La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa, 2022
By: Meryem Sebti
Title La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2022
Published in The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding
Pages 327–347
Categories Theology, Epistemology, Cosmology, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Meryem Sebti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called falāsifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ashʿarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all falāsifa: Al-Kindī (after 870), Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (864–925), al-Fārābī (d. 950), Avicenna (980–1037), Ibn Bājja (around 1138), Ibn Ṭufayl (1110–1185) and Averroes (1126–1198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it – for some of them – into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.

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The approach by the latter, called fal\u0101sifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ash\u02bfarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all fal\u0101sifa: Al-Kind\u012b (after 870), Ab\u016b Bakr al-R\u0101z\u012b (864\u2013925), al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b (d. 950), Avicenna (980\u20131037), Ibn B\u0101jja (around 1138), Ibn \u1e6cufayl (1110\u20131185) and Averroes (1126\u20131198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it \u2013 for some of them \u2013 into a complex emanative cosmology. 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La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?, 2021
By: Mounia Aît Kabboura
Title La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de théologie
Volume 73
Issue 1-2
Pages 177-196
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Mounia Aît Kabboura
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maqâl' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tahâfut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)

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مدخل لقطيعة ابستمولوجية مع الفكر الرشدي: دراسة تحليلية للمحتوى المعرفي والمضمون الإيديولوجي في الفلسفة العربية الإسلامية, 2020
By: Bouazza Sahel
Title مدخل لقطيعة ابستمولوجية مع الفكر الرشدي: دراسة تحليلية للمحتوى المعرفي والمضمون الإيديولوجي في الفلسفة العربية الإسلامية
Transcription Madkhal li-qaṭī'h ibistumūlūjīyyah m' al-fikr al-Rushdy: dirāsah taḥlīlīyyah li-l-muḥtūa al-mu'rify wa al-maḍmūn al-īdīūlūjy fi al-falsafah al-arabiyya al-ilslamiyya
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2020
Publication Place Kenitra
Publisher dār al-Qarawīyīn
Categories Epistemology, Surveys
Author(s) Bouazza Sahel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century, 2015
By: Ali Ghorbani, Fath ali Akbari
Title A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century
Type Article
Language Persian
Date 2015
Journal Comparative Theology
Volume 5
Issue 12
Pages 69-84
Categories Epistemology, Averroism, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Ali Ghorbani , Fath ali Akbari
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

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Razones y argumentos: Una relectura del "faṣl al-maqāl" de Averroes, 2014
By: Luis Xavier López-Farjeat
Title Razones y argumentos: Una relectura del "faṣl al-maqāl" de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2014
Journal Estudios de Asia y Africa
Volume 49
Issue Nr. 1 (153)
Pages 99-133
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Luis Xavier López-Farjeat
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Un tema controvertido en el pensamiento de Averroes es la relación entre filosofía y religión. Averroes se ocupa de ella de manera sumamente original en el Faṣl al-maqāl. En este artículo propondré una ruta de interpretación ligeramente distinta de la que otros intérpretes de este tratado han aportado. Sostendré que puede ser leído como un tratado de argumentación donde Averroes se ocupa no únicamente de mostrar la armonía entre la ley religiosa y la filosofía, sino también de esbozar una teoría de la argumentación sumamente flexible que le sirve para definir el estatuto epistémico de las creencias religiosas. A controversial matter in Averroes' thought is the relationship between philosophy and religion. Averroes deals with this issue in an original fashion within the text of Faṣl al-maqāl. In this paper I propose a slightly different interpretation from that of other interpreters of this treatise. I argue that it can be read as a treatise on argumentation where Averroes not only proves the harmony between religious law and philosophy, but also outlines an extremely flexible theory of argumentation which serves to define the epistemic status of religious beliefs.

