Author 258
Type of Media
The Reception of Averroes in Early Scholasticism, 2023
By: Lydia Schumacher
Title The Reception of Averroes in Early Scholasticism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2023
Published in Human Nature in Early Franciscan Thought. Philosophical Background and Theological Significance
Pages 182-204
Categories Psychology, De anima, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Lydia Schumacher
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This chapter intervenes in a longstanding debate about the origins of a psychological schema that is found in both of John’s works on the soul as well as in the Summa Halensis. This is the distinction between the material intellect, which is connected to the body, on the one hand, and the agent and possible intellects, which are separable from the body, on the other. Some past scholars have traced this scheme to Averroes’ distinction between a corruptible and an incorruptible intellect, while others have pointed out that there is insufficient evidence of Averroes’ influence at this time to support that attribution. The chapter gathers evidence which suggests that the scheme is a Latin scholastic invention which draws primarily on Avicenna and Aristotle rather than Averroes.

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Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Philosopher-Kings and Counselors: How Should Philosophers Participate in Politics?
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 253–274
Categories Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The most famous, or infamous, proposal in Plato's Republic concerns the rule of philosopher-kings. Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole. Averroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics. The form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as “we said,” and “Plato said.” In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.

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Throughout the long history of the philosophical reception of Plato, this theme has been explored, restated, and rejected in countless ways. One of the most original treatments of it comes from the Andalusian philosopher Averroes, in his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d The title of this inventive work must not be construed too narrowly. On every major theme in the Republic, Averroes deviates, either by omission, addition, or editorial commentary, from Plato. His treatment of the philosopher-kings will make use of all these techniques. Before turning to this topic, I wish to make some general remarks about the work as a whole.\r\n\r\nAverroes announces his departure from Plato in the first sentence of the work, with the somewhat cryptic promise to remove all dialectical arguments from the Republic while preserving the demonstrative arguments (CR 21.4). Dialectic is associated, etymologically and semantically, with dialogue. Sure enough, Averroes expunges not only the dialogue form of the original but also its principal characters. This choice should not simply be attributed to ignorance: even if we were to assume that Averroes had only a summary of the original, he would surely have known of the existence of the characters Socrates and Thrasymachus through Alfarabi. In fact, Averroes himself mentions Thrasymachus and his arguments about justice in his Middle Commentary on the Topics.\r\n\r\nThe form with which Averroes replaces the dialogue can hardly be described as a straightforward treatise. Averroes attributes the arguments he presents to a variety of sources, as indicated by expressions such as \u201cwe said,\u201d and \u201cPlato said.\u201d In addition, Alfarabi and Aristotle are often cited, paraphrased, or even plagiarized, in what is ostensibly a commentary on Plato. This implies a dialogue of sorts between not only Averroes and Plato, but Aristotle and Alfarabi as well. One is tempted to say that the discussions between Socrates, an aged father, a sophist, and several young Greeks is replaced by a discussion between four great political philosophers across the ages, orchestrated by the latest representative of this august group. On this point, it is useful to recall Leo Strauss's observation, that no Platonic dialogue relates a discussion among equals. If dialectic involves a superior person such as Socrates leading less accomplished interlocutors by the hand, then Averroes's new, demonstrative form consists of a dialogue between equals to whom historical accident never granted the opportunity for a face-to-face meeting.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.013","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5358,"section_of":5346,"pages":"253\u2013274","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat, 2022
By: Joshua Parens
Title Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 233–252
Categories Nicomachean ethics, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Joshua Parens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume—namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions—that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions—form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics—putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10—and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17–74.12).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5357","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5357,"authors_free":[{"id":6208,"entry_id":5357,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1783,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Joshua Parens","free_first_name":"Joshua","free_last_name":" Parens","norm_person":{"id":1783,"first_name":"Joshua","last_name":"Parens","full_name":"Joshua Parens","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/172958881","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Joshua Parens"}}],"entry_title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat"},"abstract":"As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume\u2014namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions\u2014that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions\u2014form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics\u2014putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10\u2014and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17\u201374.12).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.012","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":70,"category_name":"Nicomachean ethics","link":"bib?categories[]=Nicomachean ethics"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"}],"authors":[{"id":1783,"full_name":"Joshua Parens","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5357,"section_of":5346,"pages":"233\u2013252","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”: Method, Motivation, and Context, 2022
