Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 253–274
Categories Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The most famous, or infamous, proposal in Plato's Republic concerns the rule of philosopher-kings. Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole. Averroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics. The form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as “we said,” and “Plato said.” In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.

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Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole.\r\n\r\nAverroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics.\r\n\r\nThe form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as \u201cwe said,\u201d and \u201cPlato said.\u201d In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.013","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5358,"section_of":5346,"pages":"253\u2013274","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat, 2022
By: Joshua Parens
Title Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 233–252
Categories Nicomachean ethics, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Joshua Parens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume—namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions—that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions—form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics—putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10—and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17–74.12).

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Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought, 2022
By: Alexander Green
Title Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 277–296
Categories Tradition and Reception, Influence
Author(s) Alexander Green
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The ethical and political writings by late medieval Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Plato's Republic. Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” into Hebrew in the 1320s that gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the central classical text on political philosophy for Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's Republic came to influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted the Republic's core ideas. Samuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into Hebrew The introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the nature of the political community took place after Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” from Arabic into Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and 1322. Samuel came from an established family in Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don) Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and astronomy. The movement of translating the great works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165−1232) in the first decades of the thirteenth century and been furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn Tibbon (ca. 1195−1274), his son-in-law, Jacob Anatoli (1194−1256), and his grandson, Jacob b. Makhir (ca. 1236−1304), was gradually coming to an end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben Qalonimos (ca. 1286−1328) in the first decades of the fourteenth century. It had already begun to transform Judaism into what some have termed a philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model of philosophic religion is that it was overly focused on natural science and mostly ignored practical philosophy.

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One More (Unsuccessful) Reconciliation: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola on Averroes and Islamic Philosophy, 2021
By: Ovanes Akopyan
Title One More (Unsuccessful) Reconciliation: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola on Averroes and Islamic Philosophy
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 80–115
Categories Tradition and Reception, Renaissance
Author(s) Ovanes Akopyan
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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’The Intelligence that illuminates all of us’. The Presence of Averroes in Bruno’s Doctrine of Intellect, 2021
By: Salvatore Carannante
Title ’The Intelligence that illuminates all of us’. The Presence of Averroes in Bruno’s Doctrine of Intellect
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 245–280
Categories Tradition and Reception, Renaissance
Author(s) Salvatore Carannante
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Eclectic Universalist Noetics and its Critics, 2021
By: Leen Spruit
Title Eclectic Universalist Noetics and its Critics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 188–224
Categories Tradition and Reception, Renaissance
Author(s) Leen Spruit
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ficino und Averroes. Ein vorläufiger Kommentar zu Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes im Buch XV der Theologia Platonica, 2021
By: Thomas Leinkauf
Title Ficino und Averroes. Ein vorläufiger Kommentar zu Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes im Buch XV der Theologia Platonica
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 9–79
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Plato
Author(s) Thomas Leinkauf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Metaphysics Last: Agostino on Averroes, Avicenna, and the Order of the Theoretical Sciences, 2021
By: Anna-Katharina Strohschneider
Title Metaphysics Last: Agostino on Averroes, Avicenna, and the Order of the Theoretical Sciences
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 151–187
Categories Metaphysics, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Anna-Katharina Strohschneider
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Echoes of Averroes in Renaissance Platonism: Cardinal Bessarion, 2021
By: Jozef Matula
Title Echoes of Averroes in Renaissance Platonism: Cardinal Bessarion
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 116–150
Categories Plato, Renaissance, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Jozef Matula
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Spinoza’s Theory of Intellect – an Averroistic Theory?, 2021
By: Olivér István Tóth
Title Spinoza’s Theory of Intellect – an Averroistic Theory?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 281–308
Categories Spinoza, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Olivér István Tóth
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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'Der hat den großen Kommentar gemacht'. Aristoteles, Averroes und der Weg der arabischen Philosophie nach Europa, 1989
By: Hans Wilderotter
Title 'Der hat den großen Kommentar gemacht'. Aristoteles, Averroes und der Weg der arabischen Philosophie nach Europa
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 1989
Published in Europa und der Orient 800–1900
Pages 132–154
Categories Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Hans Wilderotter
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten, 2006
By: Sven K. Knebel
Title 'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2006
Published in Wissen über Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter
Pages 662–676
Categories Tradition and Reception, Avicenna
Author(s) Sven K. Knebel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Sujet Libre. Pour Alain de Libera
Pages 321–325
Categories Tradition and Reception, Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Al-Ghazâlî, Averroes and Moshe Narboni: Conflict and Conflation, 2015
By: Alfred L. Ivry
Title Al-Ghazâlî, Averroes and Moshe Narboni: Conflict and Conflation
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Islam and Rationality: The Impact of al-Ghazâlî. Papers Collected on His 900th Anniversary Vol. 1
Pages 275–287
Categories al-Ġazālī, Commentary, Tradition and Reception, Influence
Author(s) Alfred L. Ivry
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Almohadism. An Islamic Context for the Work of Saint Thomas Aquinas, 2005
By: Madeleine Fletcher
Title Almohadism. An Islamic Context for the Work of Saint Thomas Aquinas
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2005
Published in Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas
Pages 1137–1162
Categories Thomas, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Madeleine Fletcher
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Antecedentes andalusíes del Kitāb al-ǧāmiʿ li-mufradāt al-adwiya wa-l-agḏiya de Ibn al-Bayṭār. Las ausencias de Averroes y Maimónides, 2008
By: Camilo Alvarez de Morales