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Die ‘inneren Sinne’ im Liber Contemplationis, 2011
By: Nadja Germann
Title Die ‘inneren Sinne’ im Liber Contemplationis
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2011
Published in n Gottes Schau und Weltbetrachtung. Interpretationen zum “Liber contemplationis” des Raimundus Lullus
Pages 239-269
Categories Tradition and Reception, Epistemology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Nadja Germann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Die Lehre von den fünf inneren Sinnen spielt eine bedeutende Rolle in Ramon Llulls Liber contemplationis, wie schon ihre Position buchstäblich im Zentrum dieser Schrift erkennen lässt. Welches Konzept aber besitzt Llull von den inneren Sinnen? Welche Traditionen haben sein Denken beeinflusst? Oder liegt uns hier lediglich ein weiteres Beispiel für seine intellektuelle Eigenständigkeit und zugleich Fremdartigkeit vor dem Hintergrund seines geschichtlichen Umfeldes vor? Angesichts dieser Problematik besteht das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags darin, die wesentlichen Charakteristika der llullschen Lehre von den inneren Sinnen herauszuarbeiten und im Lichte der zu seiner Zeit gängigen Traditionen zu erörtern. Hierzu ist zum einen auf die Theorie der inneren Sinne einzugehen, die der arabisch-peripatetischen Philosophie entstammt und seit dem späten 12. Jahrhundert im lateinischen Westen rezipiert wurde. Zum anderen ist die Lehre von den geistigen Sinnen ins Auge zu fassen, die im lateinischen Westen seit der Patristik präsent ist und gerade in der Zeit Llulls große Prominenz in der Theologie besaß. Wie anhand von zwei Fallbeispielen – den inneren Sinnen der conscientia und der subtilitas – verdeutlicht wird, steht Llulls Auffassung trotz ihrer Eigentümlichkeit nicht einfach nur unvereinbar quer zum akademischen Diskurs; vielmehr zeichnet sie sich durch ihre originelle Verknüpfung verschiedenster teils traditioneller, teils aktueller, teils philosophischer, teils theologischer Elemente aus. Bei allem Eklektizismus erweist sich dabei Llulls Konzept der Kontemplation, des Leitthemas seines Buches, als das einheitsstiftende Moment: Nichts Geringeres als ihre ‚Anatomie‘ steht mit den fünf inneren Sinnen zur Debatte und rechtfertigt somit auf inhaltlicher Ebene die formale Zentralstellung dieser Thematik im Liber contemplationis. That the doctrine of the five internal senses plays an important role in Ramon Llull’s Liber contemplationis is already evident from the position it occupies, literally at the centre of the book; but what is Llull’s concept of the internal senses? Which traditions influenced his thought? Or is this merely another example of his intellectual independence and, at the same time, his eccentricity with respect to his historical environment? With this problematic in mind, the goal of the present contribution is to analyze the essential features of Llull’s doctrine of the internal senses and to discuss them against the background of the prevailing theories of his time. In this connection, it will first address the theory of the internal senses, which stemmed from Arabic-Peripatetic philosophy and was known in the Latin West from the late twelfth century onwards. It will focus secondly on the doctrine of the spiritual senses, which had been present in the Latin West since the Patristic period and gained particular significance in the theology of Llull’s time. As will be shown through two case studies (of the internal senses of conscientia and subtilitas), despite its uniqueness, Llull’s view was not simply irreconcilable with contemporary academic discourse; it is rather distinguished by its original way of bringing together the most disparate elements, partly traditional, partly current, partly philosophical, partly theological. Thus, regardless of its eclecticism, Llull’s concept of contemplation – the main theme of his book – constitutes also its unifying moment: nothing less than its ‘anatomy’ is under debate in his discussion of the five internal senses, which moreover explains, on the level of content, the formal centrality of this thematic in the Liber contemplationis.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5342","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5342,"authors_free":[{"id":6192,"entry_id":5342,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Nadja Germann","free_first_name":"Nadja","free_last_name":"Germann","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Die \u2018inneren Sinne\u2019 im Liber Contemplationis","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Die \u2018inneren Sinne\u2019 im Liber Contemplationis"},"abstract":"Die Lehre von den f\u00fcnf inneren Sinnen spielt eine bedeutende Rolle in Ramon Llulls Liber contemplationis, wie schon ihre Position buchst\u00e4blich im Zentrum dieser Schrift erkennen l\u00e4sst. Welches Konzept aber besitzt Llull von den inneren Sinnen? Welche Traditionen haben sein Denken beeinflusst? Oder liegt uns hier lediglich ein weiteres Beispiel f\u00fcr seine intellektuelle