هل كتب ابن رشد شق بعنوانة “الضميمة“؟ ملا حظات نقدية حول غموض عمّر أكثر من قرن و نصف, 2021
By: Fouad Ben Ahmed
Title هل كتب ابن رشد شق بعنوانة “الضميمة“؟ ملا حظات نقدية حول غموض عمّر أكثر من قرن و نصف
Translation Hat Ibn Rusd ein Werk mit dem Titel "Damīna" geschrieben? Kritische Anmerkungen um ein Geheimnis, das mehr als ein und ein halbes Jahrhundert dauert
Type Article
Language Arabic
Date 2021
Journal Philosophy and Sciences in Islamic Contexts
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Transmission
Author(s) Fouad Ben Ahmed
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In this study, I examine the “identities” that a short work by the Andalusian philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes, d. 595/1198), in which he deals with the question of “Does God know particulars?” has accumulated throughout its history. This work, which is usually published as an appendix to the Faṣl almaqāl (Decisive Treatises), is known in modern times under several names, including an Appendix on Divine Knowledge, or the Appendix or Dhayl to the Faṣl al-Maqal, or simply Ḍamīma or the Epistle Dedicatory entitled the Ḍamīma. This makes one wonder: did Ibn Rushd really write a work with this title? In order to answer this straightforward question and to identify the origin of the problem, I tried to return to the indexes, catalogs, historical and biographical works in which data of this work appeared, as well as to its unique manuscript (Escorial: 632). This survey helped us to clarify the forms of ambiguity that surrounded its title, since its first publication in the middle of the nineteenth century until today. My aim is to show that this work, unlike most of Ibn Rushd's works, is not supposed to have a specific title, as it was an answer to a question put to Ibn Rushd; which means that what has been mentioned in the index of Ibn Rushd's works (Escorial: 884) remains most relevant and closest to the identity of this short text.

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Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis, 2021
By: Arthur Klik
Title Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis
Translation Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes’ Fasl al-maqal
Type Article
Language Portuguese
Date 2021
Journal DoisPontos
Volume 18
Issue 1
Pages 113-132
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Arthur Klik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averróis, se destaca por seu caráter polêmico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jurídico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei islâmica, ao verificar qual é a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cenário em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em questão, o diagnóstico e a solução propostos por Averróis se destacam ao apresentar uma interpretação singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necessário para a saúde da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpretação, na qual três pontos se colocam na consideração da relação entre filosofia e revelação: o (1) asseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manutenção do bem-estar geral junto à (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um intérprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes não filósofos An original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of common welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers

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Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

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La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?, 2021
By: Mounia Aît Kabboura
Title La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de théologie
Volume 73
Issue 1-2
Pages 177-196
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Mounia Aît Kabboura
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maqâl' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tahâfut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)

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Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant, 2021
By: Ali Benmakhlouf
Title Vérité et validité d’Averroès à l’aristotélisme renaissant
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 83–92
Categories Aristotle, Tradition and Reception, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Ali Benmakhlouf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
La théorie de la « double-vérité » fut un immense contresens apposé par Thomas d’Aquin sur l’oeuvre d’Averroès dans laquelle elle ne se trouve pas. Le présent article déplace les enjeux vers la notion de validité en explorant la double stratégie qui se met en place chez Averroès : 1) montrer que la sagesse (ḥikma) dont parle le Coran est la philosophie la plus haute, celle qui fait usage de la démonstration ; 2) promouvoir la démonstration comme outil de validité du savoir. L’auteur rappelle le moment inaugural d’al-Kindī, qui met en place la démarche scientifique et s’intéresse donc à la validité et à la forme des arguments, avant de se concentrer sur Averroès et la mise en cohérence du vrai et du valide qui s’opère dans le Discours Décisif. L’article s’achève sur les prolongements de la question de la validité à la Renaissance.

