The Iberian earthquake(s) of 1169-1184 according to Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and others, 2019
By: David J. Wasserstein
Title The Iberian earthquake(s) of 1169-1184 according to Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and others
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Seismological Research Letters
Volume 90
Issue 6
Pages 2285-2292
Categories Natural Philosophy
Author(s) David J. Wasserstein
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126-1198), the famous Muslim philosopher, reported an earthquake in the region of Cordoba (Spain) in the twelfth century. The information in his reports is self-contradictory. We have several other reports of the same event, which are themselves not always very clear. I am now attempting to clarify the problems and offer an analysis of the available information.

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Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Studia graeco-arabica
Volume 8
Pages 287–304
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Prophecy is conspicuous by its complete absence from all three of the commentaries on De Anima by Averroes. However, prophecy and philosophical metaphysics are discussed by him in his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia, a work written before his methodological work on philosophy and religion, the Faṣl al-maqāl, generally held to have been written ca. 1179-1180. The analyses and remarks of Averroes presented in that Commentary have been characterized by Herbert Davidson as “extremely radical” to the extent that “The term prophet would, on this reading, mean nothing more than the human author of Scripture; and the term revelation would mean a high level of philosophical knowledge”. In the present article I discuss Averroes on method in matters of religion and philosophy as well as prophecy in philosophically argumentative works and in dialectical works, with particular consideration of the reasoning of his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia. I conclude that Averroes found in philosophy and its sciences the most complete and precise truth content and highest levels of knowledge and understanding and from them constructed his worldview, while he found prophecy and religion to be like an Aristotelian practical science in that they concern good and right conduct in the achievement of an end attained in action, not truths to be known for their own sake.

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Le plaisir des femmes selon Aristote. Averroès contre Galien sur Natura nihil facit frustra, 2016
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Le plaisir des femmes selon Aristote. Averroès contre Galien sur Natura nihil facit frustra
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Philosophie Antique
Volume 16
Pages 63–102
Categories Aristotle, Natural Philosophy, Galen
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is devoted to the biological phenomenon of female sexual pleasure and aims at determining its causal role in Aristotle’s biological doctrine. In considering several passages of the De Generatione Animalium, the author suggests that female sexual pleasure is one of the phenomena that Aristotle defines as “for what is better”. The study of this phenomenon provides the opportunity to rethink the place of the final cause in Aristotle’s causal system and the nature of the so-called “derivative” teleology. In the second part of the study, the author provides an overview of the Greco-Arabic reception of Aristotle’s doctrine. The study of the debate prompted by Averroes against Galen in the xiith century AD shows the importance of the issue of female sexual pleasure in the Greco-Arabic peripatetism and clarifies in turn the doctrine of the Stagyrite.

