An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. 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New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 113–132
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Influence
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this chapter, I will focus on Averroes's position on family and property in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I will lay out his views on the role of parents in the education of children, and the place of women and children within the family and in society. I will examine Averroes's stance on private and collective property, as well as his questions pertaining to the transmission of property. Averroes's primary goal in this commentary is arguably to elucidate Plato's analysis of the structure of the ideal political state, given that, by his own admission, he could not find an Arabic translation of Aristotle's Politics. A distinction can in principle be made between Plato's views as expounded by Averroes, and the latter's own views on a given subject. Averroes’ positions can be discerned in the way he introduces personal comments and references to contemporary al-Andalus. In order to discern Averroes's positions and to discover whether he concurs with Plato on issues such as the question of education and the status of women and property, comparisons will be drawn with his main legal work, Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid, so as to uncover his position on such legal matters as family law and property law. It seems that Averroes would have preferred to write a commentary on Aristotle's Politics, since Aristotle's views are closer to his own. In spite of the fact that he is writing on a philosopher with whom he has fewer affinities, he succeeds in presenting many of his own views in this commentary on Plato. This is perhaps owing to the fact that Averroes often quotes Alfarabi, who greatly admired Plato's philosophy and held it to be in harmony with Aristotle’s. Thus Alfarabi, who is a great source of inspiration for Averroes, constitutes in this instance a strong link between Averroes and Plato. Averroes draws on Plato and appears to agree with him in many respects. Writing on Plato's work also allows him to expound some of his own views on issues such as virtue, education, the political state, and religion. In the Commentary on Plato's “Republic” there are echoes of works by Alfarabi, in particular The Attainment of Happiness.

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The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

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Splitting the Process and the Result: Philosophy from a Legal Perspective in Averroes’ Decisive Treatise, 2019
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Splitting the Process and the Result: Philosophy from a Legal Perspective in Averroes’ Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World
Pages 129–144
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Between Sharīʿa and Human Law: Ibn Rushd and the Unwritten Law of Nature, 2019
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Between Sharīʿa and Human Law: Ibn Rushd and the Unwritten Law of Nature
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in The Possibility of Religious Freedom: Early Natural Law and the Abrahamic Faiths
Pages 83-103
Categories Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Chapter Four builds an Islamic theory of natural law from Ibn Rushd’s (Averroes’) Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric (Talkhi? Kitab al-Kha?aba li Aris?u). This chapter provides original exegesis on Ibn Rushd’s text, particularly those passages concerning what Ibn Rushd describes as an unwritten law of nature (sunan ghayr maktuba fi ?abi?at al-jami?). It expounds upon what I argue is a theory of natural law in the commentary that is largely consonant with Aristotelian natural justice as well as thoroughly Islamic in such a way that it can, and even ought to, inform contemporary understandings of shari?a. This chapter contains the most in-depth discussion of the relationship between revealed religion and natural law, as well as the most detailed proposal for a natural law epistemology.

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Averroes on Juridical Reasoning, 2019
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroes on Juridical Reasoning
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 45–63
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Rhetoric
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An investigation of Averroes' theory of reasoning in law, showing that his legal epistemology is deeply indebted to the Aristotelian tradition and, in particular, to al-Fārābī’s understanding of analogical reasoning which was in turn based on the idea of an exemplum (mithāl), taken from Aristotle’s logical works and especially the Rhetoric.

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Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law, 2019
By: Feriel Bouhafa
Title Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 64–80
Categories Law, Rhetoric
Author(s) Feriel Bouhafa
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of “philosophy of law” in Averroes, showing that he assimilates the methods and epistemic status of juridical reasoning to those of rhetoric, so that legal proofs are akin to cases of rhetorical persuasion. Since legal conviction is thus always merely probable, Averroes is able to develop a notion of law as evolving and needing constant correction, as befits a system of norms that applies to changing human circumstance.

