Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon, 2017
By: Ilyas Altuner
Title Some Remarks on Averroes’ Long Commentary on the Metaphysics Book Alpha Meizon
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Entelekya Logico-Metaphysical Review
Volume 1
Issue 1-2
Pages 5–17
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Ilyas Altuner
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes, considered to be the greatest Aristotelian commentator in the Middle Ages, has written three different types of commentary on almost all the works of this great philosopher: short, middle and long. These commentaries have been translated into Latin and Hebrew in the early period, and profoundly influenced both Medieval Europe and Jewish thought for centuries. The effect of Averroes in the West was to spread the whole of Europe under the name of Latin Averroism. The text what you have consists of some remarks about the translation of the commentary on the ‘Book Alpha Meizon’, the second book of Averroes’ Tafsīr Mā Ba’d at-Ṭabī’a.

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Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198), 2017
By: Carmela Baffioni
Title Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198)
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 59
Pages 33–56
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Theology, Commentary
Author(s) Carmela Baffioni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with Averroes’s interpretation of Metaph. Ε 1, where Aristotle discusses the nature and object of metaphysics, as well as its place in the hierarchy of sciences. Among Averroes’s predecessors, al-Kindī seems to see a coincidence between metaphysics and theology, since God can be described as the “first cause of everything”. However, al-Fārābī and Avicenna discovered that “first philosophy” could be conceived as an ontology distinct from theology; moreover, they considered theology to be only a part of metaphysics, not even the most important one. In the Great Commentary on Metaphysics - where the Arabic translation of the work by the Jacobite monk Usṭāth is quoted, Averroes often just paraphrases the original passages. One may infer that theology in the strict sense is merely mentioned by way of example. In the Epitome of Metaphysics, the objects of metaphysics are “general” ones; metaphysics studies the “absolute being” and cannot be identified with theology as “pertaining to God”.

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Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2017
By: Mauro Zonta
Title Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Aleph
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 335–353
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Jewish engagement with Aristotle's Metaphysics in Hebrew began in the thirteenth century when the text was presented in Hebrew encyclopedias; it continued with a number of translations in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. The study of Hebrew philosophical texts often resulted in supercommentaries on them. In this study I present a hitherto unnoticed work, preserved in a unique Oxford manuscript, that bears witness to the study of the Metaphysics. Consisting of twenty-nine short comments or glosses on key passages of Averroes' Middle Commentary on books Alpha minor and Beta, as well as two passages from the Middle Commentary on book Theta, it can be described as a kind of supercommentary on Averroes. The glosses as preserved in the manuscript were apparently collected by an unknown redactor from works of two or more authors, whom I try to identify. One of them may be R. Gershon, the father of Levi ben Gershon (1288–1344). An edition of the 29 glosses and, for comparison, several glosses on logic by R. Gershon, are also presented.

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Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Rursus
Volume 9
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commentary on Metaphysics IX 3, Averroes draws an analogy between the Megarian conception of dunamis, presented and refuted by Aristotle, and that of the Ashʿarites theologians. The study of the Arabic translation of lemmatas of Aristotle’s text (1047a26-28) and of the reformulation by Averroes of the third argument against the Megarians shows a shift commanded by theological issues: since the omnipotence of God can now bypass natural powers, the question of who possess the power should be added to that of its sole possession.

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Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161–184
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist, 2015
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 309–318
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The 15th century Jewish Aragonian thinker, Abraham Bibago treats conjunction in his two main works, Derekh Emunah (“The Way of Faith”) and Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In the former, which explicitly interprets Biblical and Talmudic stories along philosophical lines, Bibago promotes a neo-Platonic intellectual emanation schema and boldly asserts that human happiness is attained through conjunction with higher intellects. In the Commentary, which primarily treats Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Averroes’ commentaries on it, Bibago gives an account of conjunction that does not necessarily fit with the intellectual conjunction of Derekh Emunah. Indeed, his remarks in the Commentary are much less decisive about human happiness, suggesting that Bibago qua philosopher is more open minded about the summum bonum than he is qua religious thinker.

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Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 82
Issue 1
Pages 1–60
Categories Thomas, Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article examines two medieval thinkers – Averroes and Aquinas – on the kind of causation exercised by the agent intellect in 'abstracting' or producing intelligibles from images in the imagination. It argues that abstraction in these thinkers should be interpreted in causal terms, as an act whereby images in the imagination, through the power of the agent intellect, educe their intelligible likeness in a receptive intellect. This Averroean-Thomistic causal approach to abstraction offers an intriguing alternative to the usual approach to abstraction as an epistemological content-sorting. The article also demonstrates the extensive common ground uniting these thinkers’ cognition theories, despite Aquinas’s well-known rejection of Averroes’s theory of separate Intellects.