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Redefining the Miraculous: al-Ghazâlî, Ibn Rushd and Said Nursi on Qur’anic Miracle Stories, 2011
By: Isra Yazicioglu
Title Redefining the Miraculous: al-Ghazâlî, Ibn Rushd and Said Nursi on Qur’anic Miracle Stories
Translation إعادة تحديد اﻷمر المعجز: آراء الغزالي وابن رشد وسعيد النورسي في قصص المعجزات
Type Article
Language English
Date 2011
Journal Journal of Qur’anic Studies
Volume 13
Issue 2
Pages 86–108
Categories Natural Philosophy, Theology, al-Ġazālī
Author(s) Isra Yazicioglu
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Miracle stories in sacred texts have been a source of both fascination and heated debate across religious traditions. Qur'anic miracle stories are especially interesting because they are part of a discourse that also de-emphasises the miraculous. By looking at how three scholars have engaged with Qur'anic miracle stories, I here investigate how these narratives have been interpreted in diverse and fruitful ways. The first part of the article analyses how two medieval scholars, al-Ghazālī (d. 505/1 111) and Ibn Rushd (d. 595/1198), engaged with the implications of miracle stories. Taking his cue from miracle stories, al-Ghazālī offered a sophisticated critique of natural determinism and suggested that the natural order should be perceived as a constantly renewed divine gift. In contrast, Ibn Rushd dismissed al-Ghazālī's critique as sophistry and maintained that accepting the possibility that the natural order might be suspended was an affront to human knowledge and science. In the second part, I turn to Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1870-1960), whose interpretation offers a crystallisation of al-Ghazālī's insights as well as, surprisingly, an indirect confirmation of Ibn Rushd's concerns about human knowledge and science. Nursi redefines the miraculous in light of miracle stories, and interprets them as reminders of 'everyday miracles' and as encouragements to improve science and technology in God's name. ظلت قصص المعجزات في الكتب الديننة أمراﹰ شائقاﹰ ومدار جدل ساخن في تعاليم اﻷديان المختلفة. وقصص المعجزات في القرآن ذات أهمية ﺧﺎﺻﺔ فهي جزء من خطاب يزيل ـ أيضاﹰ ـ التركيز على المعجز. وبالنظر في كيفية تعامل ﺛﻼﺛﺔ من العلماء مع قصص المعجزات أحاول في هذا المقال أن أتبين كيف تم تفسير هذه القصص بطرق مختلفة ومثمرة معاﹰ. وفي الجزء اﻷول من المقال نحلل كيف تعامل مفكران من الماضي هما الغزالي (ت 1111/505 ﻫ) وابن رشد (ت 1198/59 ﻫ) مع مضامين قصص المعجزات. فبناء على قصص المعجزات عرض الغزالي نقداﹰ حصيفاﹰ للحتمية الطبيعية واقترح أن تنظر ﺇلى الوضع الطبيعي على أنه منحة إلهية تتجدد باستمرار. وفي المقابل رفض ابن رشد نقد الغزالي واعتبره سفسطة وقال أن قبول احتمال تعطيل الوضع الطبيعي يجابه المعرفة اﻹنسانية والعلم. وفي الحزء الثاني من المقال تتناول بديع الزمان سعيد النورسي (1870 - 1960) الذي يمزج في تفسيره بين فراسة العزالي واهتمام ابن رشد بالمعرفة اﻹنسانية والعلم. ويعيد النورسي تحديد المعجز في ضوء قصص المعجزات ويقول إنها تذكرنا " بالمعجزات اليومية " وتشجعنا على التقدم في العلم والتكنولوجيا باسم اللّه .

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Qur'anic miracle stories are especially interesting because they are part of a discourse that also de-emphasises the miraculous. By looking at how three scholars have engaged with Qur'anic miracle stories, I here investigate how these narratives have been interpreted in diverse and fruitful ways. The first part of the article analyses how two medieval scholars, al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b (d. 505\/1 111) and Ibn Rushd (d. 595\/1198), engaged with the implications of miracle stories. Taking his cue from miracle stories, al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b offered a sophisticated critique of natural determinism and suggested that the natural order should be perceived as a constantly renewed divine gift. In contrast, Ibn Rushd dismissed al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b's critique as sophistry and maintained that accepting the possibility that the natural order might be suspended was an affront to human knowledge and science. In the second part, I turn to Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1870-1960), whose interpretation offers a crystallisation of al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b's insights as well as, surprisingly, an indirect confirmation of Ibn Rushd's concerns about human knowledge and science. Nursi redefines the miraculous in light of miracle stories, and interprets them as reminders of 'everyday miracles' and as encouragements to improve science and technology in God's name.\r\n\r\n\u0638\u0644\u062a \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0643\u062a\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0646\u0629 \u0623\u0645\u0631\u0627\ufe70 \u0634\u0627\u0626\u0642\u0627\ufe70 \u0648\u0645\u062f\u0627\u0631 \u062c\u062f\u0644 \u0633\u0627\u062e\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0645 \u0627\ufef7\u062f\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629. \u0648\u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0622\u0646 \u0630\u0627\u062a \u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \ufea7\ufe8e\ufebb\ufe94 \u0641\u0647\u064a \u062c\u0632\u0621 \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628 \u064a\u0632\u064a\u0644 \u0640 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627\ufe70 \u0640 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632. \u0648\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u0643\u064a\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \ufe9b\ufefc\ufe9b\ufe94 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0645\u0639 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0623\u062d\u0627\u0648\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u0623\u0646 \u0623\u062a\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0643\u064a\u0641 \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0628\u0637\u0631\u0642 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u062b\u0645\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0639\u0627\ufe70. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0632\u0621 \u0627\ufef7\u0648\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u0646\u062d\u0644\u0644 \u0643\u064a\u0641 \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0645\u0641\u0643\u0631\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0636\u064a \u0647\u0645\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a (\u062a 1111\/505 \ufeeb) \u0648\u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f (\u062a 1198\/59 \ufeeb) \u0645\u0639 \u0645\u0636\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0646 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a. \u0641\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0646\u0642\u062f\u0627\ufe70 \u062d\u0635\u064a\u0641\u0627\ufe70 \u0644\u0644\u062d\u062a\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0642\u062a\u0631\u062d \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0646\u0638\u0631 \ufe87\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0645\u0646\u062d\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u062a\u062c\u062f\u062f \u0628\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0631. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0628\u0644 \u0631\u0641\u0636 \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f \u0646\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631\u0647 \u0633\u0641\u0633\u0637\u0629 \u0648\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u0623\u0646 \u0642\u0628\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u062d\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u062a\u0639\u0637\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a \u064a\u062c\u0627\u0628\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0627\ufef9\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0632\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u0646\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u062a\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0648\u0644 \u0628\u062f\u064a\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0633\u0639\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0631\u0633\u064a (1870 - 1960) \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u064a\u0645\u0632\u062c \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631\u0647 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0647\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0627\ufef9\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645. \u0648\u064a\u0639\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0631\u0633\u064a \u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632 \u0641\u064a \u0636\u0648\u0621 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0648\u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644 \u0625\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0630\u0643\u0631\u0646\u0627 \" \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \" \u0648\u062a\u0634\u062c\u0639\u0646\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0643\u0646\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0633\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0651\u0647 .","btype":3,"date":"2011","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":38,"category_name":"Natural Philosophy","link":"bib?categories[]=Natural Philosophy"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":14,"category_name":"al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b"}],"authors":[{"id":1754,"full_name":"Isra Yazicioglu","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5381,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Journal of Qur\u2019anic Studies","volume":"13","issue":"2","pages":"86\u2013108"}},"sort":[2011]}

