The Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook
Pages 123–140
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Charles E. Butterworth

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2010
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions
Pages 289–304
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) George F. Hourani

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Averroes (Ibn Rushd), 2009
By: Gerhard Endress
Title Averroes (Ibn Rushd)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2009
Published in The History of Western Philosophy of Religion
Pages 121–136
Categories Biography, Law, Science
Author(s) Gerhard Endress
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Abū-l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn-Muḥammad ibn-Rushd, known in the Latin West under the Hispanicized name ‘Averroes’, was, like his ancestors, a jurist in Islamic Andalusia. He became Chief Judge of Cordoba and Seville, court physician to the Almohad princes of Morocco and Spain, counsellor and courtier in the orbit of power. He belonged to the three worlds of intellectual culture in his age: he was brought up in the world of the ʿulamā, learned exegetes and administrators of the Sharīʿa (the revealed law of Islam); he mastered the world of the rational sciences – applied in medicine and astronomy, and crowned by the universal wisdom of philosophy that was taken to lead the way to true wisdom and ultimate happiness; and he rose to high station in the world of court, where the Commander of the Faithful ruled as absolute king. He embodied the sum of intellectual excellence and active experience a person could gain in his time and place. The religious community, and the political conditions, of Muslim Spain underwent deep changes in Averroes' lifetime. His project – to give a rational foundation to the Muslim doctrine and in the long run to vindicate the work of philosophy as a rule of reason governing all of society – with its progress and its setbacks, was closely connected with the social condition, the spiritual outlook and the dialectic of power and authority in the Andalust.

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À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla, 2005
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2005
Published in Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas
Pages 853–894
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2005
By: Averroes
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2005
Published in Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology
Pages 309–330
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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ابن رشد فقيها, 2002
By: Ḥassan Ḥanafī
Title ابن رشد فقيها
Transcription Ibn Rušd faqīhan
Translation Averroes as jurist
Type Book Section
Language Arabic
Date 2002
Published in Averroes (1126–1198) oder der Triumph des Rationalismus. Internationales Symposium anlässlich des 800. Todestages des islamischen Philosophen. Heidelberg, 7.-11. Oktober 1998
Pages 183–211
Categories Law
Author(s) Ḥassan Ḥanafī
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La Bidāya ou contribution de la pensée d'Ibn Rushd à l'évolution de la logique juridique et du droit comparé, 2001
By: Othman Ben Fadhl
Title La Bidāya ou contribution de la pensée d'Ibn Rushd à l'évolution de la logique juridique et du droit comparé
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 169–173
Categories Law
Author(s) Othman Ben Fadhl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Le cercle continu d'Ibn Rushd. De la jurisprudence de l'élite à la logique des Lumières, 2001
By: Ahmad Dahbour
Title Le cercle continu d'Ibn Rushd. De la jurisprudence de l'élite à la logique des Lumières
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 233–237
Categories Law
Author(s) Ahmad Dahbour
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2010
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions
Pages 289–304
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) George F. Hourani

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The Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook
Pages 123–140
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Charles E. Butterworth

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The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Rima Pavalko
Title The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in La lumière de l'intellect. La pensée scientifique et philosophique d'Averroès dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Société internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9–12 décembre 1998
Pages 487–492
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Rima Pavalko
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Legal Policies of the Almohad Caliphs and Ibn Rushd's Bidâyat al-Mujtahid, 2012
By: Maribel Fierro
Title The Legal Policies of the Almohad Caliphs and Ibn Rushd's Bidâyat al-Mujtahid
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in The Almohad Revolution: Politics and Religion in the Islamic West during the Twelfth-Thirteenth Centuries
Pages 226–248
Republication of The Legal Policies of the Almohad Caliphs and Ibn Rushd's Bidâyat al-Mujtahid
Categories Law
Author(s) Maribel Fierro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

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One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called \u201cla legende d\u2019Averroes.\u201d Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however\u2014presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time\u2014made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as \u201cun rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]\u201d without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and As\u00ecn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the fal\u0101sifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.008","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5353,"section_of":5346,"pages":"160\u2013181","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"]}

Three Masters and One Disciple: Ibn Tumlûs’s Critical Incorporation of al-Fârâbî, al-Ghazâlî, and Ibn Rushd, 2016
By: Fouad Ben Ahmed
Title Three Masters and One Disciple: Ibn Tumlûs’s Critical Incorporation of al-Fârâbî, al-Ghazâlî, and Ibn Rushd
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in Schüler und Meister
Pages 537–556
Categories al-Fārābī, al-Ġazālī, Transmission, Logic, Law, Medicine
Author(s) Fouad Ben Ahmed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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When the judge is a philosopher, 2017
By: Aicha Lahdhiri
Title When the judge is a philosopher
Type Book Section
Language Arabic
Date 2017
Published in Les cadis en Occident musulman medieval entre l’exercice de la judicature et la diversité des fonctions. Actes du deuxième colloque international, les 28-29 octobre 2015
Pages 254–268
Categories Law
Author(s) Aicha Lahdhiri
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla, 2005
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2005
Published in Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas
Pages 853–894
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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ابن رشد فقيها, 2002
By: Ḥassan Ḥanafī
Title ابن رشد فقيها
Transcription Ibn Rušd faqīhan
Translation Averroes as jurist
Type Book Section
Language Arabic
Date 2002
Published in Averroes (1126–1198) oder der Triumph des Rationalismus. Internationales Symposium anlässlich des 800. Todestages des islamischen Philosophen. Heidelberg, 7.-11. Oktober 1998
Pages 183–211
Categories Law
Author(s) Ḥassan Ḥanafī
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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