An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

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La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa, 2022
By: Meryem Sebti
Title La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2022
Published in The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding
Pages 327–347
Categories Theology, Epistemology, Cosmology, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Meryem Sebti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called falāsifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ashʿarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all falāsifa: Al-Kindī (after 870), Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (864–925), al-Fārābī (d. 950), Avicenna (980–1037), Ibn Bājja (around 1138), Ibn Ṭufayl (1110–1185) and Averroes (1126–1198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it – for some of them – into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.

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Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739_014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"},{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5403,"section_of":5402,"pages":"327\u2013347 ","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5402,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding ","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The three-volume series titled The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of the representation of the Prophet Muhammad in the course of Muslim history until the present.\r\nThis first collective volume outlines his figure in the early Islamic tradition, and its later transformations until recent times that were shaped by Prophet-centered piety and politics. A variety of case studies offers a unique overview of the interplay of Sunn\u012b amd Sh\u012b\u02bf\u012b doctrines with literature and arts in the formation of his image. They trace the integrative and conflictual qualities of a \u201cProphetic culture\u201d, in which the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers. ","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739","book":{"id":5402,"pubplace":"Leiden, Boston","publisher":"Brill","series":"Handbook of Oriental studies; Section 1: The Near and Middle East","volume":"159","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6261,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Denis Gril","free_first_name":"Denis","free_last_name":"Gril","norm_person":null},{"id":6262,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Stefan Reichmuth","free_first_name":"Stefan","free_last_name":"Reichmuth","norm_person":null},{"id":6263,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Dilek Sarmis","free_first_name":"Dilek","free_last_name":"Sarmis","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Only Learning That Distances You from Sins Today Saves You from Hellfire Tomorrow”: Boundaries and Horizons of Education in al-Ghazālī and Ibn Rushd, 2020
By: Sebastian Günther
Title Only Learning That Distances You from Sins Today Saves You from Hellfire Tomorrow”: Boundaries and Horizons of Education in al-Ghazālī and Ibn Rushd
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2020
Published in Knowledge and Education in Classical Islam: Religious Learning between Continuity and Change
Pages 260–297
Categories al-Ġazālī, Science, Theology, Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, Ethics
Author(s) Sebastian Günther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Whose Prime Mover is More (un)Aristotelian, Broadie’s, Berti’s or Averroes’?, 2019
By: David Twetten
Title Whose Prime Mover is More (un)Aristotelian, Broadie’s, Berti’s or Averroes’?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in La philosophie arabe à l’étude. Sens, limites et défis d’une discipline moderne. Studying Arabic Philosophy: Meaning, Limits and Challenges of a Modern Discipline
Pages 345–390
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Cosmology, Theology, Modern Readings
Author(s) David Twetten
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5077","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5077,"authors_free":[{"id":5838,"entry_id":5077,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":919,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"David Twetten","free_first_name":"David","free_last_name":"Twetten ","norm_person":{"id":919,"first_name":"David B.","last_name":"Twetten","full_name":"David B. Twetten","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/156465876","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/105722162","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=David B. Twetten"}}],"entry_title":"Whose Prime Mover is More (un)Aristotelian, Broadie\u2019s, Berti\u2019s or Averroes\u2019?","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Whose Prime Mover is More (un)Aristotelian, Broadie\u2019s, Berti\u2019s or Averroes\u2019?"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2019","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":35,"category_name":"Modern Readings","link":"bib?categories[]=Modern Readings"}],"authors":[{"id":919,"full_name":"David B. Twetten","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5077,"section_of":5070,"pages":"345\u2013390","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5070,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"La philosophie arabe \u00e0 l\u2019\u00e9tude. Sens, limites et d\u00e9fis d\u2019une discipline moderne. Studying Arabic Philosophy: Meaning, Limits and Challenges of a Modern Discipline","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2019","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"What is the current state of the study of Arabic philosophy? This book provides an overview of the situation. The aim is to draw up a first assessment of the research carried out in the field of Arabic philosophy, reconsidering the historiography and the nomenclature, and examining the subjects and objectives, as well as the methods of analysis that have commonly been used. We also present studies - on authors, traditions and concepts - that show how work is progressing, what tensions persist, and what the prospects are.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5070,"pubplace":"Paris","publisher":"Librairie philosophique J. Vrin","series":"Sic et non","volume":"37","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2019]}

Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes, 2019
By: Mokdad Arfa Mensia
Title Dogmatics, Theology, and Philosophy in Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 27–44
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Mokdad Arfa Mensia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An analysis of Averroes' treatise Exposition (Kashf) of the Methods Used in Religion, arguing that he adopts a "zahirite" approach in response to Islamic theology: Scripture should be taken at face value by most people, and simply accepted as dogma. Only philosophers are in a position to set constraints for the correct nonliteral interpretation of Scripture.

