Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) - A physician of 12th CE, 2021
By: Azizur Rahman, Mohd Zulkifle, Aumir Rasool
Title Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) - A physician of 12th CE
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Journal of Medical Biography
Categories Biography, Medicine
Author(s) Azizur Rahman , Mohd Zulkifle , Aumir Rasool
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the Islamic Golden Age, medicine flourished by the practice of Persian, Arab and Greek physicians (9th to 13th century AD). Ibn rushd (1126–1198 AD) was renowned physician in that period, influenced the progress of medicine by his writings. He was the stalwart of medical sciences and owner of many writings in various fields of science. One of his writings in medicine was “Al- Kulliyat fi Al-Tibb” (Colliget or “Generalities on Medicine”). Many of his writings were studied in every part of globe. Now a day it is need of hour to generalize his knowledge for further researches. In this paper it is trying to compile his historical aspect of life as well as writings.

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Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

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From Alexandria to Cordoba: Medicine according to Averroes and the Araboislamic tradition, 2020
By: Miquel Forcada
Title From Alexandria to Cordoba: Medicine according to Averroes and the Araboislamic tradition
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2020
Journal Asclepio. Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia
Volume 72
Issue 2
Pages 312-327
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Medicine
Author(s) Miquel Forcada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Rushd consideró la medicina como un arte productivo en su al-Kulliyyāt fī l-ṭibb, escrito entre 1162 y 1169, y como una ciencia en su comentario al poema de Ibn Sīnā sobre la medicina (Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb), escrito en 1180. En Kulliyyāt, Ibn Rushd sigue de manera bastante estricta las ideas sobre el estatus de la medicina del filósofo al-Fārābī. En Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd sintetiza las concepciones de varias obras, entre las cuales Masā’il fī l-ṭibb de Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq y Ḥubaysh, Qānūn fī l-ṭibb de Ibn Sinā y las obras sobre la lógica aristotélica de al-Fārābī. El análisis conjunto de estas fuentes, más las aportaciones de un nuevo manuscrito de Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā, proporcionan una idea más clara de la concepción de la medicina expuesta en esta obra y, en consecuencia, podemos reconsiderar y relativizar la diferencia entre esta concepción y la que se expone en Kulliyyāt. Las ideas de Ibn Rushd sobre el estatus de la medicina se analizan de acuerdo con el contexto sociopolítico en que fueron concebidas, considerando especialmente el hecho de que Sharḥ Urjūza Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb fue escrito para las elites intelectuales y políticas del régimen almohad. Ibn Rushd considered medicine as a productive art in his al-Kulliyyāt fī l-ṭibb, written between 1162 and 1169, and as a science in his commentary on Ibn Sīnā’s poem on the subject (Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb), written in 1180. In Kulliyyāt, Ibn Rushd followed quite strictly the ideas on the status of medicine propounded by the philosopher al-Fārābī. In Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd summarised the conceptions of several works including Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq’s Masā’il fīl-ṭibb, Ibn Sīnā’s Qānūn fī l-ṭibb and al-Fārābī’s works on Aristotle’s logic. The joint analysis of these sources and the evidence provided by a new manuscript of Ibn Rushd’s Sharḥ give us a clearer idea of the conception of medicine extant in this latter work and, in consequence, we can reconsider and relativise the difference between it and the conception expounded in Kulliyyāt. Ibn Rushd’s ideas on the status of medicine are analysed according to the sociopolitical context in which they were conceived, taking particular account of the fact that Sharḥ Urjūza Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb was written for the intellectual and political elites of the Almohad regime.