Discussion of Causality Based on the Conceptions of Nature of Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazalī, 2010
By: Mehmet Fatih Birgül
Title Discussion of Causality Based on the Conceptions of Nature of Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazalī
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Ilahiyat Studies. A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies
Volume 1
Issue 2
Pages 241–258
Categories Natural Philosophy, al-Ġazālī, Metaphysics
Author(s) Mehmet Fatih Birgül
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this short analysis, we will compare Ibn Rushd's justification of the causality principle to the suspicions and objections of al-Ghazālī. Nevertheless, our analysis of the issue will center on al-Ghazālī's and Ibn Rushd's conceptions of nature. Therefore, our article aims at illuminating two points: first, there is a fundamental difference between the conceptions of nature and generation of the two philosophers; second, this structural difference constitutes the real cause of disagreement over the causality principle.

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Averroes: Explicación aristotélica del Universo, 2008
By: Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Title Averroes: Explicación aristotélica del Universo
Translation Averroes: Aristotelian explanation on the Universe
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2008
Journal Filosofia Unisionos
Volume 9
Issue 1
Pages 25–42
Categories Natural Philosophy, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper aims at studying the original way Averroes explains the universe and answering the new problematic on reveled truth and reason. Averroes formulation must not be considered as “the” Islamic philosophy of nature, but as one among many different philosophies of nature formulated by Muslims philosophers.

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Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach, 2006
By: David Bloch
Title Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin (Université de Copenhague)
Volume 77
Pages 127–146
Categories Psychology, Natural Philosophy, Aristotle
Author(s) David Bloch
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The solar model in Joseph Ibn Joseph Ibn Nahmias' Light of the world, 2005
By: Robert G. Morrison
Title The solar model in Joseph Ibn Joseph Ibn Nahmias' Light of the world
Type Article
Language English
Date 2005
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 15
Pages 57-108
Categories Cosmology, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Robert G. Morrison
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In an influential article, A. I. Sabra identified an intellectual trend from twelfth and thirteenth-century Andalusia which he described as the ‘‘Andalusian revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy.” Philosophers such as Ibn Rushd (d. 1198 C. E.), Ibn Tufayl (d. 1185), and Maimonides (d. 1204) objected to Ptolemy’s (fl. 125–50) theories on philosophic grounds, not because of shortcomings in the theories' predictive accuracy. Sabra showed how al-Bitrūjī's (fl. 1200) Kitāb al-Hay'a (The Book of Astronomy) attempted to account for observed planetary motions in a way that met the philosophic standards of those philosophers and others. In Nūr al-‘ālam (Light of the World), the subject of this article, Joseph ibn Joseph ibn Nahmias (fl. ca. 1400) endeavoured to improve upon al-Bitrūjī’s models. Levi Ben Gerson's (1288–1344) Hebrew writings on astronomy criticized al-Bitrūjī, but Ibn Nahmias did not mention them. Nūr al-‘ālam deserves attention, too, because it is the first Arabic text on theoretical astronomy by a Jewish author to come to light. In the body of this article, I will describe and analyze Ibn Nahmias’ theory, from Nūr al-‘ālam, for the motion of the sun