Eigenst\u00e4ndigkeit und zugleich Fremdartigkeit vor dem Hintergrund seines geschichtlichen Umfeldes vor? Angesichts dieser Problematik besteht das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags darin, die wesentlichen Charakteristika der llullschen Lehre von den inneren Sinnen herauszuarbeiten und im Lichte der zu seiner Zeit g\u00e4ngigen Traditionen zu er\u00f6rtern. Hierzu ist zum einen auf die Theorie der inneren Sinne einzugehen, die der arabisch-peripatetischen Philosophie entstammt und seit dem sp\u00e4ten 12. Jahrhundert im lateinischen Westen rezipiert wurde. Zum anderen ist die Lehre von den geistigen Sinnen ins Auge zu fassen, die im lateinischen Westen seit der Patristik pr\u00e4sent ist und gerade in der Zeit Llulls gro\u00dfe Prominenz in der Theologie besa\u00df. Wie anhand von zwei Fallbeispielen \u2013 den inneren Sinnen der conscientia und der subtilitas \u2013 verdeutlicht wird, steht Llulls Auffassung trotz ihrer Eigent\u00fcmlichkeit nicht einfach nur unvereinbar quer zum akademischen Diskurs; vielmehr zeichnet sie sich durch ihre originelle Verkn\u00fcpfung verschiedenster teils traditioneller, teils aktueller, teils philosophischer, teils theologischer Elemente aus. Bei allem Eklektizismus erweist sich dabei Llulls Konzept der Kontemplation, des Leitthemas seines Buches, als das einheitsstiftende Moment: Nichts Geringeres als ihre \u201aAnatomie\u2018 steht mit den f\u00fcnf inneren Sinnen zur Debatte und rechtfertigt somit auf inhaltlicher Ebene die formale Zentralstellung dieser Thematik im Liber contemplationis.\r\n\r\nThat the doctrine of the five internal senses plays an important role in Ramon Llull\u2019s Liber contemplationis is already evident from the position it occupies, literally at the centre of the book; but what is Llull\u2019s concept of the internal senses? Which traditions influenced his thought? Or is this merely another example of his intellectual independence and, at the same time, his eccentricity with respect to his historical environment? With this problematic in mind, the goal of the present contribution is to analyze the essential features of Llull\u2019s doctrine of the internal senses and to discuss them against the background of the prevailing theories of his time. In this connection, it will first address the theory of the internal senses, which stemmed from Arabic-Peripatetic philosophy and was known in the Latin West from the late twelfth century onwards. It will focus secondly on the doctrine of the spiritual senses, which had been present in the Latin West since the Patristic period and gained particular significance in the theology of Llull\u2019s time. As will be shown through two case studies (of the internal senses of conscientia and subtilitas), despite its uniqueness, Llull\u2019s view was not simply irreconcilable with contemporary academic discourse; it is rather distinguished by its original way of bringing together the most disparate elements, partly traditional, partly current, partly philosophical, partly theological. Thus, regardless of its eclecticism, Llull\u2019s concept of contemplation \u2013 the main theme of his book \u2013 constitutes also its unifying moment: nothing less than its \u2018anatomy\u2019 is under debate in his discussion of the five internal senses, which moreover explains, on the level of content, the formal centrality of this thematic in the Liber contemplationis.","btype":2,"date":"2011","language":"German","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1484\/M.IPM-EB.3.4919","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5342,"section_of":5341,"pages":"239-269","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5341,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"n Gottes Schau und Weltbetrachtung. Interpretationen zum \u201cLiber contemplationis\u201d des Raimundus Lullus","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2011","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"Im Jahr 2007 konnte das Raimundus-Lullus-Institut der Universit\u00e4t Freiburg sein 50-j\u00e4hriges Bestehen feiern. Aus diesem Anlass fand vom 25.\u201328. November 2007 ein internationaler wissenschaftlicher Kongress unter dem Titel Gottes Schau und Weltbetrachtung. Interpretationen zum \u00bbLiber contemplationis\u00ab des Raimundus Lullus statt. Die 20 Referentinnen und Referenten wurden bewusst nicht nur aus dem Kreis namhafter Lull-Spezialisten gew\u00e4hlt, sondern repr\u00e4sentieren ein breites Spektrum internationaler medi\u00e4vistischer Forschung. Mit ihren Tagungsbeitr\u00e4gen, die in diesem Band gesammelt vorliegen, bieten sie eine informative Tour d\u2019Horizon durch Ramon Lulls umfangreichstes und wohl bedeutendstes Werk, den Liber contemplationis in Deum (katalanisch: Llibre de contemplaci\u00f3 en D\u00e9u).\r\n\r\nDer Liber contemplationis umfasst 366 Kapitel: ein Kapitel f\u00fcr jeden Tag des Jahres und eines f\u00fcr den zus\u00e4tzlichen Tag im Schaltjahr. Der Inhalt des Werkes ist oft als \u201aenzyklop\u00e4disch\u2018 bezeichnet worden. Sein Ziel besteht jedoch nicht in einer umfassenden Darstellung des Wissens \u00fcber die gesamte Wirklichkeit, sondern in der Bestimmung und Beschreibung der Wirklichkeit in Bezug auf die Betrachtung Gottes, die Erkenntnis der Glaubensartikel sowie die Erlangung eines tugendhaften, gottgef\u00e4lligen Lebens.