Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique, 2022
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Oxford
Publisher Oxford University Press
Categories Aristotle, Thomas, Avicenna, De anima, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This book on the Muslim philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) provides a detailed analysis of his (in)famous unicity thesis—the view that there is only one separate and eternal intellect for all human beings. It focuses directly on Averroes’ arguments, both from the text of Aristotle’s De Anima and, more importantly, his own philosophical arguments in the Long Commentary on the De Anima. Ogden defends Averroes’ interpretation of Aristotle’s DA III.4–5 (using Greek, Arabic, Latin, and contemporary sources). Yet, the author insists that Averroes is not merely a “commentator” but also an incisive philosopher in his own right. Ogden thus reconstructs and analyzes Averroes’ two most significant independent philosophical arguments, the Determinate Particular Argument and the Unity Argument. Alternative ancient and medieval views are considered throughout, especially from two important foils before and after Averroes, namely Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas’s most famous and penetrating arguments against the unicity thesis are also addressed. Finally, Ogden considers Averroes’ own objections to broader metaphysical views of the soul such as Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s, which agree with him on several key points (e.g., the immateriality of the intellect and the individuation of human souls by matter), while still diverging on the number and substantial nature of the intellect. The central aim of the book is to provide readers a single study of Averroes’ most pivotal arguments on intellect, consolidating and building on recent scholarship and offering a comprehensive case for his unicity thesis in the wider context of Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics.

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De la faculté rationnelle: l’original arabe du Grand Commentaire (Sharh) d’Averroès au De anima d’Aristote (III, 4-5, 429a10-432a14), 2021
By: Colette Sirat, Marc Geoffroy, Averroes
Title De la faculté rationnelle: l’original arabe du Grand Commentaire (Sharh) d’Averroès au De anima d’Aristote (III, 4-5, 429a10-432a14)
Type Monograph
Language French
Date 2021
Publication Place Rome
Publisher Aracne
Series Flumen Sapientiae
Volume 15
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Colette Sirat , Marc Geoffroy , Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Depuis le Moyen Âge, le Grand Commentaire d’Averroès au De anima d’Aristote n’était connu des philosophes occidentaux que dans sa version latine, datant du XIIIe siècle. Des gloses en arabe dictées à des élèves philosophes juifs et espagnols au XVe siècle, ont été transcrites en caractères hébraïques et conservées dans un manuscrit de la Bibliothèque Estense de Modène. Le texte de ces gloses n’est pas identique à l’original arabe traduit en latin, mais elles portent témoignage de versions multiples et différentes. L’édition de la partie du Commentaire traitant de l’intellect est proposée ici.

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Memory and Recollection in the Aristotelian Tradition. Essays on the Reception of Aristotle’s De memoria et reminiscentia, 2021
By: Véronique Decaix (Ed.), Christina Thomsen Thörnqvist (Ed.)
Title Memory and Recollection in the Aristotelian Tradition. Essays on the Reception of Aristotle’s De memoria et reminiscentia
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2021
Publication Place Turnhout
Publisher Brepols
Series Studia artistarum
Volume 47
Categories De anima, Commentary, Aristotle, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Véronique Decaix , Christina Thomsen Thörnqvist
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Aristotle’s De memoria et reminiscentia (“On Memory and Recollection”) is the oldest surviving systematic study of the nature of human memory. Forming part of Aristotle’s other minor writings on psychology that were intended as a supplement to his De anima (“On the Soul”) and known under the collective title Parva naturalia, Aristotle’s De memoria et reminiscentia gave rise to a vast number of commentaries in the Middle Ages. The present volume offers new knowledge on the medieval understanding of Aristotle’s theories on memory and recollection across the linguistic traditions including the Byzantine Greek, Latin and Arabic reception.