By: Michael Engel
Title The Two Hebrew-into-Latin Translations of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”: Method, Motivation, and Context
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 297–318
Categories Transmission
Author(s) Michael Engel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” was translated twice into Latin; both translations were made from the Hebrew version of Samuel ben Judah of Marseille. The first translation was done by Elijah Del Medigo (ca. 1455–93), a Crete-born Jew, who spent most of his life in northern Italy, Crete being at that time under Venetian rule. Although a devout Jew, Del Medigo's immediate intellectual milieu was Christian, mostly made up of figures related in some way to the university of Padua and to powerful circles in Venice. Most of Del Medigo's literary output was in Latin—including his Hebrew-into-Latin translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic”—and he himself translated some of his own original Latin works into Hebrew. Thematically, Del Medigo focused almost solely on the works of Averroes. His translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” was part of his general endeavour of translating and commenting on the works of Averroes, while working at the service of his Christian patrons—namely, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Domenico Grimani. On his return to Crete, toward the end of his life, Del Medigo composed his Hebrew work Beḥinat haDat, which became his most celebrated work. In that work Del Medigo examines the relation between Judaism and rational thought, determining the rational nature of Judaism as opposed to the irrational character of Christian dogmas. The second translation was by the Jewish physician and translator Jacob Mantino (d. 1549). Mantino, a Jewish physician who lived most of his life in Italy, had close relationships with bishops and cardinals to whom he dedicated several of his translations and he was the personal physician to Pope Paul III. Mantino translated many of Averroes's commentaries, and was, according to Dag Hasse, “the most prolific and most acclaimed among all Renaissance translators of Averroes.” Del Medigo's translation was never printed during the Renaissance; it was discovered by Paul Oscar Kristeller in a Siena manuscript and published as a critical edition in 1992. Mantino's translation, first published in 1539, was printed four times during the Renaissance, yet has never received a modern edition. This chapter begins with a general overview of the two translations, discussing their different nature in light of the different circumstances surrounding their production.

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Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought, 2022
By: Alexander Green
Title Three Readings of Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic” in Medieval Jewish Thought
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 277–296
Categories Tradition and Reception, Influence
Author(s) Alexander Green
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The ethical and political writings by late medieval Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Plato's Republic. Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” into Hebrew in the 1320s that gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the central classical text on political philosophy for Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's Republic came to influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted the Republic's core ideas. Samuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into Hebrew The introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the nature of the political community took place after Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” from Arabic into Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and 1322. Samuel came from an established family in Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don) Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and astronomy. The movement of translating the great works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165−1232) in the first decades of the thirteenth century and been furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn Tibbon (ca. 1195−1274), his son-in-law, Jacob Anatoli (1194−1256), and his grandson, Jacob b. Makhir (ca. 1236−1304), was gradually coming to an end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben Qalonimos (ca. 1286−1328) in the first decades of the fourteenth century. It had already begun to transform Judaism into what some have termed a philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model of philosophic religion is that it was overly focused on natural science and mostly ignored practical philosophy.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5359","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5359,"authors_free":[{"id":6210,"entry_id":5359,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Green","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Green","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Three Readings of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d in Medieval Jewish Thought","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Three Readings of Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d in Medieval Jewish Thought"},"abstract":"The ethical and political writings by late medieval Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Plato's Republic. Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d into Hebrew in the 1320s that gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the central classical text on political philosophy for Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's Republic came to influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted the Republic's core ideas.\r\n\r\nSamuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into Hebrew\r\n\r\nThe introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the nature of the political community took place after Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d from Arabic into Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and 1322. Samuel came from an established family in Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don) Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and astronomy. The movement of translating the great works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165\u22121232) in the first decades of the thirteenth century and been furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn Tibbon (ca. 1195\u22121274), his son-in-law, Jacob Anatoli (1194\u22121256), and his grandson, Jacob b. Makhir (ca. 1236\u22121304), was gradually coming to an end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben Qalonimos (ca. 1286\u22121328) in the first decades of the fourteenth century. It had already begun to transform Judaism into what some have termed a philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model of philosophic religion is that it was overly focused on natural science and mostly ignored practical philosophy.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"},{"id":24,"category_name":"Influence","link":"bib?categories[]=Influence"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5359,"section_of":5346,"pages":"277\u2013296","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 69–86
Categories Politics, Dialectic
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's “Republic” with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is “to abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.” This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city—that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats “volitional actions and habits in general” (haqinyanim wehapeʿulot hareṣoniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences—even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division—as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing. It appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d–511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah harišonah).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5349","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5349,"authors_free":[{"id":6199,"entry_id":5349,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1500,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Yehuda Halper","free_first_name":"Yehuda","free_last_name":"Halper","norm_person":{"id":1500,"first_name":"Yehuda","last_name":"Halper","full_name":"Yehuda Halper","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/142969923","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/177995327","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Yehuda Halper"}}],"entry_title":"Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Expelling Dialectics from the Ideal State: Making the World Safe for Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Averroes begins his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d with the assertion that the intention of his treatise is \u201cto abstract from the statements that are attributed to Plato about political governance that which is included in scientific statements, and to eliminate the dialectical statements from it.\u201d This assertion would seem to find its full expression in the form of Averroes's Commentary: Plato's dialogue in ten books has become three treatises in Averroes's Commentary, which explicitly omit books 1 and 10. Moreover, Glaucon, Adeimantus, Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus are not mentioned at all in Averroes's Commentary; even Socrates is only mentioned once and then merely with reference to his choosing to die rather than live in a corrupt city\u2014that is, with reference to events not literally referred to in Plato's Republic. Rather, the one who speaks in Averroes's Commentary would seem to be Plato himself. Even if his words occasionally intermingle with those of Averroes, the resulting text takes the form of a monologue rather than a dialogue. Furthermore, Averroes dedicates the first argument of his Commentary to explaining the place of the science of governance, the purported topic of the Republic, in the Aristotelian hierarchy of the sciences. According to Averroes, the science of governance, which is the practical science dealing with volition and will, has two parts: a theoretical part, which treats \u201cvolitional actions and habits in general\u201d (haqinyanim wehape\u02bfulot hare\u1e63oniyyim) and which he associates with Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and a practical part, which deals with the establishment and ordering of those habits in order to achieve perfect actions and which he associates with Plato's Republic, since Aristotle's Politics was not available to him. As the practical part of practical science, Averroes's Republic fits into an Aristotelian division of the sciences\u2014even if it is not exactly Aristotle's own division\u2014as a treatise, or series of treatises, dealing with political science. In adopting this Aristotelian form, Averroes's Commentary dispenses with the dialogue form of Plato's writing.\r\n\r\nIt appears from the rest of Averroes's Commentary that he has thrown out the dialecticians along with the dialogues. Perhaps as a consequence of this, Plato's account of the culmination of human reason in dialectic in connection with the divided line (Republic 509d\u2013511e) is, in Averroes's Commentary, a culmination of human reason in Aristotelian metaphysics (hafilosofiah hari\u0161onah).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.004","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":79,"category_name":"Dialectic","link":"bib?categories[]=Dialectic"}],"authors":[{"id":1500,"full_name":"Yehuda Halper","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5349,"section_of":5346,"pages":"69\u201386","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 19–39