\r\n\r\nDer vorliegende Band umfasst neben einf\u00fchrenden Untersuchungen zur lateinischen Text\u00fcberlieferung und zur Struktur des Werkes sowohl detaillierte Kommentare zu ausgew\u00e4hlten Kapiteln als auch Diskussionen von Einzelfragen vor dem Hintergrund von Lulls Gesamtwerk in seinem historischen Kontext.\r\n\r\nIn the year 2007, the Raimundus-Lullus-Institut at the University of Freiburg celebrated its 50th anniversary. To mark this occasion, an international congress was held on 25\u201328 November 2007, titled Vision of God and Contemplation of the World. Interpretations of Ramon Lull\u2019s \u00bbLiber contemplationis\u00ab. The congress papers assembled in the present volume offer an informative survey of the Liber contemplationis in Deum (Catalan: Llibre de contemplaci\u00f3 en D\u00e9u), the most comprehensive and probably most significant work of Lull\u2019s. The Liber contemplationis comprises 366 chapters: one chapter for each day of the year, including one for the additional day of the leap year. The contents of the work have often been described as \u2018encyclopaedic\u2019. Its aim, however, is not to offer a comprehensive account of all that is known about reality, but rather to recognise and describe reality in the context of contemplating God, knowing the articles of faith as well as attaining a virtuous life agreeable to God.\r\n\r\nThe volume contains introductory studies of the Latin tradition of the text as well as detailed commentaries on individual chapters.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"10.1484\/M.IPM-EB.6.09070802050003050400030501","book":{"id":5341,"pubplace":"Turnhout","publisher":"Brepols","series":"Instrumenta Patristica et Mediaevalia","volume":"59 (Subs. Lull. 4)","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6189,"entry_id":5341,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Fernando Dom\u00ednguez Reboiras","free_first_name":"Fernando","free_last_name":"Dom\u00ednguez Reboiras","norm_person":null},{"id":6190,"entry_id":5341,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Viola Tenge-Wolf","free_first_name":"Viola","free_last_name":"Tenge-Wolf","norm_person":null},{"id":6191,"entry_id":5341,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Peter Walter","free_first_name":" Peter","free_last_name":" Walter","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2011]}

アヴェロエス研究 - 二重真理説, 1982
By: Chisato Tanaka
Title アヴェロエス研究 - 二重真理説
Translation Averroes Research - The Double-Truth-Theory
Type Article
Language Japanese
Date 1982
Journal Kinki Daigaku Kyōyōbu Kenkyū Kiyō
Volume 13
Issue 3
Pages 157-172
Categories Law, Epistemology, Theology
Author(s) Chisato Tanaka
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Philosophical discussions of prophecy in medieval Islam , 1976
By: David Pearson Brewster
Title Philosophical discussions of prophecy in medieval Islam
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 1976
Publication Place London
Publisher British Library
Categories Epistemology, Theology
Author(s) David Pearson Brewster
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century, 2015
By: Ali Ghorbani, Fath ali Akbari
Title A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century
Type Article
Language Persian
Date 2015
Journal Comparative Theology
Volume 5
Issue 12
Pages 69-84
Categories Epistemology, Averroism, Theology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Ali Ghorbani , Fath ali Akbari
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church) and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A) two contradictory scopes in the universe B) two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A) Two ways to reach one reality. B) Two dictions to narrate one reality. C) Duality of the reality in practice. D) Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

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Die ‘inneren Sinne’ im Liber Contemplationis, 2011
By: Nadja Germann
Title Die ‘inneren Sinne’ im Liber Contemplationis
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2011
Published in n Gottes Schau und Weltbetrachtung. Interpretationen zum “Liber contemplationis” des Raimundus Lullus
Pages 239-269
Categories Tradition and Reception, Epistemology, Metaphysics