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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5025","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5025,"authors_free":[{"id":5763,"entry_id":5025,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1687,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger","free_first_name":"Mario C.","free_last_name":"Wintersteiger","norm_person":{"id":1687,"first_name":"Mario C. ","last_name":"Wintersteiger ","full_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger ","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1059300621","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mario C. Wintersteiger "}}],"entry_title":"Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2018","language":"German","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1687,"full_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger ","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5025,"section_of":5024,"pages":"95\u2013102","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5024,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"de","title":"Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2018","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"Die Wiederkehr der Religion ist in aller Munde. Darin artikuliert sich auch ein Unbehagen an den Entwicklungen einer Moderne, in der die wissenschaftlich-technische Vernunft an ihre Grenzen zu sto\u00dfen scheint. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es das Ziel des Handbuchs, die gegenw\u00e4rtig viel diskutierten Chancen, aber auch die Gefahren, die mit einer R\u00fcckkehr der Religion verbunden sind, aus der Perspektive der Religionsphilosophie zu reflektieren. Vorgestellt werden 80 Werke aus fast 2500 Jahren westlicher Geistesgeschichte von Platon bis Charles Taylor, die von ausgewiesenen Experten in ihren historischen Kontext gestellt und in ihrer Wirkungsgeschichte analysiert werden. Ein Handbuch f\u00fcr alle, die an Religionsgeschichte, Religionswissenschaft, Theologie und Philosophie interessiert sind.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5024,"pubplace":"Berlin","publisher":"Suhrkamp","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2018]}

Peter Aureoli’s Various Uses of Averroes to Illustrate the Sapiential Character of Declarative Theology, 2018
By: Stephen F. Brown
Title Peter Aureoli’s Various Uses of Averroes to Illustrate the Sapiential Character of Declarative Theology
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Contemplation and Philosophy: Scholastic and Mystical Modes of Medieval Philosophical Thought: A Tribute to Kent Emery, jr
Pages 427–440
Categories Theology, Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen F. Brown
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5139","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5139,"authors_free":[{"id":5918,"entry_id":5139,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Stephen F. Brown","free_first_name":"Stephen F. ","free_last_name":"Brown","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Peter Aureoli\u2019s Various Uses of Averroes to Illustrate the Sapiential Character of Declarative Theology","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Peter Aureoli\u2019s Various Uses of Averroes to Illustrate the Sapiential Character of Declarative Theology"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2018","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004379299_016","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5139,"section_of":5138,"pages":"427\u2013440","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5138,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Contemplation and Philosophy: Scholastic and Mystical Modes of Medieval Philosophical Thought: A Tribute to Kent Emery, jr","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2018","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"This volume collects essays which are thematically connected through the work of Kent Emery Jr., to whom the volume is dedicated. A main focus lies on the attempts to bridge the gap between mysticism and a systematic approach to medieval philosophical thought. The essays address a wide range of topics concerning (a) the nature of the human soul (in philosophical and theological discourse); (b) medieval theories of cognition (natural and supernatural), self-knowledge and knowledge of God; (c) the human soul\u2019s contemplation of, and union with, God; (d) the tradition of \u201cthe modes of theology\u201d in the Middle Ages; (e) the relation between philosophy and theology. Various articles are dedicated to major figures of the 13th and 14th century philosophy, others display new material based on critical editions. Contributors are Jan A. Aertsen, Stephen Brown, Bernardo Carlos Baz\u00e1n, William J. Courtenay, Alfredo Santiago Culleton, Silvia Donati, Bernd Goehring, Guy Guldentops, Daniel Hobbins, Roberto Hofmeister Pich, Georgi Kapriev, Steven P. Marrone, Stephen M. Metzger, Timothy B. Noone, Mikolaj Olszewski, Alessandro Palazzo, Garrett R. Smith, Andreas Speer, Carlos Steel, Loris Sturlese, Chris Schabel, Christian Trottmann, and Gordon A. Wilson. ","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004379299 ","book":{"id":5138,"pubplace":"Leiden, Boston","publisher":"Brill","series":"Studien und Texte zur Geistesgechichte des Mittelalters","volume":"125","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2018]}