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The Medieval Astrologization of Aristotle's Biology. Averroes on the Role of the Celestial Bodies in the Generation of Animate Beings, 2002
By: Gad Freudenthal
Title The Medieval Astrologization of Aristotle's Biology. Averroes on the Role of the Celestial Bodies in the Generation of Animate Beings
Type Article
Language English
Date 2002
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 12
Pages 111–37
Categories Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Gad Freudenthal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
How do the variegated forms of sublunar substances (the elements, homoeomerous substances, plants, animals) arise in prime matter? Averroes throughout his life believed that “a principle from without” was involved, but changed his mind over its identity. While in an early period of his life he maintained that all forms emanate from the active intellect, he later discarded that metaphysical notion and sought to develop a more naturalistic, astrologically inspired account, which identified the heavenly bodies as the source of sublunar forms. Comparing different versions of Averroean texts, this paper seeks to spell out how, in Averroes' view, the heavenly bodies generate forms in matter. Averroes claims that this is brought about by means of their “heats,” an answer that is however problematic seeing that in the Aristotelian cosmology the celestial realm is quality-less. The paper examines Averroes' ideas on the relationship between light and heat, concluding that the Commentator was unable to integrate the postulate that the heavenly bodies inform matter within his Aristotelian theory of matter.

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Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach, 2006
By: David Bloch
Title Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin (Université de Copenhague)
Volume 77
Pages 127–146
Categories Psychology, Natural Philosophy, Aristotle
Author(s) David Bloch
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Studia graeco-arabica
Volume 8
Pages 287–304
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Prophecy is conspicuous by its complete absence from all three of the commentaries on De Anima by Averroes. However, prophecy and philosophical metaphysics are discussed by him in his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia, a work written before his methodological work on philosophy and religion, the Faṣl al-maqāl, generally held to have been written ca. 1179-1180. The analyses and remarks of Averroes presented in that Commentary have been characterized by Herbert Davidson as “extremely radical” to the extent that “The term prophet would, on this reading, mean nothing more than the human author of Scripture; and the term revelation would mean a high level of philosophical knowledge”. In the present article I discuss Averroes on method in matters of religion and philosophy as well as prophecy in philosophically argumentative works and in dialectical works, with particular consideration of the reasoning of his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia. I conclude that Averroes found in philosophy and its sciences the most complete and precise truth content and highest levels of knowledge and understanding and from them constructed his worldview, while he found prophecy and religion to be like an Aristotelian practical science in that they concern good and right conduct in the achievement of an end attained in action, not truths to be known for their own sake.

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Averroes: Explicación aristotélica del Universo, 2008
By: Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Title Averroes: Explicación aristotélica del Universo
Translation Averroes: Aristotelian explanation on the Universe
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2008
Journal Filosofia Unisionos
Volume 9
Issue 1
Pages 25–42
Categories Natural Philosophy, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper aims at studying the original way Averroes explains the universe and answering the new problematic on reveled truth and reason. Averroes formulation must not be considered as “the” Islamic philosophy of nature, but as one among many different philosophies of nature formulated by Muslims philosophers.

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Discussion of Causality Based on the Conceptions of Nature of Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazalī, 2010
By: Mehmet Fatih Birgül
Title Discussion of Causality Based on the Conceptions of Nature of Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazalī
Type Article
Language English
Date 2010
Journal Ilahiyat Studies. A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies
Volume 1
Issue 2
Pages 241–258
Categories Natural Philosophy, al-Ġazālī, Metaphysics
Author(s) Mehmet Fatih Birgül
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this short analysis, we will compare Ibn Rushd's justification of the causality principle to the suspicions and objections of al-Ghazālī. Nevertheless, our analysis of the issue will center on al-Ghazālī's and Ibn Rushd's conceptions of nature. Therefore, our article aims at illuminating two points: first, there is a fundamental difference between the conceptions of nature and generation of the two philosophers; second, this structural difference constitutes the real cause of disagreement over the causality principle.