Author(s) Nadja Germann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Die Lehre von den fünf inneren Sinnen spielt eine bedeutende Rolle in Ramon Llulls Liber contemplationis, wie schon ihre Position buchstäblich im Zentrum dieser Schrift erkennen lässt. Welches Konzept aber besitzt Llull von den inneren Sinnen? Welche Traditionen haben sein Denken beeinflusst? Oder liegt uns hier lediglich ein weiteres Beispiel für seine intellektuelle Eigenständigkeit und zugleich Fremdartigkeit vor dem Hintergrund seines geschichtlichen Umfeldes vor? Angesichts dieser Problematik besteht das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags darin, die wesentlichen Charakteristika der llullschen Lehre von den inneren Sinnen herauszuarbeiten und im Lichte der zu seiner Zeit gängigen Traditionen zu erörtern. Hierzu ist zum einen auf die Theorie der inneren Sinne einzugehen, die der arabisch-peripatetischen Philosophie entstammt und seit dem späten 12. Jahrhundert im lateinischen Westen rezipiert wurde. Zum anderen ist die Lehre von den geistigen Sinnen ins Auge zu fassen, die im lateinischen Westen seit der Patristik präsent ist und gerade in der Zeit Llulls große Prominenz in der Theologie besaß. Wie anhand von zwei Fallbeispielen – den inneren Sinnen der conscientia und der subtilitas – verdeutlicht wird, steht Llulls Auffassung trotz ihrer Eigentümlichkeit nicht einfach nur unvereinbar quer zum akademischen Diskurs; vielmehr zeichnet sie sich durch ihre originelle Verknüpfung verschiedenster teils traditioneller, teils aktueller, teils philosophischer, teils theologischer Elemente aus. Bei allem Eklektizismus erweist sich dabei Llulls Konzept der Kontemplation, des Leitthemas seines Buches, als das einheitsstiftende Moment: Nichts Geringeres als ihre ‚Anatomie‘ steht mit den fünf inneren Sinnen zur Debatte und rechtfertigt somit auf inhaltlicher Ebene die formale Zentralstellung dieser Thematik im Liber contemplationis. That the doctrine of the five internal senses plays an important role in Ramon Llull’s Liber contemplationis is already evident from the position it occupies, literally at the centre of the book; but what is Llull’s concept of the internal senses? Which traditions influenced his thought? Or is this merely another example of his intellectual independence and, at the same time, his eccentricity with respect to his historical environment? With this problematic in mind, the goal of the present contribution is to analyze the essential features of Llull’s doctrine of the internal senses and to discuss them against the background of the prevailing theories of his time. In this connection, it will first address the theory of the internal senses, which stemmed from Arabic-Peripatetic philosophy and was known in the Latin West from the late twelfth century onwards. It will focus secondly on the doctrine of the spiritual senses, which had been present in the Latin West since the Patristic period and gained particular significance in the theology of Llull’s time. As will be shown through two case studies (of the internal senses of conscientia and subtilitas), despite its uniqueness, Llull’s view was not simply irreconcilable with contemporary academic discourse; it is rather distinguished by its original way of bringing together the most disparate elements, partly traditional, partly current, partly philosophical, partly theological. Thus, regardless of its eclecticism, Llull’s concept of contemplation – the main theme of his book – constitutes also its unifying moment: nothing less than its ‘anatomy’ is under debate in his discussion of the five internal senses, which moreover explains, on the level of content, the formal centrality of this thematic in the Liber contemplationis.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5342","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5342,"authors_free":[{"id":6192,"entry_id":5342,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Nadja Germann","free_first_name":"Nadja","free_last_name":"Germann","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Die \u2018inneren Sinne\u2019 im Liber Contemplationis","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Die \u2018inneren Sinne\u2019 im Liber Contemplationis"},"abstract":"Die Lehre von den f\u00fcnf inneren Sinnen spielt eine bedeutende Rolle in Ramon Llulls Liber contemplationis, wie schon ihre Position buchst\u00e4blich im Zentrum dieser Schrift erkennen l\u00e4sst. Welches Konzept aber besitzt Llull von den inneren Sinnen? Welche Traditionen haben sein Denken beeinflusst? Oder liegt uns hier lediglich ein weiteres Beispiel f\u00fcr seine intellektuelle Eigenst\u00e4ndigkeit und zugleich Fremdartigkeit vor dem Hintergrund seines geschichtlichen Umfeldes vor? Angesichts dieser Problematik besteht das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags darin, die wesentlichen Charakteristika der llullschen Lehre von den inneren Sinnen herauszuarbeiten und im Lichte der zu seiner Zeit g\u00e4ngigen Traditionen zu er\u00f6rtern. Hierzu ist zum einen auf die Theorie der inneren Sinne einzugehen, die der arabisch-peripatetischen Philosophie entstammt und seit dem sp\u00e4ten 12. Jahrhundert im lateinischen Westen rezipiert wurde. Zum anderen ist die Lehre von den geistigen Sinnen ins Auge zu fassen, die im lateinischen Westen seit der Patristik pr\u00e4sent ist und gerade in der Zeit Llulls gro\u00dfe Prominenz in der Theologie besa\u00df. Wie anhand von zwei Fallbeispielen \u2013 den inneren Sinnen der conscientia und der subtilitas \u2013 verdeutlicht wird, steht Llulls Auffassung trotz ihrer Eigent\u00fcmlichkeit nicht einfach nur unvereinbar quer zum akademischen Diskurs; vielmehr zeichnet sie sich durch ihre originelle Verkn\u00fcpfung verschiedenster teils traditioneller, teils aktueller, teils philosophischer, teils theologischer Elemente aus. Bei allem Eklektizismus erweist sich dabei Llulls Konzept der Kontemplation, des Leitthemas seines Buches, als das einheitsstiftende Moment: Nichts Geringeres als ihre \u201aAnatomie\u2018 steht mit den f\u00fcnf inneren Sinnen zur Debatte und rechtfertigt somit auf inhaltlicher Ebene die formale Zentralstellung dieser Thematik im Liber contemplationis.