Type of Media
Category
Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198), 2017
By: Carmela Baffioni
Title Il libro Epsilon della Metafisica di Aristotele nell’Epitome di Aevrroè (1126-1198)
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 59
Pages 33–56
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Theology, Commentary
Author(s) Carmela Baffioni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with Averroes’s interpretation of Metaph. Ε 1, where Aristotle discusses the nature and object of metaphysics, as well as its place in the hierarchy of sciences. Among Averroes’s predecessors, al-Kindī seems to see a coincidence between metaphysics and theology, since God can be described as the “first cause of everything”. However, al-Fārābī and Avicenna discovered that “first philosophy” could be conceived as an ontology distinct from theology; moreover, they considered theology to be only a part of metaphysics, not even the most important one. In the Great Commentary on Metaphysics - where the Arabic translation of the work by the Jacobite monk Usṭāth is quoted, Averroes often just paraphrases the original passages. One may infer that theology in the strict sense is merely mentioned by way of example. In the Epitome of Metaphysics, the objects of metaphysics are “general” ones; metaphysics studies the “absolute being” and cannot be identified with theology as “pertaining to God”.

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Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2017
By: Mauro Zonta
Title Twenty-Nine Hebrew Glosses on Averroes‘ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Aleph
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 335–353
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Jewish engagement with Aristotle's Metaphysics in Hebrew began in the thirteenth century when the text was presented in Hebrew encyclopedias; it continued with a number of translations in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. The study of Hebrew philosophical texts often resulted in supercommentaries on them. In this study I present a hitherto unnoticed work, preserved in a unique Oxford manuscript, that bears witness to the study of the Metaphysics. Consisting of twenty-nine short comments or glosses on key passages of Averroes' Middle Commentary on books Alpha minor and Beta, as well as two passages from the Middle Commentary on book Theta, it can be described as a kind of supercommentary on Averroes. The glosses as preserved in the manuscript were apparently collected by an unknown redactor from works of two or more authors, whom I try to identify. One of them may be R. Gershon, the father of Levi ben Gershon (1288–1344). An edition of the 29 glosses and, for comparison, several glosses on logic by R. Gershon, are also presented.

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Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3, 2016
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Des Mégariques aux Ashʿarites : le commentaire d’Averroès à Métaph. Θ 3
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Rursus
Volume 9
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics, Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his commentary on Metaphysics IX 3, Averroes draws an analogy between the Megarian conception of dunamis, presented and refuted by Aristotle, and that of the Ashʿarites theologians. The study of the Arabic translation of lemmatas of Aristotle’s text (1047a26-28) and of the reformulation by Averroes of the third argument against the Megarians shows a shift commanded by theological issues: since the omnipotence of God can now bypass natural powers, the question of who possess the power should be added to that of its sole possession.

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Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 2016
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Dialecticians and Dialectics in Averroes’ Long Commentary on Gamma 2 of Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2016
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 26
Issue 1
Pages 161–184
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics, Commentary
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
While Averroes’ work is often considered to represent the culmination of the method of Aristotelian demonstration in Arabic philosophy, a short passage of his Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Γ.2 emphasizes the prominence of dialectic and calls for a re-examination of dialectic and demonstration in Averroes’ philosophical works. In this passage Averroes describes dialectic as an acceptable form of philosophy and the dialectician as a kind of scientist. In putting dialectic and demonstration on an equal, or nearly equal footing, Averroes seems to go against his own account of the dialectical and demonstrative classes of people in the Decisive Treatise. Moreover, this interpretation of Metaphysics Γ.2 also contradicts Averroes’ explanation of the same passage in the Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics as well as Aristotle's own description of dialectic throughout the Metaphysics. That is, in the Long Commentary on the Metaphysics, Averroes departs from his earlier views, and describes dialectic as a necessary part of metaphysics, even though the centrality of dialectic argumentation could call into question the entire project of metaphysics and consequently of the sciences whose demonstrations rely on metaphysical ground, i.e., all sciences. Averroes does not emphasize this view, but its presence is nevertheless unambiguous.