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Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu, 2021
By: Rafiz Manafov, Adem Akman
Title Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu
Translation The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
Volume 9 (İDEKTA)
Pages 131-139
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafiz Manafov , Adem Akman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
İbn Rüşd İslam düşüncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi düşüncenin gerilemeye yüz tuttuğu bir dönemin filozofudur. O, felsefi açıdan dinin konumunu gerekli gördüğü kadar, din açısından da felsefenin kaçınılmazlığına inanır. Çalışmamızın özünü ve amacını İbn Rüşd’ün felsefesindeki temel kavram ve düşünceler oluşturmaktadır. Makalede felsefenin İbn Rüşd açısından akli zorunluluk ve dinsel meşruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün felsefe savunusunun özellikleri ortaya konmakta ve önemi vurgulanmaktadır. Averroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes’ defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.

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İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonuçları, 2021
By: Fevzi Yiğit
Title İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin neden ve sonuçları
Translation The reasons for and the consequences of Averroes’ saying essence to God
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Turkish Academic Research Review
Volume 6
Issue 3
Pages 1035-1052
Categories Metaphysics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Cosmology
Author(s) Fevzi Yiğit
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Bu makalede, İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin görece neden ve sonuçları konu edilmektedir. Böylece İbn Rüşd örneğinden hareketle, filozofların Tanrı telakkilerinin aslında metafiziğin konusuyla doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu gösterilmek istenmektedir. Makalede bilkuvve-bilfiil, cevher-araz, varlık-mâhiyet, madde-sûret ve teşkîk gibi güçlü felsefî ayrımlara ihtiyaç duyuldukça başvurulacaktır. İbn Rüşd’e göre mevcut/var olan araştırması temelde bir cevher araştırmasıdır. Mevcut kavramı cevherin üstünde yer alan daha üst bir varlık seviyesini temsil etmese de kapsamının genişliği yüzünden cevherden daha üst bir kavramdır. Oysaki İbn Sînâ’ya göre mevcut, cevherden daha üst bir varlık seviyesini karşılar ve bu yüzden mevcut araştırması sadece cevher araştırmasına hasredilemez. Dolayısıyla ona göre metafiziğin konusu cevher olması açısından cevher değildir. İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin muhtemel nedenleri şunlardır: Birincisi, Tanrı bütün mevcudat içerisinde cevher tanımına en uygun olandır. İkincisi onun mevcut kavramını -diğer anlamlarını akılda tutmak kaydıyla- dış dünyada gerçekliği olmayan zihinsel bir kavram yani cins olarak kabul etmesi dolayısıyla sadece cevhere gerçeklik tanımış olmasıdır. Üçüncüsü, göksel cisimlerin sonsuz bir biçimde hareket ettiği düşüncesidir. Dördüncüsü tümeller ve ayrık mevcutlar ile hissedilir ferdi cevherler arasındaki ilişkiye dair görüşüdür. İbn Rüşd Aristoteles’i takiben tümellerin ve ideaların ferdi cevherlerin varoluşunda katkısı olmadığını düşünür. İbn Rüşd’ün Tanrı’ya cevher demesinin muhtemel sonuçlarıysa şunlardır: Birincisi onun din felsefe ilişkisine dair yazdığı Faslü’l-makâl ve el-Keşf an menâhicü’ledille kitaplarında Tanrı hakkında takındığı Hanbeli tavırdır. İkincisi aslında yukarıda sebep olarak zikredilen burada ise sonuç olarak dile getirilebilecek döngüsel bir şeydir. Yani gök cisimleri ve âlemi ezeli olarak kabul etmek Tanrı’ya cevher denmesine sebep olurken Tanrı’ya cevher denmesi de âlemin Tanrı’nın etkisiyle ancak O’ndan ayrı ve kopuk olarak mevcut olması fikrini sonuç vermektedir. Üçüncüsü sudûr ve yoktan yaratma doktrinlerini reddetmesidir. Yoktan yaratmayı reddi ise -antik filozofların da açıkça dile getirdiği üzere- “salt yokluğun varlığın kaynağı olamayacağı “şeklindeki genel bir ontolojik ilkeye dayanmaktadır. This article deals with the relative reasons and consequences of Averroes’ saying God the essence. Thus, based on the example of Averroes, it is desired to show that the philosophers’ conception of God is actually directly related to the subject of metaphysics. The distinctions between potential and actual, being-essence and matter-form, which are thought to have strong forms of explanation, will be applied when needed. According to Averroes, his research of being is basically an investigation of essence. Although the concept of being/existence does not represent a higher level of being above the substance, it takes place in metaphysics as a higher concept with different meanings. However, according to Ibn Avicenna, the existing meets a higher level of being than the substance, and therefore its inquiry cannot be only the one for substance. Therefore, according to him, the subject of metaphysics is not a substance qua substance. In short, the possible reasons for Averroes to call God essence are as follows: First, God is the most suitable for the definition of essence in all existence. The second is that, keeping other meanings of being in mind, he accepted the concept of “mawjūd” as a mental concept that has no reality in the external world, that is, as a genus, and therefore only recognized the substance as reality. The third is the idea that the celestial bodies move endlessly. The fourth is his view on the relationship between universals and discrete entities and tangible individual essences. Following Aristotle, Averroes thinks that universals and ideas do not contribute to the existence of individual essences. The possible consequences of Averroes’ calling God a substance are as follows: The first is his Hanbalī attitude towards God in his books Fasl al-maqāl and al-Kashf an manāhij al-adilla, which he wrote on the relationship between religion and philosophy. Secondly, what was mentioned above as a cause, is a cyclical thing that can be expressed as a result here. In other words, while accepting the celestial bodies and the universe as eternal, causes God to be called essence, calling God essence results in the idea that the universe exists only apart and disconnected from him under the influence of God. The third is his rejection of the doctrines of creation out of nothing and sudūr (emanation). The refusal to create out of nothing is based on a general ontological principle -as the ancient philosophers openly expressed- “absolute absence cannot be the source of existence”.