\r\n\r\nThat the doctrine of the five internal senses plays an important role in Ramon Llull\u2019s Liber contemplationis is already evident from the position it occupies, literally at the centre of the book; but what is Llull\u2019s concept of the internal senses? Which traditions influenced his thought? Or is this merely another example of his intellectual independence and, at the same time, his eccentricity with respect to his historical environment? With this problematic in mind, the goal of the present contribution is to analyze the essential features of Llull\u2019s doctrine of the internal senses and to discuss them against the background of the prevailing theories of his time. In this connection, it will first address the theory of the internal senses, which stemmed from Arabic-Peripatetic philosophy and was known in the Latin West from the late twelfth century onwards. It will focus secondly on the doctrine of the spiritual senses, which had been present in the Latin West since the Patristic period and gained particular significance in the theology of Llull\u2019s time. As will be shown through two case studies (of the internal senses of conscientia and subtilitas), despite its uniqueness, Llull\u2019s view was not simply irreconcilable with contemporary academic discourse; it is rather distinguished by its original way of bringing together the most disparate elements, partly traditional, partly current, partly philosophical, partly theological. Thus, regardless of its eclecticism, Llull\u2019s concept of contemplation \u2013 the main theme of his book \u2013 constitutes also its unifying moment: nothing less than its \u2018anatomy\u2019 is under debate in his discussion of the five internal senses, which moreover explains, on the level of content, the formal centrality of this thematic in the Liber contemplationis.","btype":2,"date":"2011","language":"German","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1484\/M.IPM-EB.3.4919","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":43,"category_name":"Tradition and Reception","link":"bib?categories[]=Tradition and Reception"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":31,"category_name":"Metaphysics","link":"bib?categories[]=Metaphysics"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5342,"section_of":5341,"pages":"239-269","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5341,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"n Gottes Schau und Weltbetrachtung. Interpretationen zum \u201cLiber contemplationis\u201d des Raimundus Lullus","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2011","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"Im Jahr 2007 konnte das Raimundus-Lullus-Institut der Universit\u00e4t Freiburg sein 50-j\u00e4hriges Bestehen feiern. Aus diesem Anlass fand vom 25.\u201328. November 2007 ein internationaler wissenschaftlicher Kongress unter dem Titel Gottes Schau und Weltbetrachtung. Interpretationen zum \u00bbLiber contemplationis\u00ab des Raimundus Lullus statt. Die 20 Referentinnen und Referenten wurden bewusst nicht nur aus dem Kreis namhafter Lull-Spezialisten gew\u00e4hlt, sondern repr\u00e4sentieren ein breites Spektrum internationaler medi\u00e4vistischer Forschung. Mit ihren Tagungsbeitr\u00e4gen, die in diesem Band gesammelt vorliegen, bieten sie eine informative Tour d\u2019Horizon durch Ramon Lulls umfangreichstes und wohl bedeutendstes Werk, den Liber contemplationis in Deum (katalanisch: Llibre de contemplaci\u00f3 en D\u00e9u).\r\n\r\nDer Liber contemplationis umfasst 366 Kapitel: ein Kapitel f\u00fcr jeden Tag des Jahres und eines f\u00fcr den zus\u00e4tzlichen Tag im Schaltjahr. Der Inhalt des Werkes ist oft als \u201aenzyklop\u00e4disch\u2018 bezeichnet worden. Sein Ziel besteht jedoch nicht in einer umfassenden Darstellung des Wissens \u00fcber die gesamte Wirklichkeit, sondern in der Bestimmung und Beschreibung der Wirklichkeit in Bezug auf die Betrachtung Gottes, die Erkenntnis der Glaubensartikel sowie die Erlangung eines tugendhaften, gottgef\u00e4lligen Lebens.\r\n\r\nDer vorliegende Band umfasst neben einf\u00fchrenden Untersuchungen zur lateinischen Text\u00fcberlieferung und zur Struktur des Werkes sowohl detaillierte Kommentare zu ausgew\u00e4hlten Kapiteln als auch Diskussionen von Einzelfragen vor dem Hintergrund von Lulls Gesamtwerk in seinem historischen Kontext.