Author 246
Type of Media
Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 253–274
Categories Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The most famous, or infamous, proposal in Plato's Republic concerns the rule of philosopher-kings. Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole. Averroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics. The form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as “we said,” and “Plato said.” In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.

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Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole.\r\n\r\nAverroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics.\r\n\r\nThe form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as \u201cwe said,\u201d and \u201cPlato said.\u201d In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.013","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5358,"section_of":5346,"pages":"253\u2013274","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat, 2022
By: Joshua Parens
Title Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 233–252
Categories Nicomachean ethics, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Joshua Parens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume—namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions—that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions—form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics—putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10—and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17–74.12).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5357","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5357,"authors_free":[{"id":6208,"entry_id":5357,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1783,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Joshua Parens","free_first_name":"Joshua","free_last_name":" Parens","norm_person":{"id":1783,"first_name":"Joshua","last_name":"Parens","full_name":"Joshua Parens","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/172958881","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Joshua Parens"}}],"entry_title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat"},"abstract":"As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume\u2014namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions\u2014that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions\u2014form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics\u2014putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10\u2014and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17\u201374.12).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.012","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":70,"category_name":"Nicomachean ethics","link":"bib?categories[]=Nicomachean ethics"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1783,"full_name":"Joshua Parens","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5357,"section_of":5346,"pages":"233\u2013252","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”: Method, Motivation, and Context, 2022
By: Michael Engel
Title The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”: Method, Motivation, and Context
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 297–318
Categories Transmission
Author(s) Michael Engel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” was translated twice into Latin; both translations were made from the Hebrew version of Samuel ben Judah of Marseille. The first translation was done by Elijah Del Medigo (ca. 1455–93), a Crete-born Jew, who spent most of his life in northern Italy, Crete being at that time under Venetian rule. Although a devout Jew, Del Medigo's immediate intellectual milieu was Christian, mostly made up of figures related in some way to the university of Padua and to powerful circles in Venice. Most of Del Medigo's literary output was in Latin—including his Hebrew-into-Latin translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic”—and he himself translated some of his own original Latin works into Hebrew. Thematically, Del Medigo focused almost solely on the works of Averroes. His translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” was part of his general endeavour of translating and commenting on the works of Averroes, while working at the service of his Christian patrons—namely, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Domenico Grimani. On his return to Crete, toward the end of his life, Del Medigo composed his Hebrew work Beḥinat haDat, which became his most celebrated work. In that work Del Medigo examines the relation between Judaism and rational thought, determining the rational nature of Judaism as opposed to the irrational character of Christian dogmas. The second translation was by the Jewish physician and translator Jacob Mantino (d. 1549). Mantino, a Jewish physician who lived most of his life in Italy, had close relationships with bishops and cardinals to whom he dedicated several of his translations and he was the personal physician to Pope Paul III. Mantino translated many of Averroes's commentaries, and was, according to Dag Hasse, “the most prolific and most acclaimed among all Renaissance translators of Averroes.” Del Medigo's translation was never printed during the Renaissance; it was discovered by Paul Oscar Kristeller in a Siena manuscript and published as a critical edition in 1992. Mantino's translation, first published in 1539, was printed four times during the Renaissance, yet has never received a modern edition. This chapter begins with a general overview of the two translations, discussing their different nature in light of the different circumstances surrounding their production.