Ibn Taymiyya’s Use of Ibn Rushd to Refute the Incorporealism of Fakhr al-Dîn al-Râzî, 2018
By: Jon Hoover
Title Ibn Taymiyya’s Use of Ibn Rushd to Refute the Incorporealism of Fakhr al-Dîn al-Râzî
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Islamic Philosophy from the 12th to the 14th Century
Pages 469–492
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Jon Hoover
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teoría de Dios en el “Tahâfut”, 2017
By: Roger Arnaldez
Title El pensamiento religioso de Averroes. La teoría de Dios en el “Tahâfut”
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 2017
Published in La filosofía en Al Ándalus
Pages 453–464
Categories Theology, al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Roger Arnaldez
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen? Zum Umgang des Averroes mit dem Koran und seiner Rezeption im zeitgenössischen islamischen Denken, 2010
By: Georg Tamer
Title Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen? Zum Umgang des Averroes mit dem Koran und seiner Rezeption im zeitgenössischen islamischen Denken
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2010
Published in Kritische Religionsgeschichte. Eine Gedenkschrift für Friedrich Niewöhner
Pages 47–83
Categories Theology
Author(s) Georg Tamer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"2045","_score":null,"_source":{"id":2045,"authors_free":[{"id":2488,"entry_id":2045,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":861,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Georg Tamer","free_first_name":"Georg","free_last_name":"Tamer","norm_person":{"id":861,"first_name":"Georges","last_name":"Tamer","full_name":"Georges Tamer","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1056157437","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/59259868","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Georges Tamer"}}],"entry_title":"Alter Wein in neuen Schl\u00e4uchen? Zum Umgang des Averroes mit dem Koran und seiner Rezeption im zeitgen\u00f6ssischen islamischen Denken","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Alter Wein in neuen Schl\u00e4uchen? Zum Umgang des Averroes mit dem Koran und seiner Rezeption im zeitgen\u00f6ssischen islamischen Denken"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2010","language":"German","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1515\/9783110247558.47","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":861,"full_name":"Georges Tamer","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":2045,"section_of":287,"pages":"47\u201383","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":287,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Kritische Religionsgeschichte. Eine Gedenkschrift f\u00fcr Friedrich Niew\u00f6hner","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2010","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2010","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":287,"pubplace":"Berlin, New York","publisher":"De Gruyter","series":null,"volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["Alter Wein in neuen Schl\u00e4uchen? Zum Umgang des Averroes mit dem Koran und seiner Rezeption im zeitgen\u00f6ssischen islamischen Denken"]}

An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. 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Aristote et le Coran dans le Kitāb al-Kašfʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla d'Averroès, 2007
Title Aristote et le Coran dans le Kitāb al-Kašfʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla d'Averroès
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2007
Published in Averroes et les Averroïsmes juif et latin. Actes du Colloque International. Paris, 16–18 juin 2005
Pages 193–213
Categories Theology
Author(s) no authors
Publisher(s) no authors
Translator(s) no authors

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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Averroes and Aquinas: Some Reflections on the Study and Role of Philosophy and Religion in the Middle Ages, 2012
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes and Aquinas: Some Reflections on the Study and Role of Philosophy and Religion in the Middle Ages
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in Existence, Cause, Essence. Essays in Islamic Philosophy and Theology
Pages 75–85
Categories Thomas, Theology
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and Maimonides in Defense of Philosophizing, 2005
By: Ralph Lerner
Title Averroes and Maimonides in Defense of Philosophizing
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2005
Published in The Trias of Maimonides. Jewish, Arabic and Ancient Culture of Knowledge
Pages ?-?
Categories Theology
Author(s) Ralph Lerner
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and the Opinions Common to All Philosophical Investigations Or What No One Can Ignore, 2004
By: Charles E. Butterworth
Title Averroes and the Opinions Common to All Philosophical Investigations Or What No One Can Ignore
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2004
Published in Averroes and the Aristotelian Heritage
Pages 11–21
Categories Theology
Author(s) Charles E. Butterworth
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on the Method of Research, 2004
By: Miklós Maróth
Title Averroes on the Method of Research
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2004
Published in Averroes and the Aristotelian Heritage
Pages 63–71
Categories Theology
Author(s) Miklós Maróth
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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