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B\u00f6ylece \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd \u00f6rne\u011finden hareketle, filozoflar\u0131n Tanr\u0131 telakkilerinin asl\u0131nda metafizi\u011fin konusuyla do\u011frudan ba\u011flant\u0131l\u0131 oldu\u011fu g\u00f6sterilmek istenmektedir. Makalede bilkuvve-bilfiil, cevher-araz, varl\u0131k-m\u00e2hiyet, madde-s\u00fbret ve te\u015fk\u00eek gibi g\u00fc\u00e7l\u00fc felsef\u00ee ayr\u0131mlara ihtiya\u00e7 duyulduk\u00e7a ba\u015fvurulacakt\u0131r. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019e g\u00f6re mevcut\/var olan ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131 temelde bir cevher ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131d\u0131r. Mevcut kavram\u0131 cevherin \u00fcst\u00fcnde yer alan daha \u00fcst bir varl\u0131k seviyesini temsil etmese de kapsam\u0131n\u0131n geni\u015fli\u011fi y\u00fcz\u00fcnden cevherden daha \u00fcst bir kavramd\u0131r. Oysaki \u0130bn S\u00een\u00e2\u2019ya g\u00f6re mevcut, cevherden daha \u00fcst bir varl\u0131k seviyesini kar\u015f\u0131lar ve bu y\u00fczden mevcut ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131 sadece cevher ara\u015ft\u0131rmas\u0131na hasredilemez. Dolay\u0131s\u0131yla ona g\u00f6re metafizi\u011fin konusu cevher olmas\u0131 a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan cevher de\u011fildir. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin muhtemel nedenleri \u015funlard\u0131r: Birincisi, Tanr\u0131 b\u00fct\u00fcn mevcudat i\u00e7erisinde cevher tan\u0131m\u0131na en uygun oland\u0131r. \u0130kincisi onun mevcut kavram\u0131n\u0131 -di\u011fer anlamlar\u0131n\u0131 ak\u0131lda tutmak kayd\u0131yla- d\u0131\u015f d\u00fcnyada ger\u00e7ekli\u011fi olmayan zihinsel bir kavram yani cins olarak kabul etmesi dolay\u0131s\u0131yla sadece cevhere ger\u00e7eklik tan\u0131m\u0131\u015f olmas\u0131d\u0131r. \u00dc\u00e7\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc, g\u00f6ksel cisimlerin sonsuz bir bi\u00e7imde hareket etti\u011fi d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcncesidir. D\u00f6rd\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc t\u00fcmeller ve ayr\u0131k mevcutlar ile hissedilir ferdi cevherler aras\u0131ndaki ili\u015fkiye dair g\u00f6r\u00fc\u015f\u00fcd\u00fcr. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd Aristoteles\u2019i takiben t\u00fcmellerin ve idealar\u0131n ferdi cevherlerin varolu\u015funda katk\u0131s\u0131 olmad\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131 d\u00fc\u015f\u00fcn\u00fcr. \u0130bn R\u00fc\u015fd\u2019\u00fcn Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher demesinin muhtemel sonu\u00e7lar\u0131ysa \u015funlard\u0131r: Birincisi onun din felsefe ili\u015fkisine dair yazd\u0131\u011f\u0131 Fasl\u00fc\u2019l-mak\u00e2l ve el-Ke\u015ff an men\u00e2hic\u00fc\u2019ledille kitaplar\u0131nda Tanr\u0131 hakk\u0131nda tak\u0131nd\u0131\u011f\u0131 Hanbeli tav\u0131rd\u0131r. \u0130kincisi asl\u0131nda yukar\u0131da sebep olarak zikredilen burada ise sonu\u00e7 olarak dile getirilebilecek d\u00f6ng\u00fcsel bir \u015feydir. Yani g\u00f6k cisimleri ve \u00e2lemi ezeli olarak kabul etmek Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher denmesine sebep olurken Tanr\u0131\u2019ya cevher denmesi de \u00e2lemin Tanr\u0131\u2019n\u0131n etkisiyle ancak O\u2019ndan ayr\u0131 ve kopuk olarak mevcut olmas\u0131 fikrini sonu\u00e7 vermektedir. \u00dc\u00e7\u00fcnc\u00fcs\u00fc sud\u00fbr ve yoktan yaratma doktrinlerini reddetmesidir. Yoktan yaratmay\u0131 reddi ise -antik filozoflar\u0131n da a\u00e7\u0131k\u00e7a dile getirdi\u011fi \u00fczere- \u201csalt yoklu\u011fun varl\u0131\u011f\u0131n kayna\u011f\u0131 olamayaca\u011f\u0131 \u201c\u015feklindeki genel bir ontolojik ilkeye dayanmaktad\u0131r.