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5360","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5360,"authors_free":[{"id":6211,"entry_id":5360,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Michael Engel","free_first_name":"Michael","free_last_name":"Engel","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d: Method, Motivation, and Context","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d: Method, Motivation, and Context"},"abstract":"Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d was translated twice into Latin; both translations were made from the Hebrew version of Samuel ben Judah of Marseille. The first translation was done by Elijah Del Medigo (ca. 1455\u201393), a Crete-born Jew, who spent most of his life in northern Italy, Crete being at that time under Venetian rule. Although a devout Jew, Del Medigo's immediate intellectual milieu was Christian, mostly made up of figures related in some way to the university of Padua and to powerful circles in Venice. Most of Del Medigo's literary output was in Latin\u2014including his Hebrew-into-Latin translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d\u2014and he himself translated some of his own original Latin works into Hebrew. Thematically, Del Medigo focused almost solely on the works of Averroes. His translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d was part of his general endeavour of translating and commenting on the works of Averroes, while working at the service of his Christian patrons\u2014namely, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Domenico Grimani. On his return to Crete, toward the end of his life, Del Medigo composed his Hebrew work Be\u1e25inat haDat, which became his most celebrated work. In that work Del Medigo examines the relation between Judaism and rational thought, determining the rational nature of Judaism as opposed to the irrational character of Christian dogmas.\r\n\r\nThe second translation was by the Jewish physician and translator Jacob Mantino (d. 1549). Mantino, a Jewish physician who lived most of his life in Italy, had close relationships with bishops and cardinals to whom he dedicated several of his translations and he was the personal physician to Pope Paul III. Mantino translated many of Averroes's commentaries, and was, according to Dag Hasse, \u201cthe most prolific and most acclaimed among all Renaissance translators of Averroes.\u201d\r\n\r\nDel Medigo's translation was never printed during the Renaissance; it was discovered by Paul Oscar Kristeller in a Siena manuscript and published as a critical edition in 1992. Mantino's translation, first published in 1539, was printed four times during the Renaissance, yet has never received a modern edition. This chapter begins with a general overview of the two translations, discussing their different nature in light of the different circumstances surrounding their production.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.015","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":40,"category_name":"Transmission","link":"bib?categories[]=Transmission"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5360,"section_of":5346,"pages":"297\u2013318","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought, 2022
By: Alexander Green
Title Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 277–296
Categories Tradition and Reception, Influence
Author(s) Alexander Green
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The ethical and political writings by late medieval Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Plato's Republic. Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” into Hebrew in the 1320s that gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the central classical text on political philosophy for Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's Republic came to influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted the Republic's core ideas. Samuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into Hebrew The introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the nature of the political community took place after Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” from Arabic into Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and 1322. Samuel came from an established family in Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don) Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and astronomy. The movement of translating the great works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165−1232) in the first decades of the thirteenth century and been furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn Tibbon (ca. 1195−1274), his son-in-law, Jacob Anatoli (1194−1256), and his grandson, Jacob b. Makhir (ca. 1236−1304), was gradually coming to an end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben Qalonimos (ca. 1286−1328) in the first decades of the fourteenth century. It had already begun to transform Judaism into what some have termed a philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model of philosophic religion is that it was overly focused on natural science and mostly ignored practical philosophy.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5359","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5359,"authors_free":[{"id":6210,"entry_id":5359,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Green","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Green","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Three Readings of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d in Medieval Jewish Thought","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Three Readings of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d in Medieval Jewish Thought"},"abstract":"The ethical and political writings by late medieval Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Plato's Republic. Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d into Hebrew in the 1320s that gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the central classical text on political philosophy for Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's Republic came to influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted the Republic's core ideas.\r\n\r\nSamuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into Hebrew\r\n\r\nThe introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the nature of the political community took place after Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d from Arabic into Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and 1322. Samuel came from an established family in Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don) Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and astronomy. The movement of translating the great works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165\u22121232) in the first decades of the thirteenth century and been furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn Tibbon (ca. 1195\u22121274), his son-in-law, Jacob Anatoli (1194\u22121256), and his grandson, Jacob b. Makhir (ca. 1236\u22121304), was gradually coming to an end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben Qalonimos (ca. 1286\u22121328) in the first decades of the fourteenth century. It had already begun to transform Judaism into what some have termed a philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model of philosophic religion is that it was overly focused on natural science and mostly ignored practical philosophy.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"},{"id":24,"category_name":"Influence","link":"bib?categories[]=Influence"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5359,"section_of":5346,"pages":"277\u2013296","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 69–86