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Sources et origines de la théorie de l’intellect d’Averroès (II), 2021
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title Sources et origines de la théorie de l’intellect d’Averroès (II)
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 135–232
Categories Psychology, Tradition and Reception, Influence, De anima
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Cette contribution constitue la deuxième partie de la publication, avec quelques mises à jour et aménagements, d’une thèse de doctorat soutenue sous le même intitulé à l’École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris, en décembre 2009 et dont la première partie a été publiée dans les MUSJ 66 (2015-2016). L’auteur entend, selon une perspective strictement historique, déterminer les sources sur lesquelles s’est appuyé, entre les années cinquante et soixante du xiie siècle (première période de son travail philosophique), Averroès (Ibn Rušd, m. 1198) pour concevoir sa théorie de l’âme et de l’intellect, en référence aux sources péripatéticiennes auxquelles il pouvait avoir accès de son temps. Pour celui qui vaut dans la tradition philosophique comme le « Commentateur » d’Aristote par excellence, il peut paraître étonnant qu’Averroès n’ait eu d’emblée accès qu’à des sources indirectes relatives à la théorie de l’âme du Stagirite, mais ce fut pourtant le cas, comme l’auteur le montre ici. On voit en effet que la doctrine de l’âme exposée par Averroès est essentiellement structurée par l’enseignement d’Alexandre d’Aphrodise et par son De anima. L’aristotélisme d’Averroès apparaît de ce point de vue comme un aristotélisme sans Aristote, et ceci allait refluer de manière décisive sur l’exégèse d’Averroès une fois qu’il se serait emparé de l’écrit du Stagirite, notamment et surtout pour expliquer les chapitres 4 et 5 du livre III du De anima (sur l’intellect en puissance et l’intellect agent).

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La position de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès dans son Commentaire sur le De anima, 2021
By: Jules Janssens
Title La position de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès dans son Commentaire sur le De anima
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 105–135
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Jules Janssens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Dans son commentaire sur le De anima d’Aristote Zabarella fait un usage non négligeable du Grand Commentaire sur le même ouvrage d’Averroès, le grand penseur andalou. On a pris l’habitude de considérer que Zabarella n’a pas pu finaliser son commentaire, étant donné qu’il fut publié à titre posthume. Il s’agirait donc d’un ouvrage incomplet. Toutefois, si on tient compte du fait que Zabarella s’intéresse avant tout, voire presque exclusivement, à l’étude de l’âme humaine, tout indique qu’il a consciemment choisi de ne pas commenter certains chapitres de l’ouvrage du Stagirite. Quant à l’impact d’Averroès sur la doctrine de l’âme exposée par Zabarella, elle a été diversement évaluée dans la recherche contemporaine, mais dans l’ensemble on y perçoit une attitude fortement critique du dernier envers le premier. Il est nécessaire de nuancer ce jugement. En effet, sur la base de trois fragments, répartis sur les trois livres, la présente recherche met en lumière qu’Averroès est considéré par Zabarella comme une vraie autorité, « auctoritas » ; que Zabarella souscrit parfois pleinement à l’interprétation du maître arabe ; et, enfin, que Zabarella explique certaines explications « erronées » de ce dernier comme l’effet inévitable de la traduction fautive du texte aristotélicien dont Averroès disposait. En somme, l’attitude de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès s’avère complexe, évitant aussi bien l’excès d’un rejet total que celui d’une acceptation aveugle.

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Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante, 2019
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale, II. La ricezione del Commento grande al De anima di Ibn Rushd nelle Quaestiones in tertium de anima di Sigieri di Brabante
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2019
Journal Dianoia
Volume 28
Pages 81–94
Categories Siger of Brabant, De anima
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Siger of Brabant sketches in his Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1269) a noetic theory defending the unity of the intellect that is usually considered as a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the separateness of the material intellect as put forth in the Long Commentary on the De anima (ca. 1186). A closer look at key texts in both the Quaestiones and the Long Commentary will give us a quite different picture: while Siger works out his theory on the background of a dualistic anthropology that takes the union between the intellective soul (conceived as an hoc aliquid) and the human body to be only operational, Ibn Rušd (who develops his theory starting from strictly aristotelic epistemological premises) repeatedly stresses throughout the Long Commentary that, if man is an agent of thought, the union between the separate intellects and the thinking individual ought to be always hylomorphic. This paper aims at showing that, although Siger has often been identified as an averroist, his psychology is certainly not rushdian.