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Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist, 2015
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 309–318
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The 15th century Jewish Aragonian thinker, Abraham Bibago treats conjunction in his two main works, Derekh Emunah (“The Way of Faith”) and Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In the former, which explicitly interprets Biblical and Talmudic stories along philosophical lines, Bibago promotes a neo-Platonic intellectual emanation schema and boldly asserts that human happiness is attained through conjunction with higher intellects. In the Commentary, which primarily treats Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Averroes’ commentaries on it, Bibago gives an account of conjunction that does not necessarily fit with the intellectual conjunction of Derekh Emunah. Indeed, his remarks in the Commentary are much less decisive about human happiness, suggesting that Bibago qua philosopher is more open minded about the summum bonum than he is qua religious thinker.

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Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 82
Issue 1
Pages 1–60
Categories Thomas, Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article examines two medieval thinkers – Averroes and Aquinas – on the kind of causation exercised by the agent intellect in 'abstracting' or producing intelligibles from images in the imagination. It argues that abstraction in these thinkers should be interpreted in causal terms, as an act whereby images in the imagination, through the power of the agent intellect, educe their intelligible likeness in a receptive intellect. This Averroean-Thomistic causal approach to abstraction offers an intriguing alternative to the usual approach to abstraction as an epistemological content-sorting. The article also demonstrates the extensive common ground uniting these thinkers’ cognition theories, despite Aquinas’s well-known rejection of Averroes’s theory of separate Intellects.

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Descartes's Revised Averroism, 2014
By: Timothy Sean Quinn
Title Descartes's Revised Averroism
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal The Review of Metaphysics
Volume 67
Issue 4
Pages 769-789
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Timothy Sean Quinn
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento, 2013
By: Mauro Zonta
Title La tradizione testuale del Commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2013
Journal L'averrismo in età moderna (1400–1700)
Pages 15–23
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Mauro Zonta
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Revision and Standardization of Hebrew Philosophical Terminology in the Fourteenth Century. The Example of Averroes's Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Δ, 2013
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Revision and Standardization of Hebrew Philosophical Terminology in the Fourteenth Century. The Example of Averroes's Long Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics Δ
Type Article
Language English
Date 2013
Journal Aleph
Volume 13
Issue 1
Pages 95-137
Categories Aristotle, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and Aquinas on Aristotle's Criterion of Substantiality, 2009
By: Gabriele Galluzzo
Title Averroes and Aquinas on Aristotle's Criterion of Substantiality
Type Article
Language English
Date 2009
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 19
Issue 2
Pages 157–187
Categories Metaphysics, Thomas
Author(s) Gabriele Galluzzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The paper analyses Averroes's and Aquinas's different reconstructions of Aristotle's ontology in the central books of the Metaphysics. The main claim the paper argues for is that Averroes endorses an explanatory criterion of substantiality, while Aquinas favours an independent existence criterion. The result of these different choices is that the Arabic commentator believes that the forms of sensible objects are more substances than the objects of which they are the forms, while the Dominican Master sticks to the traditional picture that sensible objects hold some kind of priority over their ontological constituents in general and over form in particular. For Averroes, therefore, the central books of the Metaphysics mark a major departure from the Categories ontology, where particular sensible objects are regarded as fundamental entities and so primary substances. On Aquinas's reconstruction, by contrast, sensible objects are still thought of in the Metaphysics as primary substances in spite of their being analysable into matter and form.

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Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible, 2015
By: Therese Scarpelli Cory
Title Averroes and Aquinas on the Agent Intellect’s Causation of the Intelligible
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales
Volume 82
Issue 1
Pages 1–60
Categories Thomas, Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Therese Scarpelli Cory
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article examines two medieval thinkers – Averroes and Aquinas – on the kind of causation exercised by the agent intellect in 'abstracting' or producing intelligibles from images in the imagination. It argues that abstraction in these thinkers should be interpreted in causal terms, as an act whereby images in the imagination, through the power of the agent intellect, educe their intelligible likeness in a receptive intellect. This Averroean-Thomistic causal approach to abstraction offers an intriguing alternative to the usual approach to abstraction as an epistemological content-sorting. The article also demonstrates the extensive common ground uniting these thinkers’ cognition theories, despite Aquinas’s well-known rejection of Averroes’s theory of separate Intellects.