Categories Politics, Dialectic
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's “Republic” with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is “to abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.” This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city—that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats “volitional actions and habits in general” (haqinyanim wehapeʿulot hareṣoniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences—even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division—as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing. It appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d–511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah harišonah).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5349","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5349,"authors_free":[{"id":6199,"entry_id":5349,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1500,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Yehuda Halper","free_first_name":"Yehuda","free_last_name":"Halper","norm_person":{"id":1500,"first_name":"Yehuda","last_name":"Halper","full_name":"Yehuda Halper","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/142969923","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/177995327","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Yehuda Halper"}}],"entry_title":"Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is \u201cto abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.\u201d This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city\u2014that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats \u201cvolitional actions and habits in general\u201d (haqinyanim wehape\u02bfulot hare\u1e63oniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences\u2014even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division\u2014as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing.\r\n\r\nIt appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d\u2013511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah hari\u0161onah).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.004","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":79,"category_name":"Dialectic","link":"bib?categories[]=Dialectic"}],"authors":[{"id":1500,"full_name":"Yehuda Halper","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5349,"section_of":5346,"pages":"69\u201386","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 19–39
Categories al-Fārābī, Galen, Aristotle, Plato, Politics, Commentary
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments. The importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27–30, 23.31–33, cf. 47.29–30and 105.25–27). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25–27, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: “Before we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning” (CR 22.6–8). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22–24.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi—mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war—for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5347","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5347,"authors_free":[{"id":6197,"entry_id":5347,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1790,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Orwin","norm_person":{"id":1790,"first_name":" Alexander","last_name":" Orwin","full_name":" Alexander Orwin","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/1153328348","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]= Alexander Orwin"}}],"entry_title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City"},"abstract":"Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments.\r\n\r\nThe importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27\u201330, 23.31\u201333, cf. 47.29\u201330and 105.25\u201327). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25\u201327, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: \u201cBefore we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning\u201d (CR 22.6\u20138). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22\u201324.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi\u2014mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war\u2014for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.002","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5347,"section_of":5346,"pages":"19\u201339","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Ibn Bajja: An Independent Reader of the Republic, 2022
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Ibn Bajja: An Independent Reader of the Republic
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 40–66
Categories Ibn Bāǧǧa, Influence
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (1126–98) wrote a commentary, or be’ur in the only extant Hebrew translation, on Plato's Republic that is the subject matter of the present anthology. He insists there that his aim is to present Plato's doctrines without provoking polemics and that the dialectical arguments are not necessary to the understanding of those doctrines. Just as he did in his epitome of, or short commentary on, Aristotle's Metaphysics, Averroes neither follows the strict order of the Greek original nor preserves the original division of books. While he gives his reasons for the rearrangement in the case of the Metaphysics, he does not give any for the Republic. Although Averroes's work follows Plato's text in many passages, the independent structure of the work fits better into an epitome than into a middle commentary. As for the Arabic translation he was reading, we know that it preserved the division into ten books but probably not the dialogue form, since Averroes never mentions the names of the figures participating in the dialogue. In the Republic, Socrates narrates in the first person, but in his commentary, Averroes give no hint of Socrates's peculiar role in that work; on the contrary, he presents Socrates only once, referring to him in the third person and mentioning that he held the belief that death is preferable to life without human dignity. Averroes lived two generations after Muḥammad ibn al-Ṣā̔igh Ibn Bājja (d. 1139; henceforth Ibn Bajja), who did not write a specific commentary on the Republic. But he did compose a treatise, titled the Governance of the Solitary, in which he deals with some of the political issues raised by Plato. There, as in some other works that we will discuss below, Ibn Bajja refers to the Republic and to the Phaedo. In this chapter the attempt will be made to reconstruct the influence of Plato's Republic on Ibn Bajja through his own texts, and incidentally, to learn about the text that Ibn Bajja was using.