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Descartes l’arabe. Averroès jusque dans la querelle d’Utrecht, 2019
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Descartes l’arabe. Averroès jusque dans la querelle d’Utrecht
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2019
Published in La philosophie arabe à l’étude. Sens, limites et défis d’une discipline moderne. Studying Arabic Philosophy: Meaning, Limits and Challenges of a Modern Discipline
Pages 491–518
Categories Tradition and Reception, Latin Averroism, De anima
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Multitude et bene esse chez Averroès et Dante. Retour sur la Monarchie I,3, 2019
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Multitude et bene esse chez Averroès et Dante. Retour sur la Monarchie I,3
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2019
Published in Dante et l’averroïsme
Pages 357–383
Categories Metaphysics, De anima, Politics, Aristotle, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on Knowing Essences, 2019
By: David Wirmer
Title Averroes on Knowing Essences
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 116–137
Categories De anima, Commentary
Author(s) David Wirmer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of Averroes' commentaries on Aristotle's De Anima, which explores the mechanism by which the human mind grasps the essences of things. It is shown that, in response to his fellow Andalusian philosopher Ibn Bajja, Averroes understands intellection to involve a reflexive activity whereby the mind grasps itself as a possessor of concepts. This allows him to avoid reifying intelligibles as mind-independent objects of thought.

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Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Sujet Libre. Pour Alain de Libera
Pages 321–325
Categories Tradition and Reception, Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averroès sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote, 2006
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title 'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averroès sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2006
Published in Écriture et réécriture des textes philosophiques médiévaux. Volume d'hommage offert à Colette Sirat
Pages 137–184
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"777","_score":null,"_source":{"id":777,"authors_free":[{"id":940,"entry_id":777,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":955,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Marc Geoffroy","free_first_name":"Marc","free_last_name":"Geoffroy","norm_person":{"id":955,"first_name":"Marc","last_name":"Geoffroy","full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/174155514","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/7482512","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Marc Geoffroy"}}],"entry_title":"'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averro\u00e8s sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averro\u00e8s sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2006","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":12,"category_name":"Psychology","link":"bib?categories[]=Psychology"},{"id":46,"category_name":"De anima","link":"bib?categories[]=De anima"}],"authors":[{"id":955,"full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":777,"section_of":48,"pages":"137\u2013184","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":48,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"\u00c9criture et r\u00e9\u00e9criture des textes philosophiques m\u00e9di\u00e9vaux. Volume d'hommage offert \u00e0 Colette Sirat","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2006","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2006","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":48,"pubplace":"Turnhout","publisher":"Brepols","series":"Textes et \u00e9tudes du moyen \u00e2ge","volume":"34","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["'Passio', 'transmutatio', 'receptio'. 'Averro\u00e8s sur l'analogie de l'intellect et du sens dans le(s) commentaire(s) au De anima d'Aristote"]}

A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi, 2015
By: Davoud Zandi
Title A Comparative Study of the Relationship between the Material and the Active Intellect from the Perspective of Averroes and Al-Farabi
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Journal of Islamic Studies and Culture
Volume 3
Issue 2
Pages 39-41
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Davoud Zandi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The relationship between the material intellect and the active intellect is an important issue in the realm of epistemology in Islamic philosophy. The aim of the present study is to compare the views of Averroes and Al-Farabi in this regard. Reviewing their theories, this study shows that both the mentioned philosophers agree upon the fact that the Active Intellect exists apart from human soul and acts as a creator of forms, but as for the relationship between the Material Intellect and the Active Intellect, there is disagreement between Averroes and Al-Farabi. Averroes believes that in some aspects both of them are the same yet they are different in some other aspects, namely regarding their acts they are different because the active intellect acts as creator of forms while the material intellect is just receiver of the forms. Nevertheless, they are the same, since the material intellect achieves perfection through the active intellect, whereas in Al-Farabi’s opinion, ontologically speaking; the material intellect and the active intellect are different in their existence. The material intellect in al-Farabi’s perspective is one of the stages of human intellect that is inherent in human soul, whereas the active intellect is an immaterial substance that exists apart from human soul.

