Yaḥyá ibn ʿAdī and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton, 2010
By: Peter Adamson
Title Yaḥyá ibn ʿAdī and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 21
Pages 343–374
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Peter Adamson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper examines and compares two commentaries on Aristotle Metaphyics, Alpha Elatton. In the Arabic tradition this was considered to be the first book of the Metaphysics, and it accordingly acquired more importance than it is usually given today. After giving a brief resume of Elatton and its transmission into Arabic, the paper discusses the commentaries of Yaḥyá ibn ʿAdī, a Christian commentator of the Baghdad School, and by Averroes. it is argued that these two commentaries show rather different conceptions of Elatton as a text, and metaphysics as a science. In the final section Averroes' commentary on Elatton is shown to resonate strongly with Averroes' famous Decisive Treatise. Concluding remarks consider the question of how Averroes' project as a commentator related to that of the Baghdad School.

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Thomas d'Aquin lecteur critique du Grand Commentaire d'Averroès à Phys. I, 1, 2009
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Thomas d'Aquin lecteur critique du Grand Commentaire d'Averroès à Phys. I, 1
Type Article
Language French
Date 2009
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 19
Issue 2
Pages 189–223
Categories Thomas, Commentary, Physics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The present article aims to provide a reconstruction of the interpretation offered by Thomas Aquinas of the cognitive process described at the beginning of Aristotle's Physics and of his criticism of Averroes' interpretation. It expounds to this end the exegesis of ancient Greek commentators who opened the debate on this question; then, it puts forward a reconstruction of Aquinas' doctrine by means of other texts of his corpus, as well as an explanation of his criticism of Averroes' exegesis; it finally reconstructs Averroes' interpretation worked out in his Great Commentary to Phys. I, 1, in order to show that Aquinas' disapproval is partly due to an incorrect interpretation of Averroes' divisio textus of Phys. I, 1. It suggests as well that, concerning some fundamental points, Aquinas' exegesis doesn't diverge from the interpretation proposed by Averroes.

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Fragmentos del gran comentario de Averroes a la Física, 2009
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Fragmentos del gran comentario de Averroes a la Física
Translation Fragments from Averroes' long commentary on the Physics
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2009
Journal Al-Qanṭara
Volume 30
Issue 1
Pages 69–81
Categories Physics, Commentary, Transmission
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Arabic manuscript 5000 of the National Library in Madrid contains Averroes' epitomes or short commentaries on various works of Aristotle. Annotations written on the margins of the short commentary on the Physics appear to be fragments of the long commentary on this work of Aristotle. The article focuses on the fragments because they are the only evidence of the Arabic original. Further, the article considers notes written by the successive owners of the manuscript: some are written in Arabic and in Arabic letters, others in Arabic and Hebrew letters (some words are also in Hebrew) and others are written in Vulgar Latin, either in Hebrew or Latin letters.

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Le commentaire par Averroès du chapitre 9 du livre X de l'Éthique à Nicomaque. Pédagogie de la contrainte, habitudes et lois, 2009
By: Maroun Aouad, Frédérique Woerther
Title Le commentaire par Averroès du chapitre 9 du livre X de l'Éthique à Nicomaque. Pédagogie de la contrainte, habitudes et lois
Type Article
Language French
Date 2009
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 62
Pages 353–380
Categories Ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Maroun Aouad , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Le texte arabe n'étant pas conservé, les notions en question sont étudiées à partir des versions hébraïque et latin, cette dernière datée de 1260 [p. 367, 378, ou «1240», p. 354 et 355], conservée dans treize mss et treize fois éditée entre 1483 et 1575; on y distingue trois rédactions, la première elle-même connaissant deux versions dont la seconde, celle de deux mss et de l'éd. de 1483, procéderait d'une révision sur le texte arabe postérieure à Hermann; la deuxième rédaction a connu une division en chapitres entièrement nouvelle et des améliorations philologiques sans recours à l'arabe; la troisième rédaction, dépendant de la seconde version de la première rédaction, se trouve dans des éditions du XVIe s. On transcrit ici, p. 362–367, corrigé au besoin sur l'éd. de 1483, et l'on traduit en français, p. 368–378, le texte de l'éd. de Venise, Junte, 1562, réimpr. Francfort 1962, remontant elle aussi à la réd. I, version 2, selon J. B. Korolec, «Mittlerer Kommentar von Averroes zur Nikomachischen Ethic des Aristoteles», Mediaevalia philosophica Polonorum 31, 1992, p. 61–118