\r\n \r\nThis article deals with the relative reasons and consequences of Averroes\u2019 saying God the essence. Thus, based on the example of Averroes, it is desired to show that the philosophers\u2019 conception of God is actually directly related to the subject of metaphysics. The distinctions between potential and actual, being-essence and matter-form, which are thought to have strong forms of explanation, will be applied when needed. According to Averroes, his research of being is basically an investigation of essence. Although the concept of being\/existence does not represent a higher level of being above the substance, it takes place in metaphysics as a higher concept with different meanings. However, according to Ibn Avicenna, the existing meets a higher level of being than the substance, and therefore its inquiry cannot be only the one for substance. Therefore, according to him, the subject of metaphysics is not a substance qua substance. In short, the possible reasons for Averroes to call God essence are as follows: First, God is the most suitable for the definition of essence in all existence. The second is that, keeping other meanings of being in mind, he accepted the concept of \u201cmawj\u016bd\u201d as a mental concept that has no reality in the external world, that is, as a genus, and therefore only recognized the substance as reality. The third is the idea that the celestial bodies move endlessly. The fourth is his view on the relationship between universals and discrete entities and tangible individual essences. Following Aristotle, Averroes thinks that universals and ideas do not contribute to the existence of individual essences. The possible consequences of Averroes\u2019 calling God a substance are as follows: The first is his Hanbal\u012b attitude towards God in his books Fasl al-maq\u0101l and al-Kashf an man\u0101hij al-adilla, which he wrote on the relationship between religion and philosophy. Secondly, what was mentioned above as a cause, is a cyclical thing that can be expressed as a result here. In other words, while accepting the celestial bodies and the universe as eternal, causes God to be called essence, calling God essence results in the idea that the universe exists only apart and disconnected from him under the influence of God. The third is his rejection of the doctrines of creation out of nothing and sud\u016br (emanation). The refusal to create out of nothing is based on a general ontological principle -as the ancient philosophers openly expressed- \u201cabsolute absence cannot be the source of existence\u201d.","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Turkish","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/20.500.11787\/6522","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"}],"authors":[{"id":903,"full_name":"","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5582,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Turkish Academic Research Review","volume":"6","issue":"3","pages":"1035-1052"}},"sort":[2021]}

