will become clear over the course of this chapter, this role needs to be explored in all its various dimensions (metaphysical, epistemological, cosmological, medical and theologico-political).

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Was Ibn Rushd an Averroist? The Problem, the Debate, and Its Philosophical Implications, 2013
By: Anna Akasoy
Title Was Ibn Rushd an Averroist? The Problem, the Debate, and Its Philosophical Implications
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 321–348
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Anna Akasoy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Modern scholars disagree about the extent to which the historical Ibn Rushd actually defended the ideas commonly associated with Averroism and whether his philosophical ideas were controversial in his own day and age. The medieval sources mention persecutions, but the details of the conflict remain unclear. Controversies concerning the case of Ibn Rushd are connected to more general disagreements about the history of philosophy in the Islamic world. One of the main controversies divides the Straussians from their opponents. This contribution surveys the debate concerning Ibn Rushd’s radicalism and analyses some of the methodological differences among modern historians of Arabic philosophy. Understanding some of these differences may help to explain the reasons for such diverging assessments of Ibn Rushd’s thought.

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Averroes and Arabic Philosophy in the Modern Historia Philosophica: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, 2013
By: Gregorio Piaia
Title Averroes and Arabic Philosophy in the Modern Historia Philosophica: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 237–254
Categories Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Gregorio Piaia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’s role as Aristotle’s commentator par excellence guaranteed him widespread and certain fame up to the first decades of the seventeenth century; but the crisis of Peripateticism and the establishment of the new philosophy and new science also find an echo in the image of Averreoes and, more generally, in that of Arabic philosophy and science. Here we find Averroes taking on the role of a symbol of perverse intellectual activity (Malebranche), an unscrupulous thinker as regards religion, or even, at times, of an unbeliever (Bayle, Hume). The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the place given to Averroes and to Islamic thought in the historiography of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, when historia philosophica established itself as a literary genre in its own right. The inquiry starts with Georg Horn’s Historia philosophica (1655), in which ‘Arabic philosophy’ is said to begin with the Biblical figure of Job and where the presentation of Averroes is particularly brief compared with the lengthy biographical treatment meted out to Avicenna. In effect, it is only with Johann Heinrich Hottinger’s publication (1664) of the De scriptoribus Arabicis by Johannes Leo Africanus (Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad al-Wazzān) that European intellectuals became aware of some of the details of Averroes’s life. Our inquiry moves on to look at such writers as Johannes Gerhard Vossius, Daniel Georg Morhof, René Rapin, Pierre de Villemandy, Laurent Bordelon, Dupont-Bertris, and Georg Volckmar Hartmann, and ends with a critical examination of André-François Boureau-Deslandes Histoire critique de la philosophie (1737). Boureau-Deslandes does not limit himself to quoting information and anecdotes, but in line with his ‘critical’ approach, also expresses some judgements on the historical, religious, and cultural context of science in Islam. The attitude of these writers towards ‘Arabic’ thought is ambivalent: their recognition of the cultural and philosophical splendour of the caliphate of Baghdad is in practice frequently accompanied by a criticism of the Arabic philosophers’ excessive subtlety. In the case of Averroes their negative judgement also springs from the fact that he had no knowledge of Greek, which prevented him from reaching an adequate understanding of Aristotelian doctrine. We must note however – in the work of Dupont Bertris (1726), for example – attempts to bring Averroes to the fore as a rationalist philosopher, indifferent to all positive religion, all the while defending him from accusation of impiety. These are the first signs of a historiographical trend which– thanks above all to Renan’s famous thèse – was later to lead to a philosophical reappraisal of Averroes, no longer viewed merely as the ‘commentator’ of Aristotle.