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Generazione verticale, generazione orizzontale: il principio di sinonimia nel Commento grande di Averroè al Libro Z della Metafisica di Aristotle, 2009
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Generazione verticale, generazione orizzontale: il principio di sinonimia nel Commento grande di Averroè al Libro Z della Metafisica di Aristotle
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2009
Journal Chôra. Revue d’Études anciennes et médiévales
Volume 7-8
Issue 2009-2010
Pages 133-62
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Metaphysics, Avicenna
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Le but de cet article est d’analyser l’interprétation qu’Averroès propose de l’étude de la génération spontanée développée par Aristote dans le chapitre 9 du livre Z de la Métaphysique et montrer que pour Averroès le véritable enjeu de cette étude est celui de démontrer que l’agent et le produit de la génération ont une même forme. C’est cette thèse, en effet, qui d’après le Cordouan permet en dernière instance d’instaurer entre le monde céleste et le monde terrestre une causalité, pour ainsi dire, «perpendiculaire» qui sauve à la fois l’efficacité des causes secondes et celle de la cause première qui agit par l’intermédiaire des causes célestes. Ce nouveau cadre cosmologico-ontologique apparaît manifestement comme le produit d’une stratégie menée directement contre Avicenne, car le but ultime d’Averroès est de substituer sa propre théorie de l’Artisan divin à la théorie platonicienne de la création démiurgique, à laquelle il assimile la théorie avicennienne d’une donation des formes par une Intelligence cosmique.

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Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote, 2007
By: Ahmad Hasnawi
Title Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2007
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 203–265
Categories Transmission, Commentary, Themistius, Logic, Aristotle
Author(s) Ahmad Hasnawi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Aristotle's Topics, and especially, as far as the subject of this study is concerned, their central books (II-VII), played a role of central importance both in the medieval Latin and in the Arabic logical tradition. This did not occur without transformations, which affected the nature and the function of the loci of which these books set forth the theory. One of the most visible signposts of this tradition of re-elaboration of the Topics is represented by Themistius (ob. c. 388), to whom both Boethius and Averroes refer. Yet no work by Themistius on the Topics has come down to us in Greek. With a view to reconstructing the work(s) of this author, we have here collected and translated the passages that are attributed to him explicitly (with the exception of one of them) in Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Topics, comparing them, where necessary, to the testimonies collected by Boethius in his De topicis differentiis. In addition - and this is a new element added to the file - we show that the Themistian classification of loci was taken up by Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī (ob. after 1164), author of a philosophical summa entitled al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar (The meditated book). These three testimonies are all the more precious in that they are independent of one another. The study of the chapter in the logical part of al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar, containing the Themistian classification of loci, of which a corrected text with translation is offered, shows that one finds in it some of the most singular aspects of this classification, as it appears in Boethius. Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī thus reveals himself to be closer than Averroes to the testimony of Boethius. This suggests the idea of a double redaction by Themistius of the classification of loci: one, more concentrated, comes from an introduction to the paraphrase of the central books of the Topics, which may have inspired Averroes; the other, more extensive, which will have been part of an original work, and inspired the classifications of Boethius and of Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī.

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Veritas filia temporis en Averroes. Comentario a Metafísica II, 1, 2005
By: Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Title Veritas filia temporis en Averroes. Comentario a Metafísica II, 1
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2005
Journal Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía
Volume 29
Pages 13–28
Categories Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes, stoutly influenced by Aristotle, affirmed the necessity of experience to increase all knowledge. Truth, thing's last nature, is obtained as time elapses and is only reached by accepting the predecessors's participation. Progress implies tradition and betterment: the former by impelling the development of both culture and intellect, and the latter as a result of a critical screening of diverse opinions, since it facilitates the knowledge of truth and the recognition of error. This scientific progress is reached as a consequence of effort and collaboration. Averroes sustained these ideas in his Commentary to Metaphysics II, 1, distinguishing four parts: a) Man's natural desire of truth and intellect's difficulty for reaching the most intelligible things; b) The predecessors's contribution, by their commentaries and clarifications, and the historical-progressive character of human reason; c) Philosophy, science of truth, as an investigation of complete reality; d) Truth as knowledge of cause, that is to say, the consideration of things as prove of their Author. Averroes also stated that both the Law, through Revelation, and philosophy, through reason, have the same objective, therefore it being compulsory to recur to previous contributions.