Philosophy and the Metaphorical Interpretation of Religious Texts in Averroes, Maimonides, and Aquinas, 2019
By: Francisco J. Romero Carrasquillo
Title Philosophy and the Metaphorical Interpretation of Religious Texts in Averroes, Maimonides, and Aquinas
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 627–647
Categories Maimonides, Thomas, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Francisco J. Romero Carrasquillo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law, 2017
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 1–27
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Rhetoric
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article traces a Muslim tradition of natural law in the thought of Ibn Rushd. I argue that this notion of natural law enriches the concept of law and can mediate conflicts of human law and divine law in Islam. I discuss the ontology, then epistemology, of Ibn Rushd’s natural law, then situate the resultant conception of law within Islamic legal and theological contexts.

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El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes, 2015
By: Diego R. Sarrió
Title El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 36
Issue 1
Pages 45–68
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Diego R. Sarrió
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El presente artículo argumenta que por debajo del marco jurídico del Faṣl al-maqāl subyace el deseo de conciliar los requerimientos de la razón con las exigencias de la fe. Averroes basa tal conciliación en la aceptación de una teoría hermenéutica según la cual, la Palabra Divina se dirige a cada ser humano según su capacidad intelectual. Por consiguiente, Averroes no excluye a los sabios del deber religioso de asentir a la verdad revelada. Contrariamente a interpretaciones exageradamente secularizadoras de su racionalismo, el artículo sugiere que Averroes concibió la filosofía en términos cuasi religiosos, como la obra más noble que se puede llevar a cabo en presencia de Dios, cuyo ejercicio convierte a sus practicantes en los legítimos «herederos de los profetas».

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A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes, 2007
By: Thérèse Bonin
Title A Muslim Perspective on Philosophy and Religion: The ‘Decisive Treatise’ of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2007
Journal Peripatetikos
Volume 6
Pages 1-25
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Thérèse Bonin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu, 2021
By: Rafiz Manafov, Adem Akman
Title Akılsal Zorunluluk ve Dinî Meşruiyet Bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün Felsefe Savunusu
Translation The Defense of Philosophy According to Averroes in the Context of Rational Necessity and Religious Legitimacy
Type Article
Language Turkish
Date 2021
Journal Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi
Volume 9 (İDEKTA)
Pages 131-139
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafiz Manafov , Adem Akman
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
İbn Rüşd İslam düşüncesinin akli temellerinin ve felsefi düşüncenin gerilemeye yüz tuttuğu bir dönemin filozofudur. O, felsefi açıdan dinin konumunu gerekli gördüğü kadar, din açısından da felsefenin kaçınılmazlığına inanır. Çalışmamızın özünü ve amacını İbn Rüşd’ün felsefesindeki temel kavram ve düşünceler oluşturmaktadır. Makalede felsefenin İbn Rüşd açısından akli zorunluluk ve dinsel meşruiyeti sorgulanmakta, felsefi ve dini veriler ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Dinsel veriler ve rasyonel gereklilik bağlamında İbn Rüşd’ün felsefe savunusunun özellikleri ortaya konmakta ve önemi vurgulanmaktadır. Averroes is a philosopher of an era in which the rational foundations of Islamic thought weakening, and the philosophical mind was on the verge of decline. He regards the position of religion as possible and necessary in terms of philosophy, he sees philosophical activity necessary in terms of religion. The purpose and essence of our study based on the main principles and defenses of philosophy of Averroes. It discusses the rational necessity and religious legitimacy of philosophy in the context of Averroes’ defense of philosophy. It focuses on importance of philosophy in the eyes of Averroes and how he legitimize philosophy in terms of religion.