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5348","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5348,"authors_free":[{"id":6198,"entry_id":5348,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":343,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Josep Puig Montada","free_first_name":"Josep ","free_last_name":"Puig Montada","norm_person":{"id":343,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Josep Puig Montada","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/188325034","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/61625512","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Josep Puig Montada"}}],"entry_title":"Ibn Bajja: An Independent Reader of the Republic","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Ibn Bajja: An Independent Reader of the Republic"},"abstract":"Averroes (1126\u201398) wrote a commentary, or be\u2019ur in the only extant Hebrew translation, on Plato's Republic that is the subject matter of the present anthology. He insists there that his aim is to present Plato's doctrines without provoking polemics and that the dialectical arguments are not necessary to the understanding of those doctrines.\r\n\r\nJust as he did in his epitome of, or short commentary on, Aristotle's Metaphysics, Averroes neither follows the strict order of the Greek original nor preserves the original division of books. While he gives his reasons for the rearrangement in the case of the Metaphysics, he does not give any for the Republic. Although Averroes's work follows Plato's text in many passages, the independent structure of the work fits better into an epitome than into a middle commentary. As for the Arabic translation he was reading, we know that it preserved the division into ten books but probably not the dialogue form, since Averroes never mentions the names of the figures participating in the dialogue. In the Republic, Socrates narrates in the first person, but in his commentary, Averroes give no hint of Socrates's peculiar role in that work; on the contrary, he presents Socrates only once, referring to him in the third person and mentioning that he held the belief that death is preferable to life without human dignity.\r\n\r\nAverroes lived two generations after Mu\u1e25ammad ibn al-\u1e62\u0101\u0314igh Ibn B\u0101jja (d. 1139; henceforth Ibn Bajja), who did not write a specific commentary on the Republic. But he did compose a treatise, titled the Governance of the Solitary, in which he deals with some of the political issues raised by Plato. There, as in some other works that we will discuss below, Ibn Bajja refers to the Republic and to the Phaedo. In this chapter the attempt will be made to reconstruct the influence of Plato's Republic on Ibn Bajja through his own texts, and incidentally, to learn about the text that Ibn Bajja was using.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.003","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":17,"category_name":"Ibn B\u0101\u01e7\u01e7a","link":"bib?categories[]=Ibn B\u0101\u01e7\u01e7a"},{"id":24,"category_name":"Influence","link":"bib?categories[]=Influence"}],"authors":[{"id":343,"full_name":"Josep Puig Montada","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5348,"section_of":5346,"pages":"40\u201366","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching, 2022
By: Shlomo Pines, Alexander Orwin
Title Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 133–159
Categories Politics, Transmission
Author(s) Shlomo Pines , Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The original Hebrew was published in Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 8 (April 1957): 65–84. A complete English translation follows. No commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open. Having no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion. The Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance. The Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5352","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5352,"authors_free":[{"id":6202,"entry_id":5352,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":840,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Shlomo Pines","free_first_name":"Shlomo","free_last_name":"Pines","norm_person":{"id":840,"first_name":"Shlomo","last_name":"Pines","full_name":"Shlomo Pines","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/119465485","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/45268042","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/pnd119465485.html","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Shlomo Pines"}},{"id":6203,"entry_id":5352,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1790,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Orwin","norm_person":{"id":1790,"first_name":" Alexander","last_name":" Orwin","full_name":" Alexander Orwin","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/1153328348","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]= Alexander Orwin"}}],"entry_title":"Notes on Averroes\u2019s Political Teaching","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Notes on Averroes\u2019s Political Teaching"},"abstract":"The original Hebrew was published in Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 8 (April 1957): 65\u201384. A complete English translation follows.\r\n\r\nNo commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open.\r\n\r\nHaving no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion.\r\n\r\nThe Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance.\r\n\r\nThe Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.007","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":40,"category_name":"Transmission","link":"bib?categories[]=Transmission"}],"authors":[{"id":840,"full_name":"Shlomo Pines","role":1},{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5352,"section_of":5346,"pages":"133\u2013159","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 212–232
Categories Politics
