Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd, 2008
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd
Type Article
Language French
Date 2008
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 61
Pages 581–587
Categories Law
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes, 2007
By: Thérèse Bonin
Title A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Peripatetikos
Volume 6
Pages 1-25
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Thérèse Bonin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh, 2006
By: Delfina Serrano Ruano, Delfina Serrano Ruano
Title Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Der Islam
Volume 83
Pages 137–156
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Delfina Serrano Ruano , Delfina Serrano Ruano
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes como muftí, 2003
By: Juan Martos Quesada
Title Averroes como muftí
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval. Miscellanea Mediaevalia en honor de Joaquin Lomba Fuentes
Volume 10
Pages 119–126
Categories Law
Author(s) Juan Martos Quesada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper is about the activity of Averroes as mufti, the role of this occupation in the legal word in al-Andalus; also, about the confusión between Averroes and his grandfather in the donation offetuas and, finally, the legal features of Averroes.

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Zwischen nomos und scharīʿa. Staatsverständnis und Staatsvision bei Averroes anhand seines Kommentars zu Platons Staat, 2002
By: Michael Jainzik
Title Zwischen nomos und scharīʿa. Staatsverständnis und Staatsvision bei Averroes anhand seines Kommentars zu Platons Staat
Type Article
Language German
Date 2002
Journal Concilium medii aevi. Zeitschrift für Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit
Volume 5
Pages 143–186
Categories Politics, Law
Author(s) Michael Jainzik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Legal Policies of the Almohad Caliphs and Ibn Rushd's Bidâyat al-Mujtahid, 1999
By: Maribel Fierro
Title The Legal Policies of the Almohad Caliphs and Ibn Rushd's Bidâyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 1999
Journal Journal of Islamic Studies
Volume 10
Issue 3
Pages 226–248
Categories Law
Author(s) Maribel Fierro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Interpretation and the Law. Averroes's Contribution to the Hermeneutics of Sacred Texts, 1997
By: Jorge J. E. Gracia
Title Interpretation and the Law. Averroes's Contribution to the Hermeneutics of Sacred Texts
Type Article
Language English
Date 1997
Journal History of Philosophy Quarterly
Volume 4
Pages 139–153
Categories Law
Author(s) Jorge J. E. Gracia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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ابن رشد فقيهاً, 1996
By: Ḥasan Ḥanafī
Title ابن رشد فقيهاً
Transcription Ibn Rušd faqīhan
Translation Ibn Rushd as a Jurist
Type Article
Language Arabic
Date 1996
Journal Alif. Journal of Comparative Poetics
Volume 16
Pages 116–144
Categories Law
Author(s) Ḥasan Ḥanafī
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law, 2017
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 1–27
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Rhetoric
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article traces a Muslim tradition of natural law in the thought of Ibn Rushd. I argue that this notion of natural law enriches the concept of law and can mediate conflicts of human law and divine law in Islam. I discuss the ontology, then epistemology, of Ibn Rushd’s natural law, then situate the resultant conception of law within Islamic legal and theological contexts.

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Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, 2019
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Oxford Journal of Law and Religion
Volume 8
Issue 1
Pages 174–205
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to the Sunnī legal tradition, legal norms should be derived from the authoritative texts of the Qurʾān and Sunna. However, how exactly to derive such norms remains unclear, when no reference can be found to the matter at hand within these sources. The use of maqāṣid at this point might be a viable solution. Little attention, however, is paid to alternative approaches like the one of Ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd (d 595/1198), which is based on philosophical ethics. Ibn Rushd derives ‘legal precepts’ through analysing the most prominent legal verdicts of Islamic law that were passed by various madhhab. These precepts not only enabled scholars to resolve new legal problems by using ijtihād, they also shed new light on existing legal challenges. This article will analyse Ibn Rushd’s legal hermeneutics in his Bidāyat al-mujtahid by looking at the passages concerning sales of ritually pure (ṭāhir) goods and interest (ribā).

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Interpretation and the Law. Averroes's Contribution to the Hermeneutics of Sacred Texts, 1997
By: Jorge J. E. Gracia
Title Interpretation and the Law. Averroes's Contribution to the Hermeneutics of Sacred Texts
Type Article
Language English
Date 1997
Journal History of Philosophy Quarterly
Volume 4
Pages 139–153
Categories Law
Author(s) Jorge J. E. Gracia
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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La philosophie comme pratique: erreur et droit à l’erreur dans la pensée d’Averroès, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title La philosophie comme pratique: erreur et droit à l’erreur dans la pensée d’Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Les Études Philosophiques
Volume 117
Issue 2
Pages 269–282
Categories al-Ġazālī, Law
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Responding to the accusations of the Ašʿarite theologian al-Ġazālī, in his Decisive Treatise Averroes champions the practice of philosophy, using legal and scriptural arguments. In this article, I wish to place these arguments within the context of legal theory, a discipline to which Averroes devoted one of his earliest treatises, the Abridgment of al-Mustaṣfā . A comparison of these two texts allows us to identify the origin of some arguments of the Decisive Treatise, concerning the taxonomy of errors and the social organization of knowledge. My aim is to set Averroes’ reflection within a continuity of the Islamic meta-legal tradition that provided him with the necessary tools for his conceptualization of the philosopher’s place within society.

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Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd, 2008
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd
Type Article
Language French
Date 2008
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 61
Pages 581–587
Categories Law
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Spanien unter den Almoraviden. Die Fatāwā des Ibn Rushd als Quelle zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, 1993
By: Renate Osswald
Title Spanien unter den Almoraviden. Die Fatāwā des Ibn Rushd als Quelle zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte
Type Article
Language German
Date 1993
Journal Welt des Orients
Volume 24
Pages 127–145
Categories Law
Author(s) Renate Osswald
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”, 2019
By: Jaan S. Islam
Title The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 43–65
Categories Politics, Law, Commentary, Plato
Author(s) Jaan S. Islam
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is an analysis of the political thought of Ibn Rushd and its significance for the current conflict in Islamic political thought between liberal, secular and conservative Islamist thinkers over the meaning of the “virtuous society” and how it can be implemented. It is argued that the thought of Ibn Rushd offers a concept of the virtuous society that reconciles secular law and religious Sharī‘a law. The article analyzes Ibn Rushd’s Commentary on Plato’s Republic, and assesses it as potentially being able to reconcile the philosophical conflict between logically discerned law and revealed law. It is contended that the separation between “religious” and “political” (i.e., philosophical) domains often attributed to Ibn Rushd does not fully consider the entirety of Ibn Rushd’s writings and interprets his works without regard for their historical and religious contextual significance.

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