\r\n\r\nIn the year 2007, the Raimundus-Lullus-Institut at the University of Freiburg celebrated its 50th anniversary. To mark this occasion, an international congress was held on 25\u201328 November 2007, titled Vision of God and Contemplation of the World. Interpretations of Ramon Lull\u2019s \u00bbLiber contemplationis\u00ab. The congress papers assembled in the present volume offer an informative survey of the Liber contemplationis in Deum (Catalan: Llibre de contemplaci\u00f3 en D\u00e9u), the most comprehensive and probably most significant work of Lull\u2019s. The Liber contemplationis comprises 366 chapters: one chapter for each day of the year, including one for the additional day of the leap year. The contents of the work have often been described as \u2018encyclopaedic\u2019. Its aim, however, is not to offer a comprehensive account of all that is known about reality, but rather to recognise and describe reality in the context of contemplating God, knowing the articles of faith as well as attaining a virtuous life agreeable to God.\r\n\r\nThe volume contains introductory studies of the Latin tradition of the text as well as detailed commentaries on individual chapters.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"10.1484\/M.IPM-EB.6.09070802050003050400030501","book":{"id":5341,"pubplace":"Turnhout","publisher":"Brepols","series":"Instrumenta Patristica et Mediaevalia","volume":"59 (Subs. Lull. 4)","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6189,"entry_id":5341,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Fernando Dom\u00ednguez Reboiras","free_first_name":"Fernando","free_last_name":"Dom\u00ednguez Reboiras","norm_person":null},{"id":6190,"entry_id":5341,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Viola Tenge-Wolf","free_first_name":"Viola","free_last_name":"Tenge-Wolf","norm_person":null},{"id":6191,"entry_id":5341,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Peter Walter","free_first_name":" Peter","free_last_name":" Walter","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["Die \u2018inneren Sinne\u2019 im Liber Contemplationis"]}

La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa, 2022
By: Meryem Sebti
Title La dimension éthique et politique de la révélation prophétique chez les falāsifa
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2022
Published in The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding
Pages 327–347
Categories Theology, Epistemology, Cosmology, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Meryem Sebti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called falāsifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ashʿarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all falāsifa: Al-Kindī (after 870), Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (864–925), al-Fārābī (d. 950), Avicenna (980–1037), Ibn Bājja (around 1138), Ibn Ṭufayl (1110–1185) and Averroes (1126–1198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it – for some of them – into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5403","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5403,"authors_free":[{"id":6264,"entry_id":5403,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Meryem Sebti","free_first_name":"Meryem Sebti","free_last_name":"Meryem Sebti","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"La dimension \u00e9thique et politique de la r\u00e9v\u00e9lation proph\u00e9tique chez les fal\u0101sifa","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"La dimension \u00e9thique et politique de la r\u00e9v\u00e9lation proph\u00e9tique chez les fal\u0101sifa"},"abstract":"The Greek heritage nourished and deeply influenced a philosophical tradition in Arabic. This Greek heritage was reinterpreted by Muslim philosophers during the period from the ninth to the twelfth century. The approach by the latter, called fal\u0101sifa, towards the question of prophecy will have a decisive influence on certain Ash\u02bfarite theologians, and the Avicennian synthesis constitutes a major step in the constitution of an Islamic prophetology, so that one may consider that there is a before and an after Avicenna, with regard to the doctrine of prophecy in the Muslim world. It is not possible to outline the contours of a prophetology that would be common to all fal\u0101sifa: Al-Kind\u012b (after 870), Ab\u016b Bakr al-R\u0101z\u012b (864\u2013925), al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b (d. 950), Avicenna (980\u20131037), Ibn B\u0101jja (around 1138), Ibn \u1e6cufayl (1110\u20131185) and Averroes (1126\u20131198). Nevertheless, despite their differences and their disagreements, they have tried to rationally report the phenomenon of prophecy, integrating it \u2013 for some of them \u2013 into a complex emanative cosmology. Finally, and despite their differences, we find in Avicenna and in Averroes the affirmation of the ethical and political function of the prophet.