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Political discourse in the Islamic world has a threefold classical heritage— Islamic, Persian, and Greek, each representing a different genre. These three genres of discourse were first elaborated under the same historical circumstances in the tenth century, often by the same authors. The religious discourse includes the political, since it has a dual function: on the one hand, it aims to safeguard the prophetic tradition; on the other hand, it aims to administer earthly interests. This discourse culminates in the theory of the imamate elaborated by the jurist Al-Māwardī, which we shall address later Of Persian origin, the “mirrors of princes” or royal genre literature portrays the art of ruling and the model of virtue imposed on the prince. It represents a literary genre that predates the emergence of Islam. There are two categories of “mirrors”: those composed through a series of fables, and those organized by ideas and concepts. Those composed of fables, like Kalila and Dimna, tell stories with moral content aimed at teaching moral principles to the ruler; the conceptual “mirrors,” meanwhile, deal with the organization of royal duties, while also conveying political and moral instruction. The influence of Persian and Indian moral thinking in the Islamic tradition precedes the entrance of Greek ethics. Its principal representative is Ibn Muqaffaʿ (ca. 720–ca. 756), a courtier of Persian origin who gained fame as a promoter of the refined culture that developed under the Abbasids. Ibn Muqaffaʿ was known for integrating the literature of Persian and Indian origins into the Arab milieu. His most celebrated work, Kitāb Kalīla wa-Dimna, is an Arabic version of the collection of Indian fables dating back to the Panjatantra and to the Tantrākhyāyka; this was “designed to enrich political talent in the reader, unfolding before his eyes the spectacle of the royal political world, with all its activities, struggles, and evolutions, while at the same time explaining to the reader the interests, passions, and motivations that make each of the players act and the causes and consequences of their behavior.” The transmission of these fables constitutes one of the first monuments of Arabic prose, in which emphasis is given to profane wisdom that teaches political prudence and at the same time celebrates the virtues of friendship.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5356","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5356,"authors_free":[{"id":6207,"entry_id":5356,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1347,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira","free_first_name":"Rosalie Helena","free_last_name":"de Souza Pereira","norm_person":{"id":1347,"first_name":"Rosalie Helena","last_name":"de Souza Pereira","full_name":"Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/121640755","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira"}}],"entry_title":"The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Political discourse in the Islamic world has a threefold classical heritage\u2014 Islamic, Persian, and Greek, each representing a different genre. These three genres of discourse were first elaborated under the same historical circumstances in the tenth century, often by the same authors.\r\n\r\nThe religious discourse includes the political, since it has a dual function: on the one hand, it aims to safeguard the prophetic tradition; on the other hand, it aims to administer earthly interests. This discourse culminates in the theory of the imamate elaborated by the jurist Al-M\u0101ward\u012b, which we shall address later\r\n\r\nOf Persian origin, the \u201cmirrors of princes\u201d or royal genre literature portrays the art of ruling and the model of virtue imposed on the prince. It represents a literary genre that predates the emergence of Islam. There are two categories of \u201cmirrors\u201d: those composed through a series of fables, and those organized by ideas and concepts. Those composed of fables, like Kalila and Dimna, tell stories with moral content aimed at teaching moral principles to the ruler; the conceptual \u201cmirrors,\u201d meanwhile, deal with the organization of royal duties, while also conveying political and moral instruction.\r\n\r\nThe influence of Persian and Indian moral thinking in the Islamic tradition precedes the entrance of Greek ethics. Its principal representative is Ibn Muqaffa\u02bf (ca. 720\u2013ca. 756), a courtier of Persian origin who gained fame as a promoter of the refined culture that developed under the Abbasids. Ibn Muqaffa\u02bf was known for integrating the literature of Persian and Indian origins into the Arab milieu. His most celebrated work, Kit\u0101b Kal\u012bla wa-Dimna, is an Arabic version of the collection of Indian fables dating back to the Panjatantra and to the Tantr\u0101khy\u0101yka; this was \u201cdesigned to enrich political talent in the reader, unfolding before his eyes the spectacle of the royal political world, with all its activities, struggles, and evolutions, while at the same time explaining to the reader the interests, passions, and motivations that make each of the players act and the causes and consequences of their behavior.\u201d The transmission of these fables constitutes one of the first monuments of Arabic prose, in which emphasis is given to profane wisdom that teaches political prudence and at the same time celebrates the virtues of friendship.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.011","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"}],"authors":[{"id":1347,"full_name":"Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5356,"section_of":5346,"pages":"212\u2013232","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

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The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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, 2001
By: Josep-Ignasi Saranyana
Title
Type Book Section
Language Spanish
Date 2001
Published in Breve historia de la filosofía medieval
Pages 62–67
Categories Surveys
Author(s) Josep-Ignasi Saranyana
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Yahyâ ibn ‘Adî and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton, 2015
By: Peter Adamson
Title Yahyâ ibn ‘Adî and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Studies on Early Arabic Philosophy
Pages 343–373
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Peter Adamson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averroès sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote, 2006