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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Rhetoric in the Court: Averroes on Testimonial Witnessing and Oaths, 2018
By: Feriel Bouhafa
Title Rhetoric in the Court: Averroes on Testimonial Witnessing and Oaths
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Commenting on Aristotle’s Rhetoric from Antiquity to the Present / Commenter la Rhétorique d’Aristote, de l’Antiquité à la période contemporaine
Pages 64–88
Categories Commentary, Law
Author(s) Feriel Bouhafa
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Looking at the reception of Aristotle’s Rhetoric in the Arabic tradition, particularly Averroes’ Middle commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric (Talḫīṣ al-ḫaṭāba), I discern the impact of the Islamic legal context on the commentator’s reading of Aristotle’s theory of rhetoric. Placing Averroes’ interpretive enterprise within the context of Islamic governance has already been highlighted, particularly the role of Islamic law in his conception of the political role of rhetoric. Such attention to Islamic law, however, has often been conceived in a theoretical fashion, without attesting to the concrete and epistemological basis of legal practices of the courts. Focusing on Averroes’ discussion of the role of rhetoric in the judicial discourse, I address the impact of Islamic legal procedures known as the rules of evidence: witnesses and oaths and their modus operandi in the court, in shaping Averroes’ conception of the political role of rhetoric. Accounting for Islamic rules of evidence, I argue that Averroes ascribes a practical role to rhetoric in the court in order to establish a consensus in the implementation of justice. In so doing, Averroes oversteps his role as commentator and rather draws from his own practical concerns over the implementation of justice in the court as a legal practitioner: the Qāḍī of Cordova.

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When the judge is a philosopher, 2017
By: Aicha Lahdhiri
Title When the judge is a philosopher
Type Book Section
Language Arabic
Date 2017
Published in Les cadis en Occident musulman medieval entre l’exercice de la judicature et la diversité des fonctions. Actes du deuxième colloque international, les 28-29 octobre 2015
Pages 254–268
Categories Law
Author(s) Aicha Lahdhiri
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (Ibn Rushd), 2009
By: Gerhard Endress
Title Averroes (Ibn Rushd)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2009
Published in The History of Western Philosophy of Religion
Pages 121–136
Categories Biography, Law, Science
Author(s) Gerhard Endress
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Abū-l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn-Muḥammad ibn-Rushd, known in the Latin West under the Hispanicized name ‘Averroes’, was, like his ancestors, a jurist in Islamic Andalusia. He became Chief Judge of Cordoba and Seville, court physician to the Almohad princes of Morocco and Spain, counsellor and courtier in the orbit of power. He belonged to the three worlds of intellectual culture in his age: he was brought up in the world of the ʿulamā, learned exegetes and administrators of the Sharīʿa (the revealed law of Islam); he mastered the world of the rational sciences – applied in medicine and astronomy, and crowned by the universal wisdom of philosophy that was taken to lead the way to true wisdom and ultimate happiness; and he rose to high station in the world of court, where the Commander of the Faithful ruled as absolute king. He embodied the sum of intellectual excellence and active experience a person could gain in his time and place. The religious community, and the political conditions, of Muslim Spain underwent deep changes in Averroes' lifetime. His project – to give a rational foundation to the Muslim doctrine and in the long run to vindicate the work of philosophy as a rule of reason governing all of society – with its progress and its setbacks, was closely connected with the social condition, the spiritual outlook and the dialectic of power and authority in the Andalust.

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Averroes como muftí, 2011
By: Juan Martos Quesada