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Comentario mayor al libro 'Acerca del alma' de Aristóteles. Traducción parcial, 2005
By: Averroes,
Title Comentario mayor al libro 'Acerca del alma' de Aristóteles. Traducción parcial
Translation Averroes' Long Commentary on Aristotles' De Anima. A Partial Translation
Type Article
Language undefined
Date 2005
Journal Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía
Volume 22
Pages 65–109
Categories Psychology, Commentary, Aristotle
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Josep Puig Montada

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La distinción nombre-verbo en los comentarios al perihermeneias de Alfarabi y Averroes, 2003
By: José Angel García Cuadrado
Title La distinción nombre-verbo en los comentarios al perihermeneias de Alfarabi y Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval
Volume 10
Pages 157–169
Categories al-Fārābī, Logic, Commentary
Author(s) José Angel García Cuadrado
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Tafsīr del de Anima. Sobre el intelecto, 2003
By: Averroes,
Title Tafsīr del de Anima. Sobre el intelecto
Type Article
Language undefined
Date 2003
Journal Endoxa
Volume 17
Pages 9–61
Categories Psychology, Commentary, Aristotle
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Andrés Martínez Lorca

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Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary, 2022
By: Dustin Klinger
Title Rereading Metaphysics Ε2-3: Aristotle's argument against determinism, and how Averroes twisted it in his Long Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2022
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 32
Issue 1
Pages 109–135
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Providence
Author(s) Dustin Klinger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the fresh reading proposed here of the still not satisfactorily interpreted passages in Metaphysics Ε2-3, Aristotle emerges as making a case against determinism based on a robust notion of the accident. Accidental beings are uncaused causes and have their rightful place in Aristotle's ontology. The resulting physical indeterminism is here used as a litmus test for the exegetical practice of the great Commentator, Averroes, whose self-proclaimed, and later proverbial, loyalty to Aristotle's text will be shown to give way to idiosyncratic interpretations at times. His explanations of Metaphysics Ε2-3 are sparse and no less obscure than Aristotle's text. It is only when read together with his commentaries on the Physics, to which he explicitly refers twice in his Long commentary on Metaphysics Ε2-3, that a surprising picture emerges. Averroes recycles the notion of the accident, now reconceptualised in cosmological terms, and – putting it to the opposite use of Aristotle's – weaves it into an original theory of motion that integrates both supra- and sublunar realms into a deterministic framework of uninterrupted causal chains, thus safeguarding the principle of Divine providence.

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S'unir à l'Intellect, Voir Dieu. Averroès Et la Doctrine de la Jonction au Cœur du Thomisme, 2011
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title S'unir à l'Intellect, Voir Dieu. Averroès Et la Doctrine de la Jonction au Cœur du Thomisme
Type Article
Language French
Date 2011
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 21
Issue 2
Pages 215–247
Categories Psychology, Commentary, Thomas
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The article examines the relation that Aquinas' theory of the beatific vision maintains with Averroes' noetics as presented in his Great Commentary on the De anima. Starting with his Commentary on the Sentences, in which the young Thomas Aquinas offers an explicit transposition of the philosophical intellection of separate substances into the Christian theological order, through to his later works where no mention of it is found, we will endeavour to present the exact nature of these borrowings and to evaluate their accuracy by questioning the conceptual coherence of Aquinas' gesture: could Aquinas base his conception of a vision of God by essence on a noetic construction which was originally part of a system judged both erroneous and contrary to faith? Can one concede theologically, concerning the relation between divine essence and intellect, what one refuses philosophically, concerning the relation between the separate intellect and the body? Although Aquinas and his followers, in the incipient quarrel, assert it to be so, we will indicate how the original paradoxical borrowing maintains something conceptually problematic at the heart of Aquinas' thinking.

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Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon, 2017
By: Ilyas Altuner
Title Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Entelekya Logico-Metaphysical Review
Volume 1
Issue 1-2
Pages 5–17
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Ilyas Altuner
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes, considered to be the greatest Aristotelian commentator in the Middle Ages, has written three different types of commentary on almost all the works of this great philosopher: short, middle and long. These commentaries have been translated into Latin and Hebrew in the early period, and profoundly influenced both Medieval Europe and Jewish thought for centuries. The effect of Averroes in the West was to spread the whole of Europe under the name of Latin Averroism. The text what you have consists of some remarks about the translation of the commentary on the ‘Book Alpha Meizon’, the second book of Averroes’ Tafsīr Mā Ba’d at-Ṭabī’a.

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Tafsīr del de Anima. Sobre el intelecto, 2003
By: Averroes,
Title Tafsīr del de Anima. Sobre el intelecto
Type Article
Language undefined
Date 2003
Journal Endoxa
Volume 17
Pages 9–61
Categories Psychology, Commentary, Aristotle
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Andrés Martínez Lorca

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The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”, 2019
By: Jaan S. Islam
Title The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 43–65
Categories Politics, Law, Commentary, Plato
Author(s) Jaan S. Islam
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is an analysis of the political thought of Ibn Rushd and its significance for the current conflict in Islamic political thought between liberal, secular and conservative Islamist thinkers over the meaning of the “virtuous society” and how it can be implemented. It is argued that the thought of Ibn Rushd offers a concept of the virtuous society that reconciles secular law and religious Sharī‘a law. The article analyzes Ibn Rushd’s Commentary on Plato’s Republic, and assesses it as potentially being able to reconcile the philosophical conflict between logically discerned law and revealed law. It is contended that the separation between “religious” and “political” (i.e., philosophical) domains often attributed to Ibn Rushd does not fully consider the entirety of Ibn Rushd’s writings and interprets his works without regard for their historical and religious contextual significance.