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Le plaisir des femmes selon Aristote. Averroès contre Galien sur Natura nihil facit frustra, 2016
By: Cristina Cerami
Title Le plaisir des femmes selon Aristote. Averroès contre Galien sur Natura nihil facit frustra
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Philosophie Antique
Volume 16
Pages 63–102
Categories Aristotle, Natural Philosophy, Galen
Author(s) Cristina Cerami
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is devoted to the biological phenomenon of female sexual pleasure and aims at determining its causal role in Aristotle’s biological doctrine. In considering several passages of the De Generatione Animalium, the author suggests that female sexual pleasure is one of the phenomena that Aristotle defines as “for what is better”. The study of this phenomenon provides the opportunity to rethink the place of the final cause in Aristotle’s causal system and the nature of the so-called “derivative” teleology. In the second part of the study, the author provides an overview of the Greco-Arabic reception of Aristotle’s doctrine. The study of the debate prompted by Averroes against Galen in the xiith century AD shows the importance of the issue of female sexual pleasure in the Greco-Arabic peripatetism and clarifies in turn the doctrine of the Stagyrite.

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Redefining the Miraculous: al-Ghazâlî, Ibn Rushd and Said Nursi on Qur’anic Miracle Stories, 2011
By: Isra Yazicioglu
Title Redefining the Miraculous: al-Ghazâlî, Ibn Rushd and Said Nursi on Qur’anic Miracle Stories
Translation إعادة تحديد اﻷمر المعجز: آراء الغزالي وابن رشد وسعيد النورسي في قصص المعجزات
Type Article
Language English
Date 2011
Journal Journal of Qur’anic Studies
Volume 13
Issue 2
Pages 86–108
Categories Natural Philosophy, Theology, al-Ġazālī
Author(s) Isra Yazicioglu
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Miracle stories in sacred texts have been a source of both fascination and heated debate across religious traditions. Qur'anic miracle stories are especially interesting because they are part of a discourse that also de-emphasises the miraculous. By looking at how three scholars have engaged with Qur'anic miracle stories, I here investigate how these narratives have been interpreted in diverse and fruitful ways. The first part of the article analyses how two medieval scholars, al-Ghazālī (d. 505/1 111) and Ibn Rushd (d. 595/1198), engaged with the implications of miracle stories. Taking his cue from miracle stories, al-Ghazālī offered a sophisticated critique of natural determinism and suggested that the natural order should be perceived as a constantly renewed divine gift. In contrast, Ibn Rushd dismissed al-Ghazālī's critique as sophistry and maintained that accepting the possibility that the natural order might be suspended was an affront to human knowledge and science. In the second part, I turn to Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1870-1960), whose interpretation offers a crystallisation of al-Ghazālī's insights as well as, surprisingly, an indirect confirmation of Ibn Rushd's concerns about human knowledge and science. Nursi redefines the miraculous in light of miracle stories, and interprets them as reminders of 'everyday miracles' and as encouragements to improve science and technology in God's name. ظلت قصص المعجزات في الكتب الديننة أمراﹰ شائقاﹰ ومدار جدل ساخن في تعاليم اﻷديان المختلفة. وقصص المعجزات في القرآن ذات أهمية ﺧﺎﺻﺔ فهي جزء من خطاب يزيل ـ أيضاﹰ ـ التركيز على المعجز. وبالنظر في كيفية تعامل ﺛﻼﺛﺔ من العلماء مع قصص المعجزات أحاول في هذا المقال أن أتبين كيف تم تفسير هذه القصص بطرق مختلفة ومثمرة معاﹰ. وفي الجزء اﻷول من المقال نحلل كيف تعامل مفكران من الماضي هما الغزالي (ت 1111/505 ﻫ) وابن رشد (ت 1198/59 ﻫ) مع مضامين قصص المعجزات. فبناء على قصص المعجزات عرض الغزالي نقداﹰ حصيفاﹰ للحتمية الطبيعية واقترح أن تنظر ﺇلى الوضع الطبيعي على أنه منحة إلهية تتجدد باستمرار. وفي المقابل رفض ابن رشد نقد الغزالي واعتبره سفسطة وقال أن قبول احتمال تعطيل الوضع الطبيعي يجابه المعرفة اﻹنسانية والعلم. وفي الحزء الثاني من المقال تتناول بديع الزمان سعيد النورسي (1870 - 1960) الذي يمزج في تفسيره بين فراسة العزالي واهتمام ابن رشد بالمعرفة اﻹنسانية والعلم. ويعيد النورسي تحديد المعجز في ضوء قصص المعجزات ويقول إنها تذكرنا " بالمعجزات اليومية " وتشجعنا على التقدم في العلم والتكنولوجيا باسم اللّه .