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Ibn Rushd on Galen and the New Drugs Spread by the Arabs, 2009
By: Zohar Amar, Efraim Lev, Yaron Serri
Title Ibn Rushd on Galen and the New Drugs Spread by the Arabs
Type Article
Language English
Date 2009
Journal Journal Asiatique
Volume 297
Issue 1
Pages 83–101
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Zohar Amar , Efraim Lev , Yaron Serri
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La influencia de la medicina árabe en la interpretación de Averroes al De anima de Aristóteles, 2007
By: Luis Xavier López Farjeat
Title La influencia de la medicina árabe en la interpretación de Averroes al De anima de Aristóteles
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2007
Journal VeritasA Filosofia árabe e judaica e o ocidente medieval
Volume 52
Issue 3
Pages 91–103
Categories Psychology, Medicine, Aristotle
Author(s) Luis Xavier López Farjeat
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Was Medical Theory Heterodox in the Latin Middle Ages?. The Plurality Theses of Paul of Venice and the Medical Authorities, Galen, Haly Abbas and Averroes, 2001
By: Graham J. McAleer
Title Was Medical Theory Heterodox in the Latin Middle Ages?. The Plurality Theses of Paul of Venice and the Medical Authorities, Galen, Haly Abbas and Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2001
Journal Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales
Volume 68
Pages 349–370
Categories Medicine, Latin Averroism, Galen
Author(s) Graham J. McAleer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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كلياتالطب عند ابن رشد, 2000
By: Muṣṭafā labīb Abd al-Ġanī
Title كلياتالطب عند ابن رشد
Transcription "Kullīyāt". al-Ṭabb ʿinda Ibn Rušd
Translation "Colliget". Medicine in Ibn Rushd
Type Article
Language Arabic
Date 2000
Pages 243–269
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Muṣṭafā labīb Abd al-Ġanī
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part II: Between Galenism and Aristotelism. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Islamic Theories of Apoplexy (800–1200), 1998
By: Axel Karenberg, Irmgard Hort
Title Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part II: Between Galenism and Aristotelism. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Islamic Theories of Apoplexy (800–1200)
Type Article
Language English
Date 1998
Journal Journal of the History of Neurosciences
Volume 7
Pages 174–185
Categories Medicine, Galen, Aristotle
Author(s) Axel Karenberg , Irmgard Hort
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Sobre la conservación de la salud. Averroes, Maimónides e Ibn al Jatîb, 1996
By: María Vázquez de Benito
Title Sobre la conservación de la salud. Averroes, Maimónides e Ibn al Jatîb
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1996
Journal Qurtuba. Estudios andalusíes
Volume 1
Pages 207–217
Categories Medicine, Maimonides
Author(s) María Vázquez de Benito
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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El averrosimo en la filosofia corpuscular de Pere d'Oleza (ca. 1460–1531), 1995
By: Josep Lluis Barona
Title El averrosimo en la filosofia corpuscular de Pere d'Oleza (ca. 1460–1531)
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1995
Journal Medicina nei secoli
Volume 7
Pages 1–27
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Josep Lluis Barona
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"Medizin", s.v. "Averroes, Averroismus", 1980
By: H. H. Lauer
Title "Medizin", s.v. "Averroes, Averroismus"
Type Article
Language German
Date 1980
Pages 1295–1296
Categories Medicine
Author(s) H. H. Lauer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) - A physician of 12th CE, 2021
By: Azizur Rahman, Mohd Zulkifle, Aumir Rasool
Title Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) - A physician of 12th CE
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Journal of Medical Biography
Categories Biography, Medicine
Author(s) Azizur Rahman , Mohd Zulkifle , Aumir Rasool
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the Islamic Golden Age, medicine flourished by the practice of Persian, Arab and Greek physicians (9th to 13th century AD). Ibn rushd (1126–1198 AD) was renowned physician in that period, influenced the progress of medicine by his writings. He was the stalwart of medical sciences and owner of many writings in various fields of science. One of his writings in medicine was “Al- Kulliyat fi Al-Tibb” (Colliget or “Generalities on Medicine”). Many of his writings were studied in every part of globe. Now a day it is need of hour to generalize his knowledge for further researches. In this paper it is trying to compile his historical aspect of life as well as writings.

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Corpus medicorum arabico-hispanorum, 1981
By: Carmen Peña
Title Corpus medicorum arabico-hispanorum
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1981
Journal Awrāq
Volume 4
Pages 79–111
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Carmen Peña
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Did Averroes Discover Retinal Sensitivity?, 1983
By: David C. Lindberg
Title Did Averroes Discover Retinal Sensitivity?
