An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

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Splitting the Process and the Result: Philosophy from a Legal Perspective in Averroes’ Decisive Treatise, 2019
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Splitting the Process and the Result: Philosophy from a Legal Perspective in Averroes’ Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World
Pages 129–144
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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How Islamic is Averroes’s Philosophy?, 2019
By: Matteo Di Giovanni
Title How Islamic is Averroes’s Philosophy?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in La philosophie arabe à l’étude. Sens, limites et défis d’une discipline moderne. Studying Arabic Philosophy: Meaning, Limits and Challenges of a Modern Discipline
Pages 691–703
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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On Averroes’s Use of Logical Methods in Defense of Philosophy, 2019
By: David M. DiPasquale
Title On Averroes’s Use of Logical Methods in Defense of Philosophy
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in The Pilgrimage of Philosophy. A Festschrift for Charles E. Butterworth
Pages 175–205
Categories Logic, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) David M. DiPasquale
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes, 2019
By: Mokdad Arfa Mensia
Title Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 27–44
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Mokdad Arfa Mensia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An analysis of Averroes' treatise Exposition (Kashf) of the Methods Used in Religion, arguing that he adopts a "zahirite" approach in response to Islamic theology: Scripture should be taken at face value by most people, and simply accepted as dogma. Only philosophers are in a position to set constraints for the correct nonliteral interpretation of Scripture.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5114","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5114,"authors_free":[{"id":5889,"entry_id":5114,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1036,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mokdad Arfa Mensia","free_first_name":"Mokdad ","free_last_name":"Arfa Mensia","norm_person":{"id":1036,"first_name":"Mokdad Arfa","last_name":"Mensia","full_name":"Mokdad Arfa Mensia","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/187255466","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/3380832","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mokdad Arfa Mensia"}}],"entry_title":"Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes"},"abstract":"An analysis of Averroes' treatise Exposition (Kashf) of the Methods Used in Religion, arguing that he adopts a \"zahirite\" approach in response to Islamic theology: Scripture should be taken at face value by most people, and simply accepted as dogma. Only philosophers are in a position to set constraints for the correct nonliteral interpretation of Scripture.","btype":2,"date":"2019","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781316335543.003","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":1036,"full_name":"Mokdad Arfa Mensia","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5114,"section_of":4977,"pages":"27\u201344","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":4977,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":1,"language":"en","title":"Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2019","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":4977,"pubplace":"Cambridge","publisher":"Cambridge University Press","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2019]}

Ibn Taymiyya’s Use of Ibn Rushd to Refute the Incorporealism of Fakhr al-Dîn al-Râzî, 2018
By: Jon Hoover
Title Ibn Taymiyya’s Use of Ibn Rushd to Refute the Incorporealism of Fakhr al-Dîn al-Râzî
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Islamic Philosophy from the 12th to the 14th Century
Pages 469–492
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Jon Hoover
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teoría de Dios en el “Tahâfut”, 2017
By: Roger Arnaldez
Title El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teoría de Dios en el “Tahâfut”
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 2017
Published in La filosofía en Al Ándalus
Pages 453–464
Categories Theology, al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Roger Arnaldez
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5187","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5187,"authors_free":[{"id":5976,"entry_id":5187,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1021,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Roger Arnaldez","free_first_name":"Roger","free_last_name":"Arnaldez","norm_person":{"id":1021,"first_name":"Roger","last_name":"Arnaldez","full_name":"Roger Arnaldez","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1029497893","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/51684989","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/pnd1029497893.html","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Roger Arnaldez"}}],"entry_title":"El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teor\u00eda de Dios en el \u201cTah\u00e2fut\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teor\u00eda de Dios en el \u201cTah\u00e2fut\u201d"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2017","language":"Spanish","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":14,"category_name":"al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":1021,"full_name":"Roger Arnaldez","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5187,"section_of":5181,"pages":"453\u2013464","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5181,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"es","title":"La filosof\u00eda en Al \u00c1ndalus","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2017","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"La presente obra ofrece una perspectiva abierta de la filosof\u00eda de al-Andalus con enfoques diversos y complementarios a cargo de reconocidos especialistas del arabismo, el hebra\u00edsmo y el pensamiento medieval: Miguel As\u00edn Palacios, Manuel Alonso, Roger Arnaldez, Miguel Cruz Hern\u00e1ndez, Fernando D\u00edaz Esteban, Salvador G\u00f3mez Nogales, David Gonzalo Maeso, Joaqu\u00edn Lomba, Andr\u00e9s Mart\u00ednez Lorca y Juan Vernet. Novedad importante que reflejan estas p\u00e1ginas es la integraci\u00f3n de los fil\u00f3sofos jud\u00edos y musulmanes en la casa com\u00fan de al-Andalus, como hist\u00f3ricamente aconteci\u00f3. En la primera parte se analizan las influencias cl\u00e1sicas y orientales que confluyeron en la vida intelectual de la Espa\u00f1a musulmana. En la segunda se traza un amplio y detallado panorama de los principales fil\u00f3sofos de al-Andalus. El editor ha reconstruido en la introducci\u00f3n el desarrollo del pensamiento andalus\u00ed dentro de su contexto hist\u00f3rico. Rigor hist\u00f3rico-filol\u00f3gico, contextualizaci\u00f3n social, profundizaci\u00f3n en las cuestiones especulativas y esp\u00edritu cr\u00edtico constituyen rasgos comunes de estos ensayos. Esta nueva edici\u00f3n se ampl\u00eda con un pr\u00f3logo que resume las ediciones y estudios producidos en Espa\u00f1a durante el \u00faltimo cuarto de siglo; una renovada bibliograf\u00eda b\u00e1sica acerca de las fuentes hist\u00f3ricas y literarias; y una actualizada nota biobibliogr\u00e1fica de los autores aqu\u00ed reunidos que ser\u00e1 \u00fatil a los j\u00f3venes lectores e investigadores. Cierra el libro un Ap\u00e9ndice con tres nuevos textos: un art\u00edculo del historiador de la ciencia \u00e1rabe Juan Vernet, una lograda entrevista al sabio egipcio Mahmud Ali Makki y un reciente trabajo del profesor Mart\u00ednez Lorca sobre la formaci\u00f3n de la cultura andalus\u00ed y su posterior recepci\u00f3n en la Europa latina.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5181,"pubplace":"C\u00f3rdoba","publisher":"Almuzara","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2017]}