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Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Abstraction and Intellection in Averroes and the Arabic Tradition: Remarks on Averroes, Long Commentary on the De anima, Book 3, Comment 36
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Sujet Libre. Pour Alain de Libera
Pages 321–325
Categories Tradition and Reception, Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Acquisition de la pensée et acquisition de l'acte chez Averroès. Une lecture croisée du Grand Commentaire au De anima et du Kitāb al-Kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla, 2013
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Acquisition de la pensée et acquisition de l'acte chez Averroès. Une lecture croisée du Grand Commentaire au De anima et du Kitāb al-Kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2013
Published in Philosophical Psychology in Arabic Thought and the Latin Aristotelianism of the 13th Century
Pages 111–139
Categories De anima, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Agent Sense in Averroes and Latin Averroism, 2014
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Agent Sense in Averroes and Latin Averroism
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2014
Published in Active Perception in the History of Philosophy. From Plato to Modern Philosophy
Pages 147–166
Categories De anima, Aristotle, Latin Averroism
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The scholastic tradition calls “agent sense” (sensus agens) the equivalent, in the order of the sensible, of what the agent intellect is in the order of the intelligible. If we are to “produce” the intelligible form from images, then is it not necessary, at a lower level, to also produce the sensible form from singular things? We shall first study here the occurrence of this question with Averroes, for whom it seems we have to posit the existence of an extrinsic motor that will grant the sensible the spiritual mode of being required by sensation; then, on this topic, we consider Averroes’ legacy in what is commonly referred to as “latin averroism”, and specifically with John of Jandun, who interprets, rather than repeating, the Commentator.

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Aquinas and 'the Arabs'. Aquinas's First Critical Encounter with the Doctrines of Avicenna and Averroes on the Intellect, In 2 Sent. d. 17,q. 2,a. 1, 2013
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Aquinas and 'the Arabs'. Aquinas's First Critical Encounter with the Doctrines of Avicenna and Averroes on the Intellect, In 2 Sent. d. 17,q. 2,a. 1
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2013
Published in Philosophical Psychology in Arabic Thought and the Latin Aristotelianism of the 13th Century
Pages 141–183
Categories De anima
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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As it is, it is an Ax. Some Medieval Reflections on De anima II.1, 1997
By: Mary Sirridge
Title As it is, it is an Ax. Some Medieval Reflections on De anima II.1
Type Article
Language English
Date 1997
Journal Medieval Philosophy and Theology
Volume 6
Issue 1
Pages 1–24
Categories Psychology, De anima
Author(s) Mary Sirridge
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on Knowing Essences, 2019
By: David Wirmer
Title Averroes on Knowing Essences
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 116–137
Categories De anima, Commentary
Author(s) David Wirmer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of Averroes' commentaries on Aristotle's De Anima, which explores the mechanism by which the human mind grasps the essences of things. It is shown that, in response to his fellow Andalusian philosopher Ibn Bajja, Averroes understands intellection to involve a reflexive activity whereby the mind grasps itself as a possessor of concepts. This allows him to avoid reifying intelligibles as mind-independent objects of thought.

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Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique, 2022
By: Stephen R. Ogden
Title Averroes on intellect: from Aristotelian origins to Aquinas' critique
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2022
Publication Place Oxford
Publisher Oxford University Press
Categories Aristotle, Thomas, Avicenna, De anima, Metaphysics
Author(s) Stephen R. Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This book on the Muslim philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) provides a detailed analysis of his (in)famous unicity thesis—the view that there is only one separate and eternal intellect for all human beings. It focuses directly on Averroes’ arguments, both from the text of Aristotle’s De Anima and, more importantly, his own philosophical arguments in the Long Commentary on the De Anima. Ogden defends Averroes’ interpretation of Aristotle’s DA III.4–5 (using Greek, Arabic, Latin, and contemporary sources). Yet, the author insists that Averroes is not merely a “commentator” but also an incisive philosopher in his own right. Ogden thus reconstructs and analyzes Averroes’ two most significant independent philosophical arguments, the Determinate Particular Argument and the Unity Argument. Alternative ancient and medieval views are considered throughout, especially from two important foils before and after Averroes, namely Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas’s most famous and penetrating arguments against the unicity thesis are also addressed. Finally, Ogden considers Averroes’ own objections to broader metaphysical views of the soul such as Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s, which agree with him on several key points (e.g., the immateriality of the intellect and the individuation of human souls by matter), while still diverging on the number and substantial nature of the intellect. The central aim of the book is to provide readers a single study of Averroes’ most pivotal arguments on intellect, consolidating and building on recent scholarship and offering a comprehensive case for his unicity thesis in the wider context of Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics.

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Averroes on the Attainment of Knowledge, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes on the Attainment of Knowledge
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Knowledge in Medieval Philosophy
Pages 59–80
Categories Commentary, De anima, Albert, Thomas, Aristotle
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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