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Descartes's Revised Averroism, 2014
By: Timothy Sean Quinn
Title Descartes's Revised Averroism
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal The Review of Metaphysics
Volume 67
Issue 4
Pages 769-789
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Timothy Sean Quinn
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento, 2013
By: Mauro Zonta
Title La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2013
Journal L'averrismo in età moderna (1400–1700)
Pages 15–23
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on the Doctrine of Genus as Matter, 2004
By: Matteo Di Giovanni
Title Averroes on the Doctrine of Genus as Matter
Type Article
Language English
Date 2004
Journal Documenti e Studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 15
Pages 255–285
Categories Metaphysics, Logic
Author(s) Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Avicenna and Averroes on the Proof of God's Existence and the Subject-Matter of Metaphysics, 2007
By: Amos Bertolacci
Title Avicenna and Averroes on the Proof of God's Existence and the Subject-Matter of Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Medioevo. Rivista di storia della filosofia medievale
Volume 32
Pages 61–79
Categories Avicenna, Metaphysics
Author(s) Amos Bertolacci
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Biblical Inspiration & Islamic Instrumental Causality: Thomas Aquinas on Prophecy and the Two Authors of Sacred Scriptures, 2019
By: Brett Yardley
Title Biblical Inspiration & Islamic Instrumental Causality: Thomas Aquinas on Prophecy and the Two Authors of Sacred Scriptures
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 3
Pages 431–449
Categories Thomas, Metaphysics, Influence
Author(s) Brett Yardley
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Demonstration and First Philosophy. Averroes on Met. Zeta as a Demonstrative Examination (al-fahs al-burhānī), 2009
By: Matteo Di Giovanni
Title Demonstration and First Philosophy. Averroes on Met. Zeta as a Demonstrative Examination (al-fahs al-burhānī)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2009
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 20
Pages 95–126
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Rursus
Volume 9
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commentary on Metaphysics IX 3, Averroes draws an analogy between the Megarian conception of dunamis, presented and refuted by Aristotle, and that of the Ashʿarites theologians. The study of the Arabic translation of lemmatas of Aristotle’s text (1047a26-28) and of the reformulation by Averroes of the third argument against the Megarians shows a shift commanded by theological issues: since the omnipotence of God can now bypass natural powers, the question of who possess the power should be added to that of its sole possession.

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Descartes's Revised Averroism, 2014
By: Timothy Sean Quinn
Title Descartes's Revised Averroism
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal The Review of Metaphysics
Volume 67
Issue 4
Pages 769-789
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Timothy Sean Quinn
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161–184
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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Discussion of Causality Based on the Conceptions of Nature of Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazalī, 2010
By: Mehmet Fatih Birgül
Title Discussion of Causality Based on the Conceptions of Nature of Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazalī
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Ilahiyat Studies. A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies
Volume 1
Issue 2
Pages 241–258
Categories Natural Philosophy, al-Ġazālī, Metaphysics
Author(s) Mehmet Fatih Birgül
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this short analysis, we will compare Ibn Rushd's justification of the causality principle to the suspicions and objections of al-Ghazālī. Nevertheless, our analysis of the issue will center on al-Ghazālī's and Ibn Rushd's conceptions of nature. Therefore, our article aims at illuminating two points: first, there is a fundamental difference between the conceptions of nature and generation of the two philosophers; second, this structural difference constitutes the real cause of disagreement over the causality principle.

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Esencia y existencia en Avicenna y Averroes, 2009
By: Catarina Belo
Title Esencia y existencia en Avicenna y Averroes
Translation Essence and Existence in Avicenna and Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2009
Journal Al-Qanṭara
Volume 30
Issue 2
Pages 403–426
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article explores the views on existence of medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (d. 1037) and Averroes (d. 1198), whose works followed closely the philosophy of Aristotle. In addition to the Aristotelian influence, which permeated all medieval Islamic philosophy, Avicenna and Averroes were also inspired by Islamic theology, known in Arabic as kalām. The distinction between essence and existence is one of the most central and controversial aspects of Avicenna's philosophy, together with his claim that existence is an accident. Averroes in turn has a radically different conception of existence, identifying it with existing beings rather than considering it as something in itself. With the Latin translation of Avicenna's metaphysical works in the 12th century, the Avicennian distinction went on to shape much of the debate on existence in medieval Scholastic philosophy and beyond. This article assesses the meaning of the distinction in Avicenna as well as Averroes' criticism. In explicating their radically different views on existence, it also touches on later discussions concerning existence, for example the issue whether existence is a predicate, in the Modern Age.

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