Type Article
Language German
Date 1983
Categories Medicine
Author(s) David C. Lindberg
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Die Vorworte zum Colliget des Averroes, 1986
By: Helmut Gätje
Title Die Vorworte zum Colliget des Averroes
Type Article
Language German
Date 1986
Journal Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft
Volume 136
Pages 402–427
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Helmut Gätje
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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El Kitâb al-Kulliyyât de Ibn Rushd. Problemática de su edición, 1988
By: Camilo Alvarez de Morales
Title El Kitâb al-Kulliyyât de Ibn Rushd. Problemática de su edición
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1988
Journal Quaderni di studi arabi
Volume 5–6
Pages 12–19
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Camilo Alvarez de Morales
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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El averrosimo en la filosofia corpuscular de Pere d'Oleza (ca. 1460–1531), 1995
By: Josep Lluis Barona
Title El averrosimo en la filosofia corpuscular de Pere d'Oleza (ca. 1460–1531)
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1995
Journal Medicina nei secoli
Volume 7
Pages 1–27
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Josep Lluis Barona
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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From Alexandria to Cordoba: Medicine according to Averroes and the Araboislamic tradition, 2020
By: Miquel Forcada
Title From Alexandria to Cordoba: Medicine according to Averroes and the Araboislamic tradition
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2020
Journal Asclepio. Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia
Volume 72
Issue 2
Pages 312-327
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Medicine
Author(s) Miquel Forcada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Rushd consideró la medicina como un arte productivo en su al-Kulliyyāt fī l-ṭibb, escrito entre 1162 y 1169, y como una ciencia en su comentario al poema de Ibn Sīnā sobre la medicina (Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb), escrito en 1180. En Kulliyyāt, Ibn Rushd sigue de manera bastante estricta las ideas sobre el estatus de la medicina del filósofo al-Fārābī. En Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd sintetiza las concepciones de varias obras, entre las cuales Masā’il fī l-ṭibb de Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq y Ḥubaysh, Qānūn fī l-ṭibb de Ibn Sinā y las obras sobre la lógica aristotélica de al-Fārābī. El análisis conjunto de estas fuentes, más las aportaciones de un nuevo manuscrito de Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā, proporcionan una idea más clara de la concepción de la medicina expuesta en esta obra y, en consecuencia, podemos reconsiderar y relativizar la diferencia entre esta concepción y la que se expone en Kulliyyāt. Las ideas de Ibn Rushd sobre el estatus de la medicina se analizan de acuerdo con el contexto sociopolítico en que fueron concebidas, considerando especialmente el hecho de que Sharḥ Urjūza Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb fue escrito para las elites intelectuales y políticas del régimen almohad. Ibn Rushd considered medicine as a productive art in his al-Kulliyyāt fī l-ṭibb, written between 1162 and 1169, and as a science in his commentary on Ibn Sīnā’s poem on the subject (Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb), written in 1180. In Kulliyyāt, Ibn Rushd followed quite strictly the ideas on the status of medicine propounded by the philosopher al-Fārābī. In Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd summarised the conceptions of several works including Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq’s Masā’il fīl-ṭibb, Ibn Sīnā’s Qānūn fī l-ṭibb and al-Fārābī’s works on Aristotle’s logic. The joint analysis of these sources and the evidence provided by a new manuscript of Ibn Rushd’s Sharḥ give us a clearer idea of the conception of medicine extant in this latter work and, in consequence, we can reconsider and relativise the difference between it and the conception expounded in Kulliyyāt. Ibn Rushd’s ideas on the status of medicine are analysed according to the sociopolitical context in which they were conceived, taking particular account of the fact that Sharḥ Urjūza Ibn Sīnā fī l-ṭibb was written for the intellectual and political elites of the Almohad regime.