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Here we find Averroes taking on the role of a symbol of perverse intellectual activity (Malebranche), an unscrupulous thinker as regards religion, or even, at times, of an unbeliever (Bayle, Hume). The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the place given to Averroes and to Islamic thought in the historiography of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, when historia philosophica established itself as a literary genre in its own right. The inquiry starts with Georg Horn\u2019s Historia philosophica (1655), in which \u2018Arabic philosophy\u2019 is said to begin with the Biblical figure of Job and where the presentation of Averroes is particularly brief compared with the lengthy biographical treatment meted out to Avicenna. In effect, it is only with Johann Heinrich Hottinger\u2019s publication (1664) of the De scriptoribus Arabicis by Johannes Leo Africanus (\u1e24asan ibn Mu\u1e25ammad al-Wazz\u0101n) that European intellectuals became aware of some of the details of Averroes\u2019s life. Our inquiry moves on to look at such writers as Johannes Gerhard Vossius, Daniel Georg Morhof, Ren\u00e9 Rapin, Pierre de Villemandy, Laurent Bordelon, Dupont-Bertris, and Georg Volckmar Hartmann, and ends with a critical examination of Andr\u00e9-Fran\u00e7ois Boureau-Deslandes Histoire critique de la philosophie (1737). Boureau-Deslandes does not limit himself to quoting information and anecdotes, but in line with his \u2018critical\u2019 approach, also expresses some judgements on the historical, religious, and cultural context of science in Islam. The attitude of these writers towards \u2018Arabic\u2019 thought is ambivalent: their recognition of the cultural and philosophical splendour of the caliphate of Baghdad is in practice frequently accompanied by a criticism of the Arabic philosophers\u2019 excessive subtlety. In the case of Averroes their negative judgement also springs from the fact that he had no knowledge of Greek, which prevented him from reaching an adequate understanding of Aristotelian doctrine. We must note however \u2013 in the work of Dupont Bertris (1726), for example \u2013 attempts to bring Averroes to the fore as a rationalist philosopher, indifferent to all positive religion, all the while defending him from accusation of impiety. These are the first signs of a historiographical trend which\u2013 thanks above all to Renan\u2019s famous th\u00e8se \u2013 was later to lead to a philosophical reappraisal of Averroes, no longer viewed merely as the \u2018commentator\u2019 of Aristotle.","btype":2,"date":"2013","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"10.1007\/978-94-007-5240-5_12","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":684,"full_name":"Gregorio Piaia","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1751,"section_of":241,"pages":"237\u2013254","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":241,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2013","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2013","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":241,"pubplace":"London","publisher":"Springer","series":"International Archives of the History of Ideas","volume":"211","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2013]}

The Cambridge Platonists and Averroes, 2013
By: Sarah Hutton
Title The Cambridge Platonists and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 197–212
Categories Plato, Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Sarah Hutton
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The ‘Averroism’ which figures in my chapter is a radically attenuated version of the philosophy of Ibn Rushd – Averroism as represented by a single doctrine imputed to the Commentator, namely the idea of a single soul, common to all human beings. The subject of my chapter has less, therefore to do with the thought of Averroes in its later reception or manifestation, and more to do with an idea of Averroism which was current in seventeenth-century England. This is particularly true of the Cambridge Platonists for whom the Averroist doctrine of the intellectus agens is the key doctrine which they associate with Averroes and which they understood as a doctrine of a ‘single soul’ or ‘common soul’. The only one of their number to offer anything like an extensive critique of Averroes was Henry More (1614–1687). Although he too was primarily concerned with the Averroistic conception of the intellectus agens, his response is distinctive for his concern with the Italian Averroists of recent times, Girolamo Cardano, Pietro Pomponazzi and Giulio Cesare Vanini. Even though the Cambridge Platonists’ views on the intellectus agens tell us more about themselves than about Averroes, their limited focus is nevertheless revealing of currents of diffusion of Averroistic ideas, and of the presence of Averroes even in the new waters of early modern philosophy. As I shall argue later, there is an important sense in which More’s partial and distorted conception of the philosophy of Ibn Rushd contributed to a new conception of the self centred on consciousness. My chapter will offer a brief survey of identifiable references to Averroes in the work the Cambridge Platonists, starting with three Emmanuel College men, John Smith (1618–1652), Nathaniel Culverwell (1619–1651) and Ralph Cudworth (1617–1688). I shall then discuss Henry More, to whom the major part of this chapter will be devoted. But before discussing the Cambridge school, a few words on the background.

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Humanism and the Assessment of Averroes in the Renaissance, 2013
By: Craig Martin
Title Humanism and the Assessment of Averroes in the Renaissance
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 65–80
Categories Averroism, Aristotle, Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Craig Martin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Despite Renaissance humanists’ polemics against Averroes, interest in his writings grew during the sixteenth century. This interest was related to humanism. As Aristotelians became increasingly aware of the Greek commentators on Aristotle, many saw Averroes as an heir to the ancient tradition. Thus they believed that by reading his works they could gain access to a purer form of Aristotelianism. As a result, a number of scholars wrote commentaries on Averroes’s natural philosophical works, and the Commentator became a subject for both philosophical and philological commentary.

