Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 19–39
Categories al-Fārābī, Galen, Aristotle, Plato, Politics, Commentary
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments. The importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27–30, 23.31–33, cf. 47.29–30and 105.25–27). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25–27, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: “Before we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning” (CR 22.6–8). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22–24.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi—mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war—for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.

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With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments.\r\n\r\nThe importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27\u201330, 23.31\u201333, cf. 47.29\u201330and 105.25\u201327). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25\u201327, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: \u201cBefore we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning\u201d (CR 22.6\u20138). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22\u201324.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi\u2014mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war\u2014for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.002","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5347,"section_of":5346,"pages":"19\u201339","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”, 2019
By: Jaan S. Islam
Title The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 43–65
Categories Politics, Law, Commentary, Plato
Author(s) Jaan S. Islam
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is an analysis of the political thought of Ibn Rushd and its significance for the current conflict in Islamic political thought between liberal, secular and conservative Islamist thinkers over the meaning of the “virtuous society” and how it can be implemented. It is argued that the thought of Ibn Rushd offers a concept of the virtuous society that reconciles secular law and religious Sharī‘a law. The article analyzes Ibn Rushd’s Commentary on Plato’s Republic, and assesses it as potentially being able to reconcile the philosophical conflict between logically discerned law and revealed law. It is contended that the separation between “religious” and “political” (i.e., philosophical) domains often attributed to Ibn Rushd does not fully consider the entirety of Ibn Rushd’s writings and interprets his works without regard for their historical and religious contextual significance.

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Commentario sobre a “República”. A partir da versão Latina de Elia del Medigo, 2015
By: Anna Lia A. de Almeida Prado (Ed.), Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira (Ed.)
Title Commentario sobre a “República”. A partir da versão Latina de Elia del Medigo
Type Monograph
Language Portuguese
Date 2015
Publication Place Sao Paulo
Publisher Perspectiva
Categories Plato, Politics, Commentary, Transmission
Author(s) Anna Lia A. de Almeida Prado , Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic, 2015
By: Muhsin Mahdi
Title Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Political Philosophy and Philosophy of History: Proceedings of the Colloquium dedicated to Muhsin Mahdi
Pages 27–42
Categories Commentary, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Muhsin Mahdi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Wisdom and Power in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic, 2015
By: Christopher Colmo
Title Wisdom and Power in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal The Maghreb Review
Volume 40
Issue 3
Pages 308–318
Categories Commentary, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Christopher Colmo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“, 2013
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Dialogues on Plato's Politeia (Republic): selected papers from the Ninth Symposium Platonicum
Pages 371–376
Categories Politics, Plato, Commentary
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic, 2015
By: Muhsin Mahdi
Title Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Political Philosophy and Philosophy of History: Proceedings of the Colloquium dedicated to Muhsin Mahdi
Pages 27–42
Categories Commentary, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Muhsin Mahdi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Commentario sobre a “República”. A partir da versão Latina de Elia del Medigo, 2015
By: Anna Lia A. de Almeida Prado (Ed.), Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira (Ed.)
Title Commentario sobre a “República”. A partir da versão Latina de Elia del Medigo
Type Monograph
Language Portuguese
Date 2015
Publication Place Sao Paulo
Publisher Perspectiva
Categories Plato, Politics, Commentary, Transmission
Author(s) Anna Lia A. de Almeida Prado , Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 19–39
Categories al-Fārābī, Galen, Aristotle, Plato, Politics, Commentary
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments. The importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27–30, 23.31–33, cf. 47.29–30and 105.25–27). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25–27, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: “Before we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning” (CR 22.6–8). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22–24.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi—mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war—for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.

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With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments.\r\n\r\nThe importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27\u201330, 23.31\u201333, cf. 47.29\u201330and 105.25\u201327). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25\u201327, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: \u201cBefore we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning\u201d (CR 22.6\u20138). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22\u201324.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi\u2014mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war\u2014for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.002","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5347,"section_of":5346,"pages":"19\u201339","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. 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The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”, 2019
By: Jaan S. Islam
Title The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 43–65
Categories Politics, Law, Commentary, Plato
Author(s) Jaan S. Islam
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is an analysis of the political thought of Ibn Rushd and its significance for the current conflict in Islamic political thought between liberal, secular and conservative Islamist thinkers over the meaning of the “virtuous society” and how it can be implemented. It is argued that the thought of Ibn Rushd offers a concept of the virtuous society that reconciles secular law and religious Sharī‘a law. The article analyzes Ibn Rushd’s Commentary on Plato’s Republic, and assesses it as potentially being able to reconcile the philosophical conflict between logically discerned law and revealed law. It is contended that the separation between “religious” and “political” (i.e., philosophical) domains often attributed to Ibn Rushd does not fully consider the entirety of Ibn Rushd’s writings and interprets his works without regard for their historical and religious contextual significance.

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The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“, 2013
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Dialogues on Plato's Politeia (Republic): selected papers from the Ninth Symposium Platonicum
Pages 371–376
Categories Politics, Plato, Commentary
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Wisdom and Power in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic, 2015
By: Christopher Colmo
Title Wisdom and Power in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal The Maghreb Review
Volume 40
Issue 3
Pages 308–318
Categories Commentary, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Christopher Colmo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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