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Averroes and Aristotle's Philosophical Dictionary. Prolegomena to an Annotated Translation of Averroes's Greater Commentary on Book V of the Metaphysics, 1989
By: Philipp W. Rosemann
Title Averroes and Aristotle's Philosophical Dictionary. Prolegomena to an Annotated Translation of Averroes's Greater Commentary on Book V of the Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 1989
Journal The Modern Schoolman
Volume 66
Pages 95–115
Categories Metaphysics, Aristotle
Author(s) Philipp W. Rosemann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Studia graeco-arabica
Volume 8
Pages 287–304
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Prophecy is conspicuous by its complete absence from all three of the commentaries on De Anima by Averroes. However, prophecy and philosophical metaphysics are discussed by him in his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia, a work written before his methodological work on philosophy and religion, the Faṣl al-maqāl, generally held to have been written ca. 1179-1180. The analyses and remarks of Averroes presented in that Commentary have been characterized by Herbert Davidson as “extremely radical” to the extent that “The term prophet would, on this reading, mean nothing more than the human author of Scripture; and the term revelation would mean a high level of philosophical knowledge”. In the present article I discuss Averroes on method in matters of religion and philosophy as well as prophecy in philosophically argumentative works and in dialectical works, with particular consideration of the reasoning of his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia. I conclude that Averroes found in philosophy and its sciences the most complete and precise truth content and highest levels of knowledge and understanding and from them constructed his worldview, while he found prophecy and religion to be like an Aristotelian practical science in that they concern good and right conduct in the achievement of an end attained in action, not truths to be known for their own sake.

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Averroes and the Plurality of Forms, 1992
By: Emily Michael
Title Averroes and the Plurality of Forms
Type Article
Language English
Date 1992
Journal Franciscan Studies
Volume 52
Pages 155–182
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Emily Michael
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and the Teleological Argument, 2002
By: Taneli Kukkonen
Title Averroes and the Teleological Argument
Type Article
Language English
Date 2002
Journal Religious Studies
Volume 38
Pages 405–428
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Taneli Kukkonen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and the Theory of Emanation, 1981
By: Barry S. Kogan
Title Averroes and the Theory of Emanation
Type Article
Language English
Date 1981
Journal Mediaeval Studies
Volume 43
Pages 384–404
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Barry S. Kogan
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on God's Knowledge of Being Qua Being, 1994
By: Thérèse-Anne Druart
Title Averroes on God's Knowledge of Being Qua Being
Type Article
Language English
Date 1994
Journal Anaquel de estudios árabes
Volume 5
Pages 39–57
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Thérèse-Anne Druart
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on God's Knowledge of Particulars, 2006
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes on God's Knowledge of Particulars
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Journal of Islamic Studies
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 177–199
Categories Metaphysics
Author(s) Catarina Belo
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Translator(s)
This article discusses a central issue in the debate between philosophy and theology in the Islamic Middle Ages. In his attempt to show that Greek philosophy was contrary to Islam, theologian al-Ghazzālī charged Muslim philosophers with unbelief (kufr) on three counts: the eternity of the world, bodily resurrection and God's knowledge of particulars. The latter was particularly significant within an Islamic context. If God does not know particulars, how can He know for instance individual prophets or pass judgement on Doomsday? The main target of al-Ghazālī's criticism was Avicenna and his contention that God knows particulars in a universal way. In the Aristotelian epistemological model followed by Avicenna the subject and object of knowledge become one in the epistemological process. Since God is immutable He cannot know particulars in time, therefore He must know individuals insofar as they are universal.In his response to al-Ghazzālī, Averroes' main contribution is his rejection of Avicenna's formulation that God knows particulars in a universal way. Averroes criticizes this view because it does away with the distinction between divine and human knowledge. While in humans the process of knowing entails abstraction of universals from individual substances, God's knowledge cannot be characterized as universal or particular. It is neither particular—because it does not involve sense experience—nor universal—because it is not abstracted from individuals.Consequently, Averroes presents the essence of God's knowledge as at bottom unknowable to the human mind. This position may resemble al-Ghazzālī's overall negative stance concerning our understanding of this issue but in actuality it is radically different. By way of stating what it is not, and by clearly showing the differences between divine and human knowledge, Averroes provides a clearer grasp of what divine knowledge must be like.

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Averroes on Psychology and the Principles of Metaphysics, 1998
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes on Psychology and the Principles of Metaphysics
Type Article
Language English
Date 1998
Journal Journal of the History of Philosophy
Volume 36
Issue 4
Pages 507–523
Categories Psychology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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