Categories al-Fārābī, Galen, Aristotle, Plato, Politics, Commentary
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments. The importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27–30, 23.31–33, cf. 47.29–30and 105.25–27). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25–27, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: “Before we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning” (CR 22.6–8). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22–24.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi—mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war—for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5347","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5347,"authors_free":[{"id":6197,"entry_id":5347,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1790,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Orwin","norm_person":{"id":1790,"first_name":" Alexander","last_name":" Orwin","full_name":" Alexander Orwin","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/1153328348","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]= Alexander Orwin"}}],"entry_title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City"},"abstract":"Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments.\r\n\r\nThe importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27\u201330, 23.31\u201333, cf. 47.29\u201330and 105.25\u201327). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25\u201327, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: \u201cBefore we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning\u201d (CR 22.6\u20138). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22\u201324.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi\u2014mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war\u2014for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.002","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5347,"section_of":5346,"pages":"19\u201339","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Ibn Bajja: An Independent Reader of the Republic, 2022
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Ibn Bajja: An Independent Reader of the Republic
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 40–66
Categories Ibn Bāǧǧa, Influence
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (1126–98) wrote a commentary, or be’ur in the only extant Hebrew translation, on Plato's Republic that is the subject matter of the present anthology. He insists there that his aim is to present Plato's doctrines without provoking polemics and that the dialectical arguments are not necessary to the understanding of those doctrines. Just as he did in his epitome of, or short commentary on, Aristotle's Metaphysics, Averroes neither follows the strict order of the Greek original nor preserves the original division of books. While he gives his reasons for the rearrangement in the case of the Metaphysics, he does not give any for the Republic. Although Averroes's work follows Plato's text in many passages, the independent structure of the work fits better into an epitome than into a middle commentary. As for the Arabic translation he was reading, we know that it preserved the division into ten books but probably not the dialogue form, since Averroes never mentions the names of the figures participating in the dialogue. In the Republic, Socrates narrates in the first person, but in his commentary, Averroes give no hint of Socrates's peculiar role in that work; on the contrary, he presents Socrates only once, referring to him in the third person and mentioning that he held the belief that death is preferable to life without human dignity. Averroes lived two generations after Muḥammad ibn al-Ṣā̔igh Ibn Bājja (d. 1139; henceforth Ibn Bajja), who did not write a specific commentary on the Republic. But he did compose a treatise, titled the Governance of the Solitary, in which he deals with some of the political issues raised by Plato. There, as in some other works that we will discuss below, Ibn Bajja refers to the Republic and to the Phaedo. In this chapter the attempt will be made to reconstruct the influence of Plato's Republic on Ibn Bajja through his own texts, and incidentally, to learn about the text that Ibn Bajja was using.

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Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching, 2022
By: Shlomo Pines, Alexander Orwin
Title Notes on Averroes’s Political Teaching
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 133–159
Categories Politics, Transmission
Author(s) Shlomo Pines , Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The original Hebrew was published in Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 8 (April 1957): 65–84. A complete English translation follows. No commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open. Having no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion. The Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance. The Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.