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Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 113–132
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Influence
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this chapter, I will focus on Averroes's position on family and property in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I will lay out his views on the role of parents in the education of children, and the place of women and children within the family and in society. I will examine Averroes's stance on private and collective property, as well as his questions pertaining to the transmission of property. Averroes's primary goal in this commentary is arguably to elucidate Plato's analysis of the structure of the ideal political state, given that, by his own admission, he could not find an Arabic translation of Aristotle's Politics. A distinction can in principle be made between Plato's views as expounded by Averroes, and the latter's own views on a given subject. Averroes’ positions can be discerned in the way he introduces personal comments and references to contemporary al-Andalus. In order to discern Averroes's positions and to discover whether he concurs with Plato on issues such as the question of education and the status of women and property, comparisons will be drawn with his main legal work, Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid, so as to uncover his position on such legal matters as family law and property law. It seems that Averroes would have preferred to write a commentary on Aristotle's Politics, since Aristotle's views are closer to his own. In spite of the fact that he is writing on a philosopher with whom he has fewer affinities, he succeeds in presenting many of his own views in this commentary on Plato. This is perhaps owing to the fact that Averroes often quotes Alfarabi, who greatly admired Plato's philosophy and held it to be in harmony with Aristotle’s. Thus Alfarabi, who is a great source of inspiration for Averroes, constitutes in this instance a strong link between Averroes and Plato. Averroes draws on Plato and appears to agree with him in many respects. Writing on Plato's work also allows him to expound some of his own views on issues such as virtue, education, the political state, and religion. In the Commentary on Plato's “Republic” there are echoes of works by Alfarabi, in particular The Attainment of Happiness.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5351","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5351,"authors_free":[{"id":6201,"entry_id":5351,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1254,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Catarina Belo","free_first_name":"Catarina","free_last_name":"Belo","norm_person":{"id":1254,"first_name":"Catarina","last_name":"Belo","full_name":"Catarina Belo","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/132895374","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Catarina Belo"}}],"entry_title":"Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"In this chapter, I will focus on Averroes's position on family and property in his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I will lay out his views on the role of parents in the education of children, and the place of women and children within the family and in society. I will examine Averroes's stance on private and collective property, as well as his questions pertaining to the transmission of property.\r\n\r\nAverroes's primary goal in this commentary is arguably to elucidate Plato's analysis of the structure of the ideal political state, given that, by his own admission, he could not find an Arabic translation of Aristotle's Politics. A distinction can in principle be made between Plato's views as expounded by Averroes, and the latter's own views on a given subject. Averroes\u2019 positions can be discerned in the way he introduces personal comments and references to contemporary al-Andalus. In order to discern Averroes's positions and to discover whether he concurs with Plato on issues such as the question of education and the status of women and property, comparisons will be drawn with his main legal work, Bid\u0101yat al-Mujtahid wa-Nih\u0101yat al-Muqta\u1e63id, so as to uncover his position on such legal matters as family law and property law.\r\n\r\nIt seems that Averroes would have preferred to write a commentary on Aristotle's Politics, since Aristotle's views are closer to his own. In spite of the fact that he is writing on a philosopher with whom he has fewer affinities, he succeeds in presenting many of his own views in this commentary on Plato. This is perhaps owing to the fact that Averroes often quotes Alfarabi, who greatly admired Plato's philosophy and held it to be in harmony with Aristotle\u2019s. Thus Alfarabi, who is a great source of inspiration for Averroes, constitutes in this instance a strong link between Averroes and Plato. Averroes draws on Plato and appears to agree with him in many respects. Writing on Plato's work also allows him to expound some of his own views on issues such as virtue, education, the political state, and religion. In the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d there are echoes of works by Alfarabi, in particular The Attainment of Happiness.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.006","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":24,"category_name":"Influence","link":"bib?categories[]=Influence"}],"authors":[{"id":1254,"full_name":"Catarina Belo","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5351,"section_of":5346,"pages":"113\u2013132","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["Averroes on Family and Property in the Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"]}

Averroes on Juridical Reasoning, 2019
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroes on Juridical Reasoning
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 45–63
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Rhetoric
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An investigation of Averroes' theory of reasoning in law, showing that his legal epistemology is deeply indebted to the Aristotelian tradition and, in particular, to al-Fārābī’s understanding of analogical reasoning which was in turn based on the idea of an exemplum (mithāl), taken from Aristotle’s logical works and especially the Rhetoric.

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Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law, 2019
By: Feriel Bouhafa
Title Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 64–80
Categories Law, Rhetoric
Author(s) Feriel Bouhafa
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of “philosophy of law” in Averroes, showing that he assimilates the methods and epistemic status of juridical reasoning to those of rhetoric, so that legal proofs are akin to cases of rhetorical persuasion. Since legal conviction is thus always merely probable, Averroes is able to develop a notion of law as evolving and needing constant correction, as befits a system of norms that applies to changing human circumstance.

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Between Sharīʿa and Human Law: Ibn Rushd and the Unwritten Law of Nature, 2019
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Between Sharīʿa and Human Law: Ibn Rushd and the Unwritten Law of Nature
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in The Possibility of Religious Freedom: Early Natural Law and the Abrahamic Faiths
Pages 83-103
Categories Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Chapter Four builds an Islamic theory of natural law from Ibn Rushd’s (Averroes’) Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric (Talkhi? Kitab al-Kha?aba li Aris?u). This chapter provides original exegesis on Ibn Rushd’s text, particularly those passages concerning what Ibn Rushd describes as an unwritten law of nature (sunan ghayr maktuba fi ?abi?at al-jami?). It expounds upon what I argue is a theory of natural law in the commentary that is largely consonant with Aristotelian natural justice as well as thoroughly Islamic in such a way that it can, and even ought to, inform contemporary understandings of shari?a. This chapter contains the most in-depth discussion of the relationship between revealed religion and natural law, as well as the most detailed proposal for a natural law epistemology.

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