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Averroes on the Sharīʿah of the Philosophers, 2012
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes on the Sharīʿah of the Philosophers
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in The Judeo-Christian-Islamic Heritage. Philosophical and Theological Perspectives
Pages 283–304
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes re-interpreted. Paul of Venice on the essence and definition of sensible substances, 2012
By: Gabriele Galluzzo

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Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism, 2012
By: James T. Robinson
Title Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in The Judeo-Christian-Islamic Heritage: Philosophical & Theological Perspectives
Pages 59–88
Categories Averroism, Transmission, Jewish Averroism
Author(s) James T. Robinson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroè e l'averroismo italiano, 2011
By: Graziella Federici Vescovini

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Averroistic Themes in Girolamo Cardano’s De Immortalitate Animorum, 2013
By: José Manuel García Valverde
Title Averroistic Themes in Girolamo Cardano’s De Immortalitate Animorum
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 145–172
Categories Averroism
Author(s) José Manuel García Valverde
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroè e l'averroismo italiano, 2011
By: Graziella Federici Vescovini

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Averroès et l'averroïsme. Un tournant dans la pensée occidentale?, 2008
By: Alain de Libera
Title Averroès et l'averroïsme. Un tournant dans la pensée occidentale?
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2008
Published in Construire un monde? Mondialisation, Pluralisme et Universalisme
Pages 65–86
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Alain de Libera
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1549","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1549,"authors_free":[{"id":1778,"entry_id":1549,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":647,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alain de Libera","free_first_name":"Alain de","free_last_name":"Libera","norm_person":{"id":647,"first_name":"Alain de","last_name":"Libera","full_name":"Alain de Libera","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/130219002","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/98388541","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/pnd130219002.html","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Alain de Libera"}}],"entry_title":"Averro\u00e8s et l'averro\u00efsme. Un tournant dans la pens\u00e9e occidentale?","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"Averro\u00e8s et l'averro\u00efsme. Un tournant dans la pens\u00e9e occidentale?"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2008","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"}],"authors":[{"id":647,"full_name":"Alain de Libera","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1549,"section_of":215,"pages":"65\u201386","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":215,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Construire un monde? Mondialisation, Pluralisme et Universalisme","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2008","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2008","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":215,"pubplace":"Paris","publisher":"Maisonneuve & Larose","series":"Connaissance du Maghreb","volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["Averro\u00e8s et l'averro\u00efsme. Un tournant dans la pens\u00e9e occidentale?"]}

Consensus peripateticorum. Albertus Maguns' Stellung zum lateinischen Averroismus, 2007
By: Dorothée Werner
Title Consensus peripateticorum. Albertus Maguns' Stellung zum lateinischen Averroismus
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2007
Published in Politischer Aristotelismus und Religion in Mittelalter und früher Neuzeit
Pages 37–45
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Dorothée Werner
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Der Averroismus des Lauro Quirini, 2006
By: Marwan Rashed
Title Der Averroismus des Lauro Quirini
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2006
Published in Wissen über Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter
Pages 700–714
Categories Averroism, Latin Averroism
Author(s) Marwan Rashed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Die Bedeutung von Leiblichkeit und Gehirn in Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes und den Averroisten, 2003
By: Udo Reinhold Jeck
Title Die Bedeutung von Leiblichkeit und Gehirn in Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes und den Averroisten
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2003
Published in Potentiale des menschlichen Geistes. Freiheit und Kreativität. Praktische Aspekte der Philosophie Marsilio Ficinos (1433–1499)
Pages 61–79
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Udo Reinhold Jeck
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ernest Renan and Averroism. The Story of a Misinterpretation, 2013
By: John Marenbon
Title Ernest Renan and Averroism. The Story of a Misinterpretation
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 273–284
Categories Averroism
Author(s) John Marenbon
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ferrandus de Hispania. ein Verteidiger des Averroes, 2001
By: Albert Zimmermann
Title Ferrandus de Hispania. ein Verteidiger des Averroes
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2001
Published in Nach der Verurteilung von 1277. Philosophie und Theologie an der Universität von Paris im letzten Viertel des 13. Jahrhunderts. Studien und Texte
Pages 410–416
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Albert Zimmermann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Glaube, Imagination und leibliche Auferstehung. Pietro Pomponazzi zwischen Avicenna, Averroes und jüdischem Averroismus, 2006
By: Bernd Roling
Title Glaube, Imagination und leibliche Auferstehung. Pietro Pomponazzi zwischen Avicenna, Averroes und jüdischem Averroismus
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2006
Published in Wissen über Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter
Pages 677–699
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Avicenna
Author(s) Bernd Roling
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Humanism and the Assessment of Averroes in the Renaissance, 2013
By: Craig Martin
Title Humanism and the Assessment of Averroes in the Renaissance
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 65–80
Categories Averroism, Aristotle, Commentary, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Craig Martin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Despite Renaissance humanists’ polemics against Averroes, interest in his writings grew during the sixteenth century. This interest was related to humanism. As Aristotelians became increasingly aware of the Greek commentators on Aristotle, many saw Averroes as an heir to the ancient tradition. Thus they believed that by reading his works they could gain access to a purer form of Aristotelianism. As a result, a number of scholars wrote commentaries on Averroes’s natural philosophical works, and the Commentator became a subject for both philosophical and philological commentary.

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