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Qur'anic miracle stories are especially interesting because they are part of a discourse that also de-emphasises the miraculous. By looking at how three scholars have engaged with Qur'anic miracle stories, I here investigate how these narratives have been interpreted in diverse and fruitful ways. The first part of the article analyses how two medieval scholars, al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b (d. 505\/1 111) and Ibn Rushd (d. 595\/1198), engaged with the implications of miracle stories. Taking his cue from miracle stories, al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b offered a sophisticated critique of natural determinism and suggested that the natural order should be perceived as a constantly renewed divine gift. In contrast, Ibn Rushd dismissed al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b's critique as sophistry and maintained that accepting the possibility that the natural order might be suspended was an affront to human knowledge and science. In the second part, I turn to Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1870-1960), whose interpretation offers a crystallisation of al-Ghaz\u0101l\u012b's insights as well as, surprisingly, an indirect confirmation of Ibn Rushd's concerns about human knowledge and science. Nursi redefines the miraculous in light of miracle stories, and interprets them as reminders of 'everyday miracles' and as encouragements to improve science and technology in God's name.\r\n\r\n\u0638\u0644\u062a \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0643\u062a\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0646\u0629 \u0623\u0645\u0631\u0627\ufe70 \u0634\u0627\u0626\u0642\u0627\ufe70 \u0648\u0645\u062f\u0627\u0631 \u062c\u062f\u0644 \u0633\u0627\u062e\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0645 \u0627\ufef7\u062f\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629. \u0648\u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0622\u0646 \u0630\u0627\u062a \u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \ufea7\ufe8e\ufebb\ufe94 \u0641\u0647\u064a \u062c\u0632\u0621 \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628 \u064a\u0632\u064a\u0644 \u0640 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627\ufe70 \u0640 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632. \u0648\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u0643\u064a\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \ufe9b\ufefc\ufe9b\ufe94 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0645\u0639 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0623\u062d\u0627\u0648\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u0623\u0646 \u0623\u062a\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0643\u064a\u0641 \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0628\u0637\u0631\u0642 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u062b\u0645\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0639\u0627\ufe70. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0632\u0621 \u0627\ufef7\u0648\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u0646\u062d\u0644\u0644 \u0643\u064a\u0641 \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0645\u0641\u0643\u0631\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0636\u064a \u0647\u0645\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a (\u062a 1111\/505 \ufeeb) \u0648\u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f (\u062a 1198\/59 \ufeeb) \u0645\u0639 \u0645\u0636\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0646 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a. \u0641\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0646\u0642\u062f\u0627\ufe70 \u062d\u0635\u064a\u0641\u0627\ufe70 \u0644\u0644\u062d\u062a\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0642\u062a\u0631\u062d \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0646\u0638\u0631 \ufe87\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0645\u0646\u062d\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u062a\u062c\u062f\u062f \u0628\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0631. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0628\u0644 \u0631\u0641\u0636 \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f \u0646\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631\u0647 \u0633\u0641\u0633\u0637\u0629 \u0648\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u0623\u0646 \u0642\u0628\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u062d\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u062a\u0639\u0637\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a \u064a\u062c\u0627\u0628\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0627\ufef9\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0632\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u0646\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u062a\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0648\u0644 \u0628\u062f\u064a\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0633\u0639\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0631\u0633\u064a (1870 - 1960) \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u064a\u0645\u0632\u062c \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631\u0647 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0632\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0647\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0631\u0634\u062f \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0627\ufef9\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645. \u0648\u064a\u0639\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0631\u0633\u064a \u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632 \u0641\u064a \u0636\u0648\u0621 \u0642\u0635\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0648\u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644 \u0625\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0630\u0643\u0631\u0646\u0627 \" \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062c\u0632\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \" \u0648\u062a\u0634\u062c\u0639\u0646\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0643\u0646\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0633\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0651\u0647 .","btype":3,"date":"2011","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":38,"category_name":"Natural Philosophy","link":"bib?categories[]=Natural Philosophy"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":14,"category_name":"al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-\u0120az\u0101l\u012b"}],"authors":[{"id":1754,"full_name":"Isra Yazicioglu","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5381,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Journal of Qur\u2019anic Studies","volume":"13","issue":"2","pages":"86\u2013108"}},"sort":["Redefining the Miraculous: al-Ghaz\u00e2l\u00ee, Ibn Rushd and Said Nursi on Qur\u2019anic Miracle Stories"]}