Philosophy Incarnate. Ibn Rushd’s “Almohadism” and the Problem of God’s Omniscience, 2017
By: Matteo Di Giovanni
Title Philosophy Incarnate. Ibn Rushd’s “Almohadism” and the Problem of God’s Omniscience
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2017
Published in La filosofia medievale tra antichità ed età moderna. Saggi in Memoria di Francesco Del Punta
Pages 139–162
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5193","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5193,"authors_free":[{"id":5983,"entry_id":5193,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":734,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Matteo Di Giovanni","free_first_name":"Matteo","free_last_name":"Di Giovanni","norm_person":{"id":734,"first_name":"Matteo","last_name":"Di Giovanni","full_name":"Matteo di Giovanni","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1130687570","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/9497149368819485980007","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Matteo di Giovanni"}}],"entry_title":"Philosophy Incarnate. Ibn Rushd\u2019s \u201cAlmohadism\u201d and the Problem of God\u2019s Omniscience","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Philosophy Incarnate. Ibn Rushd\u2019s \u201cAlmohadism\u201d and the Problem of God\u2019s Omniscience"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2017","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":734,"full_name":"Matteo di Giovanni","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5193,"section_of":5190,"pages":"139\u2013162","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5190,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"La filosofia medievale tra antichit\u00e0 ed et\u00e0 moderna. Saggi in Memoria di Francesco Del Punta","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2017","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"Il volume pubblica le relazioni presentate nella giornata in commemorazione di Francesco Del Punta (1941-2013), organizzata a Firenze dalla Societ\u00e0 Internazionale per lo Studio del Medioevo Latino e dalla Scuola Normale Superiore nel novembre 2014, assieme ai saggi che altri studiosi hanno voluto tributare alla memoria del loro maestro, collega ed amico. L'insieme dei contributi rispecchia la molteplicit\u00e0 degli interessi culturali di Francesco Del Punta, incentrati sulla filosofia del Medio Evo, ma aperti a comprendere anche l'antichit\u00e0 greca e l'et\u00e0 moderna. I saggi interpretano compiutamente i due versanti del compito dello storico della filosofia medievale, cos\u00ec come inteso da Del Punta: la filologia e la critica testuale, da una parte, tese a stabilire testi di sicura affidabilit\u00e0; il commento e l'analisi dottrinale, dall'altra, finalizzati a sondare la profondit\u00e0 di pensiero che le opere contengono. Nella prospettiva interculturale e multilinguistica cara a Del Punta, e da lui promossa con tutte le sue energie di studioso, docente, e diffusore di sapere, i testi analizzati spaziano dal greco, all'arabo e al latino come lingue di comunicazione filosofica e veicoli di scambio di conoscenza in epoca medievale.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5190,"pubplace":"Firenze","publisher":"SISMEL, Edizioni del Galluzzo","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2017]}

Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5213","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5213,"authors_free":[{"id":6014,"entry_id":5213,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1254,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Catarina Belo","free_first_name":"Catarina","free_last_name":"Belo","norm_person":{"id":1254,"first_name":"Catarina","last_name":"Belo","full_name":"Catarina Belo","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/132895374","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Catarina Belo"}}],"entry_title":"Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":"In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126\u20131198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur\u2019\u0101n and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.","btype":2,"date":"2016","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"10.1093\/oxfordhb\/9780199917389.013.37","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1254,"full_name":"Catarina Belo","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5213,"section_of":5212,"pages":"278\u2013295","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5212,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2016","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The study of Islamic philosophy has recently entered a new and exciting phase. Both the received canon of Islamic philosophers and the grand narrative of the course of Islamic philosophy are in the process of being radically questioned and revised. The bulk of twentieth-century Western scholarship on Arabic or Islamic philosophy focused on the period from the ninth century to the twelfth. It is a measure of the transformation that is currently underway in the field that the present Handbook gives roughly equal weight to every century from the ninth to the twentieth. The Handbook differs from previous overviews in another significant way: It is work-centered rather than person- or theme-centered. This format is intended to give readers a better sense of what a work in Islamic philosophy looks like, and of the issues, concepts, and arguments that are at play in works belonging to various periods and subfields within Islamic philosophy.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"10.1093\/oxfordhb\/9780199917389.001.0001","book":{"id":5212,"pubplace":"New York, NY","publisher":"Oxford University Press","series":"Oxford handbooks ","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2016]}

An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"]}

Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Averroes y su lectura del Corán, 2010
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Averroes y su lectura del Corán
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 2010
Published in El pensamiento politico en la Edad Media
Pages 611–618
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes, 2019
By: Mokdad Arfa Mensia
Title Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 27–44
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Mokdad Arfa Mensia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An analysis of Averroes' treatise Exposition (Kashf) of the Methods Used in Religion, arguing that he adopts a "zahirite" approach in response to Islamic theology: Scripture should be taken at face value by most people, and simply accepted as dogma. Only philosophers are in a position to set constraints for the correct nonliteral interpretation of Scripture.

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El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teoría de Dios en el “Tahâfut”, 2017
By: Roger Arnaldez
Title El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teoría de Dios en el “Tahâfut”
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 2017
Published in La filosofía en Al Ándalus
Pages 453–464
Categories Theology, al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Roger Arnaldez
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Falsafa et interpretation coranique: l’exemple de la vie future chez Avicenne et Averroès, 2015
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Falsafa et interpretation coranique: l’exemple de la vie future chez Avicenne et Averroès
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2015
Published in Compréhension et interpretation
Pages 123–141
Categories Avicenna, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Haec igitur est nostra lex. Teologia e filosofia nel commento di Agostino Nifo alla Destructio destructionum di Averroè, 2013
By: Guido Giglioni
Title Haec igitur est nostra lex. Teologia e filosofia nel commento di Agostino Nifo alla Destructio destructionum di Averroè
Type Book Section
Language Italian
Date 2013
Published in L'averroismo in età moderna (1400–1700)
Pages 125–144
Categories Theology, Agostino Nifo, al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Guido Giglioni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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How Islamic is Averroes’s Philosophy?, 2019
By: Matteo Di Giovanni
Title How Islamic is Averroes’s Philosophy?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in La philosophie arabe à l’étude. Sens, limites et défis d’une discipline moderne. Studying Arabic Philosophy: Meaning, Limits and Challenges of a Modern Discipline
Pages 691–703
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd and the Kalām, 2011
By: Binyamin Abrahamov

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Ibn Rushd et la double vérité. La séparation du discours religieux du discours philosophique et l'établissement du rapport entre les deux, 2001
By: Abdelmajid El-Ghannouchi, Abdelmajid El-Ghannouchi
Title Ibn Rushd et la double vérité. La séparation du discours religieux du discours philosophique et l'établissement du rapport entre les deux
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 107–112
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Abdelmajid El-Ghannouchi , Abdelmajid El-Ghannouchi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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