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A complete English translation follows.\r\n\r\nNo commentary on the Politics can be counted among Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle's works. The Arab philosopher recognized, at a certain point, this deficiency. He thought at first that Aristotle's political teaching was contained at the end of the Nicomachean Ethics, until the existence of this other book become known to him. But here is this problem: the Politics never reached the western regions of Islam. Was it never translated into Arabic in the Middle Ages? There is some evidence for this assumption, although the question still remains open.\r\n\r\nHaving no other option, Averroes composed a commentary or, more correctly, a summary with some additional remarks on Plato's Republic. It appears, as Rosenthal has shown, that Averroes was influenced in his efforts by an abridged paraphrase of that book, a work of Galen that has not come down to us. But he also pursued his commentary in the tradition of Alfarabi, on whom the political books of Plato had a decisive influence. In the text under discussion. Averroes draws from the writings of Alfarabi, and even quotes them on occasion.\r\n\r\nThe Arabic original of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d has not been preserved. A Hebrew translation of it has, however, come down to us, from the pen of Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, who reviewed his translation and revised it twice between the years 1320 and 1322. So has a Latin translation made in 1539 on the basis of the Hebrew translation. This last translation, the work of Jacob Mantino, a Jewish doctor from Tortosa, was printed in Venice among the writings of Aristotle in 1550. It is, however, a rather free translation that should be trusted only to a very limited degree. Rosenthal has therefore performed a great service in bringing before an audience of those interested in medieval thought one of the most important texts belonging to the field of political philosophy. The agreeable result includes, in addition to the Hebrew text, a translation of that text into English, an introduction, and notes, several of which are of fundamental significance.\r\n\r\nThe Hebrew manuscripts are full of challenges, and it is E. Rosenthal's great achievement to have managed, through many years of diligent work, to overcome most of the difficulties lurking in this text.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.007","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":40,"category_name":"Transmission","link":"bib?categories[]=Transmission"}],"authors":[{"id":840,"full_name":"Shlomo Pines","role":1},{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5352,"section_of":5346,"pages":"133\u2013159","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The Essential Qualities of the Ruler in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 212–232
Categories Politics
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Political discourse in the Islamic world has a threefold classical heritage— Islamic, Persian, and Greek, each representing a different genre. These three genres of discourse were first elaborated under the same historical circumstances in the tenth century, often by the same authors. The religious discourse includes the political, since it has a dual function: on the one hand, it aims to safeguard the prophetic tradition; on the other hand, it aims to administer earthly interests. This discourse culminates in the theory of the imamate elaborated by the jurist Al-Māwardī, which we shall address later Of Persian origin, the “mirrors of princes” or royal genre literature portrays the art of ruling and the model of virtue imposed on the prince. It represents a literary genre that predates the emergence of Islam. There are two categories of “mirrors”: those composed through a series of fables, and those organized by ideas and concepts. Those composed of fables, like Kalila and Dimna, tell stories with moral content aimed at teaching moral principles to the ruler; the conceptual “mirrors,” meanwhile, deal with the organization of royal duties, while also conveying political and moral instruction. The influence of Persian and Indian moral thinking in the Islamic tradition precedes the entrance of Greek ethics. Its principal representative is Ibn Muqaffaʿ (ca. 720–ca. 756), a courtier of Persian origin who gained fame as a promoter of the refined culture that developed under the Abbasids. Ibn Muqaffaʿ was known for integrating the literature of Persian and Indian origins into the Arab milieu. His most celebrated work, Kitāb Kalīla wa-Dimna, is an Arabic version of the collection of Indian fables dating back to the Panjatantra and to the Tantrākhyāyka; this was “designed to enrich political talent in the reader, unfolding before his eyes the spectacle of the royal political world, with all its activities, struggles, and evolutions, while at the same time explaining to the reader the interests, passions, and motivations that make each of the players act and the causes and consequences of their behavior.” The transmission of these fables constitutes one of the first monuments of Arabic prose, in which emphasis is given to profane wisdom that teaches political prudence and at the same time celebrates the virtues of friendship.

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A propos de la thèse d'Averroès. Pietro Pomponazzi versus Agostino Nifo, 2009
By: Laurence Boulègue
Title A propos de la thèse d'Averroès. Pietro Pomponazzi versus Agostino Nifo
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2009
Published in Pietro Pomponazzi entre traditions et innovations
Pages 83–98
Categories Latin Averroism
Author(s) Laurence Boulègue
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A propos des manuscrits arabes d'Averroès transcrits en caractères hébraïques, 2001
By: Abdelkader Ben Chéhida
Title A propos des manuscrits arabes d'Averroès transcrits en caractères hébraïques
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2001
Published in Actualité d'Averroès. Colloque du huitième centenaire. Carthage, 16–21 février 1998
Pages 59–64
Categories no categories
Author(s) Abdelkader Ben Chéhida
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Sujet Libre. Pour Alain de Libera
Pages 321–325
Categories Tradition and Reception, Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Acquisition de la pensée et acquisition de l'acte chez Averroès. Une lecture croisée du Grand Commentaire au De anima et du Kitāb al-Kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla, 2013