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Arabic into Hebrew. The Hebrew Translation Movement and the Influence of Averroes upon Medieval Jewish Thought, 2003
By: Steven Harvey
Title Arabic into Hebrew. The Hebrew Translation Movement and the Influence of Averroes upon Medieval Jewish Thought
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2003
Published in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy
Pages 258–280
Categories Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Steven Harvey
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Arabic philosophy and Averroism, 2007
By: Dag Nikolaus Hasse
Title Arabic philosophy and Averroism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2007
Published in The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Philosophy
Pages 113-136
Categories Averroism, Intellect, Metaphysics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Dag Nikolaus Hasse
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The names of the famous Arabic philosophers Averroes and Avicenna, alongside those of Alkindi, Alfarabi, and Algazel, appear in countless philosophical writings of the Renaissance. These authors are well-known figures of the classical period of Arabic philosophy, which stretches from the ninth to the twelfth century AD. The history of Arabic philosophy began in the middle of the ninth century, when a substantial part of ancient Greek philosophy had become available in Arabic translations: almost the complete Aristotle, numerous Greek commentaries on Aristotle, and many Platonic and Neoplatonic sources. A major centre of intellectual activity was Baghdad, the new capital of the Abbasid caliphs. It was here that Alkindi (al-Kindī, d. after AD 870), the first important philosopher of Arabic culture, and the Aristotelian philosopher Alfarabi (al-Fārābī, d. 950/1) spent the greater part of their life. A major turning point in the history of Arabic philosophy was the activity of Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, d. 1037), the court philosopher of various local rulers in Persia, who recast Aristotelian philosophy in a way that made it highly influential among Islamic theologians. The famous Baghdad theologian Algazel (al-Ghazālī, d. 1111) accepted much of Avicenna’s philosophy, but criticized it on central issues such as the eternity of the world. Averroes (Ibn Rushd, d. 1198), the Andalusian commentator on Aristotle, reacted to both Avicenna and Algazel: he censured Avicenna for deviating from Aristotle and criticized Algazel for misunderstanding the philosophical tradition.

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These authors are well-known figures of the classical period of Arabic philosophy, which stretches from the ninth to the twelfth century AD. The history of Arabic philosophy began in the middle of the ninth century, when a substantial part of ancient Greek philosophy had become available in Arabic translations: almost the complete Aristotle, numerous Greek commentaries on Aristotle, and many Platonic and Neoplatonic sources. A major centre of intellectual activity was Baghdad, the new capital of the Abbasid caliphs. It was here that Alkindi (al-Kind\u012b, d. after AD 870), the first important philosopher of Arabic culture, and the Aristotelian philosopher Alfarabi (al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b, d. 950\/1) spent the greater part of their life. A major turning point in the history of Arabic philosophy was the activity of Avicenna (Ibn S\u012bn\u0101, d. 1037), the court philosopher of various local rulers in Persia, who recast Aristotelian philosophy in a way that made it highly influential among Islamic theologians. The famous Baghdad theologian Algazel (al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b, d. 1111) accepted much of Avicenna\u2019s philosophy, but criticized it on central issues such as the eternity of the world. Averroes (Ibn Rushd, d. 1198), the Andalusian commentator on Aristotle, reacted to both Avicenna and Algazel: he censured Avicenna for deviating from Aristotle and criticized Algazel for misunderstanding the philosophical tradition.","btype":2,"date":"2007","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/CCOL052184648X.007","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":1,"category_name":"Averroism","link":"bib?categories[]=Averroism"},{"id":75,"category_name":"Intellect","link":"bib?categories[]=Intellect"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1722,"full_name":"Dag Nikolaus Hasse","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5344,"section_of":5343,"pages":"113-136","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5343,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Philosophy","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2007","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Philosophy, published in 2007, provides an introduction to a complex period of change in the subject matter and practice of philosophy. The philosophy of the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries is often seen as transitional between the scholastic philosophy of the Middle Ages and modern philosophy, but the essays collected here, by a distinguished international team of contributors, call these assumptions into question, emphasizing both the continuity with scholastic philosophy and the role of Renaissance philosophy in the emergence of modernity. They explore the ways in which the science, religion and politics of the period reflect and are reflected in its philosophical life, and they emphasize the dynamism and pluralism of a period which saw both new perspectives and enduring contributions to the history of philosophy. This will be an invaluable guide for students of philosophy, intellectual historians, and all who are interested in Renaissance thought.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/CCOL052184648X","book":{"id":5343,"pubplace":"Cambridge","publisher":"Cambridge University Press","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6193,"entry_id":5343,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"James Hankins","free_first_name":"James ","free_last_name":"Hankins","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["Arabic philosophy and Averroism"]}

Aristoteles und Averroes bei Kaiser Friedrich II., 2002
By: Dorothea Walz
Title Aristoteles und Averroes bei Kaiser Friedrich II.
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2002
Published in Averroes (1126–1198) oder der Triumph des Rationalismus. Internationales Symposium anlässlich des 800. Todestages des islamischen Philosophen. Heidelberg, 7.-11. Oktober 1998
Pages 317–330
Categories Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Dorothea Walz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Aristotelianism in the West. Middle Ages and Renaissance, 1996
By: Charles H. Lohr
Title Aristotelianism in the West. Middle Ages and Renaissance
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 1996
Published in Actes del Simposi Internacional de Filosofia de l'Edat Mitjana. El pensament antropològic medieval en els àmbits islàmic, hebreu i cristià. Vic-Girona 11–16 d'abril de 1993
Pages 29–38
Categories Tradition and Reception, Renaissance
Author(s) Charles H. Lohr
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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