The Iberian earthquake(s) of 1169-1184 according to Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and others, 2019
By: David J. Wasserstein
Title The Iberian earthquake(s) of 1169-1184 according to Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and others
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Seismological Research Letters
Volume 90
Issue 6
Pages 2285-2292
Categories Natural Philosophy
Author(s) David J. Wasserstein
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126-1198), the famous Muslim philosopher, reported an earthquake in the region of Cordoba (Spain) in the twelfth century. The information in his reports is self-contradictory. We have several other reports of the same event, which are themselves not always very clear. I am now attempting to clarify the problems and offer an analysis of the available information.

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The Medieval Astrologization of Aristotle's Biology. Averroes on the Role of the Celestial Bodies in the Generation of Animate Beings, 2002
By: Gad Freudenthal
Title The Medieval Astrologization of Aristotle's Biology. Averroes on the Role of the Celestial Bodies in the Generation of Animate Beings
Type Article
Language English
Date 2002
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 12
Pages 111–37
Categories Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Gad Freudenthal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
How do the variegated forms of sublunar substances (the elements, homoeomerous substances, plants, animals) arise in prime matter? Averroes throughout his life believed that “a principle from without” was involved, but changed his mind over its identity. While in an early period of his life he maintained that all forms emanate from the active intellect, he later discarded that metaphysical notion and sought to develop a more naturalistic, astrologically inspired account, which identified the heavenly bodies as the source of sublunar forms. Comparing different versions of Averroean texts, this paper seeks to spell out how, in Averroes' view, the heavenly bodies generate forms in matter. Averroes claims that this is brought about by means of their “heats,” an answer that is however problematic seeing that in the Aristotelian cosmology the celestial realm is quality-less. The paper examines Averroes' ideas on the relationship between light and heat, concluding that the Commentator was unable to integrate the postulate that the heavenly bodies inform matter within his Aristotelian theory of matter.

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The solar model in Joseph Ibn Joseph Ibn Nahmias' Light of the world, 2005
By: Robert G. Morrison
Title The solar model in Joseph Ibn Joseph Ibn Nahmias' Light of the world
Type Article
Language English
Date 2005
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 15
Pages 57-108
Categories Cosmology, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Robert G. Morrison
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In an influential article, A. I. Sabra identified an intellectual trend from twelfth and thirteenth-century Andalusia which he described as the ‘‘Andalusian revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy.” Philosophers such as Ibn Rushd (d. 1198 C. E.), Ibn Tufayl (d. 1185), and Maimonides (d. 1204) objected to Ptolemy’s (fl. 125–50) theories on philosophic grounds, not because of shortcomings in the theories' predictive accuracy. Sabra showed how al-Bitrūjī's (fl. 1200) Kitāb al-Hay'a (The Book of Astronomy) attempted to account for observed planetary motions in a way that met the philosophic standards of those philosophers and others. In Nūr al-‘ālam (Light of the World), the subject of this article, Joseph ibn Joseph ibn Nahmias (fl. ca. 1400) endeavoured to improve upon al-Bitrūjī’s models. Levi Ben Gerson's (1288–1344) Hebrew writings on astronomy criticized al-Bitrūjī, but Ibn Nahmias did not mention them. Nūr al-‘ālam deserves attention, too, because it is the first Arabic text on theoretical astronomy by a Jewish author to come to light. In the body of this article, I will describe and analyze Ibn Nahmias’ theory, from Nūr al-‘ālam, for the motion of the sun

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