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Acquisition de la pensée et acquisition de l'acte chez Averroès. Une lecture croisée du Grand Commentaire au De anima et du Kitāb al-Kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2013
Published in Philosophical Psychology in Arabic Thought and the Latin Aristotelianism of the 13th Century
Pages 111–139
Categories De anima, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"2000","_score":null,"_source":{"id":2000,"authors_free":[{"id":2441,"entry_id":2000,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":622,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Jean-Baptiste Brenet","free_first_name":"Jean-Baptiste","free_last_name":"Brenet","norm_person":{"id":622,"first_name":"Jean-Baptiste","last_name":"Brenet","full_name":"Jean-Baptiste Brenet","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1051778867","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/27224973","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Jean-Baptiste Brenet"}}],"entry_title":"Acquisition de la pens\u00e9e et acquisition de l'acte chez Averro\u00e8s. Une lecture crois\u00e9e du Grand Commentaire au De anima et du Kit\u0101b al-Ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Acquisition de la pens\u00e9e et acquisition de l'acte chez Averro\u00e8s. Une lecture crois\u00e9e du Grand Commentaire au De anima et du Kit\u0101b al-Ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2013","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":622,"full_name":"Jean-Baptiste Brenet","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":2000,"section_of":276,"pages":"111\u2013139","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":276,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Philosophical Psychology in Arabic Thought and the Latin Aristotelianism of the 13th Century","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2013","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2013","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":276,"pubplace":"Paris","publisher":"J. Vrin","series":null,"volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["Acquisition de la pens\u00e9e et acquisition de l'acte chez Averro\u00e8s. Une lecture crois\u00e9e du Grand Commentaire au De anima et du Kit\u0101b al-Ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla"]}

Agent Sense in Averroes and Latin Averroism, 2014
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Agent Sense in Averroes and Latin Averroism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2014
Published in Active Perception in the History of Philosophy. From Plato to Modern Philosophy
Pages 147–166
Categories De anima, Aristotle, Latin Averroism
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The scholastic tradition calls “agent sense” (sensus agens) the equivalent, in the order of the sensible, of what the agent intellect is in the order of the intelligible. If we are to “produce” the intelligible form from images, then is it not necessary, at a lower level, to also produce the sensible form from singular things? We shall first study here the occurrence of this question with Averroes, for whom it seems we have to posit the existence of an extrinsic motor that will grant the sensible the spiritual mode of being required by sensation; then, on this topic, we consider Averroes’ legacy in what is commonly referred to as “latin averroism”, and specifically with John of Jandun, who interprets, rather than repeating, the Commentator.

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Al Fārābī, Averroès. Conversation et demonstration, 2007
By: Ali Benmakhlouf
Title Al Fārābī, Averroès. Conversation et demonstration
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2007
Published in Averroes et les Averroïsmes juif et latin. Actes du Colloque International. Paris, 16–18 juin 2005
Pages 151–160
Categories Influence
Author(s) Ali Benmakhlouf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism, 2012
By: James T. Robinson
Title Al-Farabi, Avicenna, & Averroes in Hebrew: Remarks on the Indirect Transmission of Arabic-Islamic Philosophy in Medieval Judaism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2012
Published in The Judeo-Christian-Islamic Heritage: Philosophical & Theological Perspectives
Pages 59–88
Categories Averroism, Transmission, Jewish Averroism
Author(s) James T. Robinson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Al-Fārābī, Averroès. Conversation et démonstration, 2007
By: Ali Benmakhlouf
Title Al-Fārābī, Averroès. Conversation et démonstration
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2007
Published in Averroes et les Averroïsmes juif et latin. Actes du Colloque International. Paris, 16–18 juin 2005
Pages 151–160
Categories al-Fārābī, Logic
Author(s) Ali Benmakhlouf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Al-Ghazâlî, Averroes and Moshe Narboni: Conflict and Conflation, 2015
By: Alfred L. Ivry
Title Al-Ghazâlî, Averroes and Moshe Narboni: Conflict and Conflation
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Islam and Rationality: The Impact of al-Ghazâlî. Papers Collected on His 900th Anniversary Vol. 1
Pages 275–287
Categories al-Ġazālī, Commentary, Tradition and Reception, Influence
Author(s) Alfred L. Ivry
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Alexandre d'Aphrodise et la doctrine de l'intellect d'Averroès. Remarques générales, 2014
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title Alexandre d'Aphrodise et la doctrine de l'intellect d'Averroès. Remarques générales
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2014
Published in De l'Antiquité tardive au Moyen Âge. Études de logique aristotélicienne et de philosophie grecque, syriaque, arabe et latine offertes à Henri Hugonnard-Roche
Pages 545–558
Categories Alexander of Aphrodisias
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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