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Al-Miklātī, a Twelfth Century Aš’arite Reader of Averroes, 2012
By: Yamina Adouhane, Yamina Adouhane
Title Al-Miklātī, a Twelfth Century Aš’arite Reader of Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 22
Issue 2
Pages 155–197
Categories Proceedings, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, al-Ġazālī
Author(s) Yamina Adouhane , Yamina Adouhane
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The aim of this article is to present a new witness of Averroes' reception in the Muslim world, in the years that immediately followed his death. Indeed Abū al-Ḥağğāğ al-Miklātī (d. 1237) is an Ašʿarite theologian, who was born in Fez. He is the author of a Quintessence of the Intellects in Response to Philosophers on the Science of Principles in which he aims at refuting the Peripatetic philosophers in their own field, using their own weapons. This article will first attempt to draw the portrait of this atypical theologian. It will then focus on showing that al-Miklātī – although he never mentions his name – is a reader of Averroes and in particular, of his Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, of which he makes various and unexpected uses. A close look at these uses will enable us to better define the nature of al-Miklātī's work. More importantly, this article will try to prove that al-Miklātī provides us with a key passage of Averroes' lost treatise On the Prime Mover. At the heart of the Rushdian criticism of Avicenna's “metaphysical” proof, this passage should throw new light on Averroes' precise understanding of this proof.

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Allegorical Interpretation of the Role of Philosophy in the Discourse of Philo and Ibn Rushd, 2012
By: Shuhaimi M. Bin Haji Ishak
Title Allegorical Interpretation of the Role of Philosophy in the Discourse of Philo and Ibn Rushd
Type Article
Language English
Date 2012
Journal Al-Masāq
Volume 24
Issue 3
Pages 253–264
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Shuhaimi M. Bin Haji Ishak
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Instead of dismissing traditional mythology and poetry as heresies, Greek philosophy introduced a methodology of understanding known as allegory. Philo of Alexandria (20 BC-50 AD) was one of the first to employ allegory for understanding religious scriptures whose writings survived in the Christian traditions. In the Arab world, the philosopher Ibn Rushd (520-595/1126-1198) initiated the same method of commentary with his demonstration of the essential harmony between philosophy properly understood and scripture properly interpreted. This essay posits that Greek philosophy laid down a common tool for understanding the scriptures that exist in the Christian and Muslim traditions.

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Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis, 2021
By: Arthur Klik
Title Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averróis
Translation Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes’ Fasl al-maqal
Type Article
Language Portuguese
Date 2021
Journal DoisPontos
Volume 18
Issue 1
Pages 113-132
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Arthur Klik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averróis, se destaca por seu caráter polêmico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jurídico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei islâmica, ao verificar qual é a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cenário em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em questão, o diagnóstico e a solução propostos por Averróis se destacam ao apresentar uma interpretação singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necessário para a saúde da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpretação, na qual três pontos se colocam na consideração da relação entre filosofia e revelação: o (1) asseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manutenção do bem-estar geral junto à (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um intérprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes não filósofos An original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of common welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5560","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5560,"authors_free":[{"id":6454,"entry_id":5560,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Arthur Klik","free_first_name":"Arthur ","free_last_name":"Klik","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averr\u00f3is","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"Religious assent and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019 Fasl al-maqal","main_title":{"title":"Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averr\u00f3is"},"abstract":"O Fasl al-maqal, umas das obras originais de Averr\u00f3is, se destaca por seu car\u00e1ter pol\u00eamico. Sendo redigida como um pronunciamento jur\u00eddico, tem como um de seus objetivos principais analisar o estatuto da filosofia em face da Lei isl\u00e2mica, ao verificar qual \u00e9 a atitude que deve ser adotada por todo aquele que travar contato com as obras da antiguidade grega. Em um cen\u00e1rio em que a legitimidade da filosofia se coloca em quest\u00e3o, o diagn\u00f3stico e a solu\u00e7\u00e3o propostos por Averr\u00f3is se destacam ao apresentar uma interpreta\u00e7\u00e3o singular da Lei ante a filosofia, concebendo a segunda como um elemento necess\u00e1rio para a sa\u00fade da comunidade. Este artigo pretende analisar essa interpreta\u00e7\u00e3o, na qual tr\u00eas pontos se colocam na considera\u00e7\u00e3o da rela\u00e7\u00e3o entre filosofia e revela\u00e7\u00e3o: o (1) \r\nasseguramento da possibilidade do assentimento religioso individual e (2) da manuten\u00e7\u00e3o do bem-estar geral junto \u00e0 (3) possibilidade de se afirmar a legitimidade de um int\u00e9rprete que garanta o assentimento correto aos crentes n\u00e3o fil\u00f3sofos \r\n\r\nAn original work of Averroes, the Fasl al-maqal is remarked by its controversial character. Composed as a juridical statement, one of its main goals is to analyze the role of philosophy in Islamic Law determining which attitude must be adopted by those aware of the works of Greek antiquity. Facing a problematic scenario in which the legitimacy of philosophy is putted in question, the diagnosis and solution proposed by Averroes emphasizes a unique interpretation of the Law guided by Philosophy devised as a required element to achieve community welfare. This article intends to analyze that interpretation in which three points arise about the relationship between philosophy and revelation: (1) the insurance of the individual possibility of religious assent; (2) the endurance of \r\ncommon welfare, both associated to (3) the possibility of assert the legitimacy of an interpreter able to assure the correct assent to common believers","btype":3,"date":"2021","language":"Portuguese","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5560,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"DoisPontos","volume":"18","issue":"1","pages":"113-132"}},"sort":["Assentimento religioso e Filosofia no Fasl al-maqal de Averr\u00f3is"]}