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title 'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averroès sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2006
Published in Écriture et réécriture des textes philosophiques médiévaux. Volume d'hommage offert à Colette Sirat
Pages 137–184
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"777","_score":null,"_source":{"id":777,"authors_free":[{"id":940,"entry_id":777,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":955,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Marc Geoffroy","free_first_name":"Marc","free_last_name":"Geoffroy","norm_person":{"id":955,"first_name":"Marc","last_name":"Geoffroy","full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/174155514","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/7482512","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Marc Geoffroy"}}],"entry_title":"'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averro\u00e8s sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averro\u00e8s sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2006","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":12,"category_name":"Psychology","link":"bib?categories[]=Psychology"},{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"}],"authors":[{"id":955,"full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":777,"section_of":48,"pages":"137\u2013184","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":48,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"\u00c9criture et r\u00e9\u00e9criture des textes philosophiques m\u00e9di\u00e9vaux. Volume d'hommage offert \u00e0 Colette Sirat","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2006","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2006","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":48,"pubplace":"Turnhout","publisher":"Brepols","series":"Textes et \u00e9tudes du moyen \u00e2ge","volume":"34","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averro\u00e8s sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote"]}

'Substance' in Averroes' Three Commentaries on the Metaphysics, 2009
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title 'Substance' in Averroes' Three Commentaries on the Metaphysics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2009
Published in Florilegium mediaevale. Études offertes à Jacqueline Hamesse à l'occasion de son éméritat
Pages 491–524
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten, 2006
By: Sven K. Knebel
Title 'Volo magis stare cum Avicenna'. Der Zufall zwischen Averroisten und Avicennisten
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2006
Published in Wissen über Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter
Pages 662–676
Categories Tradition and Reception, Avicenna
Author(s) Sven K. Knebel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Case of "Author's Variant Readings" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics , 2006
By: Mauro Zonta
Title A Case of "Author's Variant Readings" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2006
Published in Écriture et réécriture des textes philosophiques médiévaux. Volume d'hommage offert à Colette Sirat
Pages 465–483
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"609","_score":null,"_source":{"id":609,"authors_free":[{"id":760,"entry_id":609,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":401,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mauro Zonta","free_first_name":"Mauro","free_last_name":"Zonta","norm_person":{"id":401,"first_name":"Mauro","last_name":"Zonta","full_name":"Mauro Zonta","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1068186860","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/51773741","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mauro Zonta"}}],"entry_title":"A Case of \"Author's Variant Readings\" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics\n ","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"A Case of \"Author's Variant Readings\" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics\n "},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2006","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"}],"authors":[{"id":401,"full_name":"Mauro Zonta","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":609,"section_of":48,"pages":"465\u2013483","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":48,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"\u00c9criture et r\u00e9\u00e9criture des textes philosophiques m\u00e9di\u00e9vaux. Volume d'hommage offert \u00e0 Colette Sirat","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2006","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2006","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":48,"pubplace":"Turnhout","publisher":"Brepols","series":"Textes et \u00e9tudes du moyen \u00e2ge","volume":"34","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["A Case of \"Author's Variant Readings\" and the Textual History of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics\n "]}

A Map of Averroes’ Criticism against Avicenna: Physics, De caelo, De generatione et corruptione and Meteorology, 2018
By: Cristina Cerami
Title A Map of Averroes’ Criticism against Avicenna: Physics, De caelo, De generatione et corruptione and Meteorology
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna’s Physics and Cosmology
Pages 163–240
Categories Avicenna, De caelo, Physics, Meteorology, Commentary, Surveys
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Note about Two Newly-Discovered Hebrew Quotations of Averroes' Works Lost in their Original Arabic Texts, 2007
By: Mauro Zonta
Title A Note about Two Newly-Discovered Hebrew Quotations of Averroes' Works Lost in their Original Arabic Texts
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2007
Published in אודה לאוד״ה. Studies in Hebrew Literature and Jewish Culture. Presented to Albert van der Heide on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday
Pages 241–250
Categories Transmission, Jewish Averroism
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A propos de l'averroïsme. Prémisses pour une lecture philosophique, 2001
By: Bensalem Himmich
Title A propos de l'averroïsme. Prémisses pour une lecture philosophique
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 238–241
Categories Averroism
Author(s) Bensalem Himmich
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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