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5592","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5592,"authors_free":[{"id":6491,"entry_id":5592,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":903,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Miquel Forcada","free_first_name":"Miquel","free_last_name":"Forcada","norm_person":{"id":903,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]="}}],"entry_title":"From Alexandria to Cordoba: Medicine according to Averroes and the Araboislamic tradition","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"From Alexandria to Cordoba: Medicine according to Averroes and the Araboislamic tradition"},"abstract":" Ibn Rushd consider\u00f3 la medicina como un arte productivo en su al-Kulliyy\u0101t f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb, escrito entre 1162 y 1169, y como una ciencia en su comentario al poema de Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 sobre la medicina (Shar\u1e25 Urj\u016bzat Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb), escrito en 1180. En Kulliyy\u0101t, Ibn Rushd sigue de manera bastante estricta las ideas sobre el estatus de la medicina del fil\u00f3sofo al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b. En Shar\u1e25 Urj\u016bzat Ibn S\u012bn\u0101, Ibn Rushd sintetiza las concepciones de varias obras, entre las cuales Mas\u0101\u2019il f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb de \u1e24unayn ibn Is\u1e25\u0101q y \u1e24ubaysh, Q\u0101n\u016bn f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb de Ibn Sin\u0101 y las obras sobre la l\u00f3gica aristot\u00e9lica de al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b. El an\u00e1lisis conjunto de estas fuentes, m\u00e1s las aportaciones de un nuevo manuscrito de Shar\u1e25 Urj\u016bzat Ibn S\u012bn\u0101, proporcionan una idea m\u00e1s clara de la concepci\u00f3n de la medicina expuesta en esta obra y, en consecuencia, podemos reconsiderar y relativizar la diferencia entre esta concepci\u00f3n y la que se expone en Kulliyy\u0101t. Las ideas de Ibn Rushd sobre el estatus de la medicina se analizan de acuerdo con el contexto sociopol\u00edtico en que fueron concebidas, considerando especialmente el hecho de que Shar\u1e25 Urj\u016bza Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb fue escrito para las elites intelectuales y pol\u00edticas del r\u00e9gimen almohad.\r\n\r\nIbn Rushd considered medicine as a productive art in his al-Kulliyy\u0101t f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb, written between 1162 and 1169, and as a science in his commentary on Ibn S\u012bn\u0101\u2019s poem on the subject (Shar\u1e25 Urj\u016bzat Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb), written in 1180. In Kulliyy\u0101t, Ibn Rushd followed quite strictly the ideas on the status of medicine propounded by the philosopher al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b. In Shar\u1e25 Urj\u016bzat Ibn S\u012bn\u0101, Ibn Rushd summarised the conceptions of several works including \u1e24unayn ibn Is\u1e25\u0101q\u2019s Mas\u0101\u2019il f\u012bl-\u1e6dibb, Ibn S\u012bn\u0101\u2019s Q\u0101n\u016bn f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb and al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b\u2019s works on Aristotle\u2019s logic. The joint analysis of these sources and the evidence provided by a new manuscript of Ibn Rushd\u2019s Shar\u1e25 give us a clearer idea of the conception of medicine extant in this latter work and, in consequence, we can reconsider and relativise the difference between it and the conception expounded in Kulliyy\u0101t. Ibn Rushd\u2019s ideas on the status of \r\nmedicine are analysed according to the sociopolitical context in which they were conceived, taking particular account of the fact that Shar\u1e25 Urj\u016bza Ibn S\u012bn\u0101 f\u012b l-\u1e6dibb was written for the intellectual and political elites of the Almohad regime.","btype":3,"date":"2020","language":"Spanish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.3989\/asclepio.2020.13","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"},{"id":29,"category_name":"Medicine","link":"bib?categories[]=Medicine"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5592,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Asclepio. Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia","volume":"72","issue":"2","pages":"312-327"}},"sort":["From Alexandria to Cordoba: Medicine according to Averroes and the Araboislamic tradition"]}

Ibn Rushd on Galen and the New Drugs Spread by the Arabs, 2009
By: Zohar Amar, Efraim Lev, Yaron Serri
Title Ibn Rushd on Galen and the New Drugs Spread by the Arabs
Type Article
Language English
Date 2009
Journal Journal Asiatique
Volume 297
Issue 1
Pages 83–101
Categories Medicine
Author(s) Zohar Amar , Efraim Lev , Yaron Serri
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

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