Averroes y su uso de aleyas coránicas, 2013
By: Josep Puig Montada
Title Averroes y su uso de aleyas coránicas
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2013
Journal SVMMA, Revista de Cultures Medievals
Volume 1
Issue 1
Pages 12-22
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Josep Puig Montada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El artículo considera el uso que hace Averroes de las citas coránicas en sus obras, y establece diferentes categorías. En la primera se encuentra su obra teológica cuyo título se puede traducir como Los métodos de las pruebas en las doctrinas de la religión, donde las aleyas son la base de estas doctrinas. A la segunda pertenece su comentario medio a la Retórica donde el Corán es citado por ser un modelo literario. La tercera situación es ante todo la de su obra “Tratado definitivo”, la cual tiene forma de dictamen jurídico (fatwâ). La última situación es la de obras filosóficas donde Averroes cita aleyas coránicas para su interpretación de Aristóteles. The article considers how Averroes makes use of Quranic verses in his works and classifies them into different categories. His theological treatise, that can be translated as Disclosure of the Proof Methods Concerning the Principles of Religion, based on Quranic verses, belongs to the first category. Averroes middle commentary on the Aristotelian Rhetoric belongs to the second, in which the Qur’an is quoted as a literary paradigm. In the third category we find his ‘Definitive Treatise’, written in the form of a fatwā or legal response. His philosophical works belong to the last category, in which Averroes makes use of Quranic verses to buttress his interpretation of Aristotle.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5593","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5593,"authors_free":[{"id":6492,"entry_id":5593,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":343,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Josep Puig Montada","free_first_name":"Josep Puig ","free_last_name":" Montada","norm_person":{"id":343,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Josep Puig Montada","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/188325034","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/61625512","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Josep Puig Montada"}}],"entry_title":"Averroes y su uso de aleyas cor\u00e1nicas","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes y su uso de aleyas cor\u00e1nicas"},"abstract":"El art\u00edculo considera el uso que hace Averroes de las citas cor\u00e1nicas en sus obras, y establece diferentes categor\u00edas. En la primera se encuentra su obra teol\u00f3gica cuyo t\u00edtulo se puede traducir como Los m\u00e9todos de las pruebas en las doctrinas de la religi\u00f3n, donde las aleyas son la base de estas doctrinas. A la segunda pertenece su comentario medio a la Ret\u00f3rica donde el Cor\u00e1n es citado por ser un modelo literario. La tercera situaci\u00f3n es ante todo la de su obra \u201cTratado definitivo\u201d, la cual tiene forma de dictamen jur\u00eddico (fatw\u00e2). La \u00faltima situaci\u00f3n es la de obras filos\u00f3ficas donde Averroes cita aleyas cor\u00e1nicas para su interpretaci\u00f3n de Arist\u00f3teles.\r\n\r\nThe article considers how Averroes makes use of Quranic verses in his works and classifies them into different categories. His theological treatise, that can be translated as Disclosure of the Proof Methods Concerning the Principles of Religion, based on Quranic verses, belongs to the first category. Averroes middle commentary on the Aristotelian Rhetoric belongs to the second, in which the Qur\u2019an is quoted as a literary paradigm. In the third category we find his \u2018Definitive Treatise\u2019, written in the form of a fatw\u0101 or legal response. His philosophical works belong to the last category, in which Averroes makes use of Quranic verses to buttress his interpretation of Aristotle.","btype":3,"date":"2013","language":"Spanish","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":343,"full_name":"Josep Puig Montada","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5593,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"SVMMA, Revista de Cultures Medievals","volume":"1","issue":"1","pages":"12-22"}},"sort":["Averroes y su uso de aleyas cor\u00e1nicas"]}