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Thomas d'Aquin lecteur critique du Grand Commentaire d'Averroès à Phys. I, 1, 2009
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Thomas d'Aquin lecteur critique du Grand Commentaire d'Averroès à Phys. I, 1
Type Article
Language French
Date 2009
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 19
Issue 2
Pages 189–223
Categories Thomas, Commentary, Physics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The present article aims to provide a reconstruction of the interpretation offered by Thomas Aquinas of the cognitive process described at the beginning of Aristotle's Physics and of his criticism of Averroes' interpretation. It expounds to this end the exegesis of ancient Greek commentators who opened the debate on this question; then, it puts forward a reconstruction of Aquinas' doctrine by means of other texts of his corpus, as well as an explanation of his criticism of Averroes' exegesis; it finally reconstructs Averroes' interpretation worked out in his Great Commentary to Phys. I, 1, in order to show that Aquinas' disapproval is partly due to an incorrect interpretation of Averroes' divisio textus of Phys. I, 1. It suggests as well that, concerning some fundamental points, Aquinas' exegesis doesn't diverge from the interpretation proposed by Averroes.

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Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2017
By: Mauro Zonta
Title Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Aleph
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 335–353
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Jewish engagement with Aristotle's Metaphysics in Hebrew began in the thirteenth century when the text was presented in Hebrew encyclopedias; it continued with a number of translations in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. The study of Hebrew philosophical texts often resulted in supercommentaries on them. In this study I present a hitherto unnoticed work, preserved in a unique Oxford manuscript, that bears witness to the study of the Metaphysics. Consisting of twenty-nine short comments or glosses on key passages of Averroes' Middle Commentary on books Alpha minor and Beta, as well as two passages from the Middle Commentary on book Theta, it can be described as a kind of supercommentary on Averroes. The glosses as preserved in the manuscript were apparently collected by an unknown redactor from works of two or more authors, whom I try to identify. One of them may be R. Gershon, the father of Levi ben Gershon (1288–1344). An edition of the 29 glosses and, for comparison, several glosses on logic by R. Gershon, are also presented.

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Veritas filia temporis en Averroes. Comentario a Metafísica II, 1, 2005
By: Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Title Veritas filia temporis en Averroes. Comentario a Metafísica II, 1
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2005
Journal Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía
Volume 29
Pages 13–28
Categories Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes, stoutly influenced by Aristotle, affirmed the necessity of experience to increase all knowledge. Truth, thing's last nature, is obtained as time elapses and is only reached by accepting the predecessors's participation. Progress implies tradition and betterment: the former by impelling the development of both culture and intellect, and the latter as a result of a critical screening of diverse opinions, since it facilitates the knowledge of truth and the recognition of error. This scientific progress is reached as a consequence of effort and collaboration. Averroes sustained these ideas in his Commentary to Metaphysics II, 1, distinguishing four parts: a) Man's natural desire of truth and intellect's difficulty for reaching the most intelligible things; b) The predecessors's contribution, by their commentaries and clarifications, and the historical-progressive character of human reason; c) Philosophy, science of truth, as an investigation of complete reality; d) Truth as knowledge of cause, that is to say, the consideration of things as prove of their Author. Averroes also stated that both the Law, through Revelation, and philosophy, through reason, have the same objective, therefore it being compulsory to recur to previous contributions.

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Wisdom and Power in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic, 2015
By: Christopher Colmo
Title Wisdom and Power in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal The Maghreb Review
Volume 40
Issue 3
Pages 308–318
Categories Commentary, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Christopher Colmo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Yaḥyá ibn ʿAdī and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton, 2010
By: Peter Adamson
Title Yaḥyá ibn ʿAdī and Averroes on Metaphysics Alpha Elatton
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 21
Pages 343–374
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Peter Adamson
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper examines and compares two commentaries on Aristotle Metaphyics, Alpha Elatton. In the Arabic tradition this was considered to be the first book of the Metaphysics, and it accordingly acquired more importance than it is usually given today. After giving a brief resume of Elatton and its transmission into Arabic, the paper discusses the commentaries of Yaḥyá ibn ʿAdī, a Christian commentator of the Baghdad School, and by Averroes. it is argued that these two commentaries show rather different conceptions of Elatton as a text, and metaphysics as a science. In the final section Averroes' commentary on Elatton is shown to resonate strongly with Averroes' famous Decisive Treatise. Concluding remarks consider the question of how Averroes' project as a commentator related to that of the Baghdad School.

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