Averroes: Explicación aristotélica del Universo, 2008
By: Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Title Averroes: Explicación aristotélica del Universo
Translation Averroes: Aristotelian explanation on the Universe
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2008
Journal Filosofia Unisionos
Volume 9
Issue 1
Pages 25–42
Categories Natural Philosophy, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rafael Ramón Guerrero
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper aims at studying the original way Averroes explains the universe and answering the new problematic on reveled truth and reason. Averroes formulation must not be considered as “the” Islamic philosophy of nature, but as one among many different philosophies of nature formulated by Muslims philosophers.

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AverroesのDestructio Destructionum におけるPhysicaについて, 1972
By: Chisato Tanaka
Title AverroesのDestructio Destructionum におけるPhysicaについて
Transcription Averroes no Destructio Destructionum ni okeru Physica ni tsuite
Translation About the Physica in Averroes' Destructio Destructionum
Type Article
Language Japanese
Date 1972
Journal Chūsei Shisō Kenkyū
Volume 14
Pages 86–95
Categories al-Ġazālī, Physics, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Chisato Tanaka
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr, 2021
By: Saja Parvizian
Title Averroës' Takfir of al-Ghazālī: Ta'wīl and Causal Kufr
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal American journal of Islam and society
Volume 38
Issue 1/2
Pages 60-92
Categories al-Ġazālī, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology
Author(s) Saja Parvizian
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Ghazālı̄ famously claims in the Incoherence of the Philosophers that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are unbelievers because they hold philosophical positions that conflict with Islam. What is less well-known, however, is that Averroës claims in the Decisive Treatise that al-Fārābī and Avicenna are not unbelievers; rather, al-Ghazālı̄ is the true unbeliever for writing the Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this paper, my aim is to present a sustained reconstruction of Averroës’ legal and philosophical argument for why al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever. The crux of Averroës’ argument is that al-Ghazālı̄ has expressed false allegorical interpretations of scripture to unqualified persons, which has caused them to fall into unbelief. By being causally responsible for other people’s unbelief, al-Ghazālı̄ is an unbeliever as well.

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El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes, 2015
By: Diego R. Sarrió
Title El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 36
Issue 1
Pages 45–68
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Diego R. Sarrió
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El presente artículo argumenta que por debajo del marco jurídico del Faṣl al-maqāl subyace el deseo de conciliar los requerimientos de la razón con las exigencias de la fe. Averroes basa tal conciliación en la aceptación de una teoría hermenéutica según la cual, la Palabra Divina se dirige a cada ser humano según su capacidad intelectual. Por consiguiente, Averroes no excluye a los sabios del deber religioso de asentir a la verdad revelada. Contrariamente a interpretaciones exageradamente secularizadoras de su racionalismo, el artículo sugiere que Averroes concibió la filosofía en términos cuasi religiosos, como la obra más noble que se puede llevar a cabo en presencia de Dios, cuyo ejercicio convierte a sus practicantes en los legítimos «herederos de los profetas».

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