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739_014","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":73,"category_name":"Epistemology","link":"bib?categories[]=Epistemology"},{"id":19,"category_name":"Cosmology","link":"bib?categories[]=Cosmology"},{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":10,"category_name":"Avicenna","link":"bib?categories[]=Avicenna"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5403,"section_of":5402,"pages":"327\u2013347 ","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5402,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"no language selected","title":"The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, Volume 1: The Prophet Between Doctrine, Literature and Arts: Historical Legacies and Their Unfolding ","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The three-volume series titled The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of the representation of the Prophet Muhammad in the course of Muslim history until the present.\r\nThis first collective volume outlines his figure in the early Islamic tradition, and its later transformations until recent times that were shaped by Prophet-centered piety and politics. A variety of case studies offers a unique overview of the interplay of Sunn\u012b amd Sh\u012b\u02bf\u012b doctrines with literature and arts in the formation of his image. They trace the integrative and conflictual qualities of a \u201cProphetic culture\u201d, in which the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers. ","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1163\/9789004466739","book":{"id":5402,"pubplace":"Leiden, Boston","publisher":"Brill","series":"Handbook of Oriental studies; Section 1: The Near and Middle East","volume":"159","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6261,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Denis Gril","free_first_name":"Denis","free_last_name":"Gril","norm_person":null},{"id":6262,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Stefan Reichmuth","free_first_name":"Stefan","free_last_name":"Reichmuth","norm_person":null},{"id":6263,"entry_id":5402,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Dilek Sarmis","free_first_name":"Dilek","free_last_name":"Sarmis","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["La dimension \u00e9thique et politique de la r\u00e9v\u00e9lation proph\u00e9tique chez les fal\u0101sifa"]}

La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?, 2021
By: Mounia Aît Kabboura
Title La vérité dans l'épistémè islamique post-averroecien. La théorie de la vérité chez Averroès pourra-t-elle contribuer au dialogue interculturel contemporain?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Science et Esprit, Revue de philosophie et de théologie
Volume 73
Issue 1-2
Pages 177-196
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Mounia Aît Kabboura
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198), philosopher and magistrate, came into conflict with the 'Maliki' jurists and the 'Ash'rite Salafist' theologians of his time who held to the traditionalist and literalist thought according to which the truth is explicit in the revealed text so that it does not require interpretation. Averroes developed a new conception of truth whose goal was to reconcile two different orders of truth. These are variously described as revelation and reason, or faith and the faculty of human judgment, or the truth through others rather than the truth through oneself. By deepening the rationalism of Aristotle, he brought to light the new intellectual conditions that Maimonides, among the Jews, and Thomas Aquinas, among the Catholics, took advantage of to develop new theological systems. All medieval thought was marked by the following duality: revelation versus rationality (hermeneutical and philosophical), or in other words by a desire to harmonise the given revealed according to the necessary constraints of reason. Can the theory of truth in Averroes contribute to better, flexible, and peaceful integration of Muslims in plural societies? This text proposes to examine theory of truth of Averroes presented in 'Fasl al-Maqâl' ('The Decisive Treaty') and 'Tahâfut al tahafut' ('The Incoherence of Inconsistency'), and then to examine the conditions of the abandonment of this theory in the post-Averroes Islamic episteme that retained only the truth of revelation. Finally, this text will show that Averroes's conception of truth is fundamentally a philosophy of recognition driven by three universal principles: (1) understanding the others in their own system of reference, (2) understanding freedom as a responsibility in the search for truth, (3) recognising the right to be different through respect for others. (edited)

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Philosophical discussions of prophecy in medieval Islam , 1976
By: David Pearson Brewster
Title Philosophical discussions of prophecy in medieval Islam
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 1976
Publication Place London
Publisher British Library
Categories Epistemology, Theology
Author(s) David Pearson Brewster
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Razones y argumentos: Una relectura del "faṣl al-maqāl" de Averroes, 2014
By: Luis Xavier López-Farjeat
Title Razones y argumentos: Una relectura del "faṣl al-maqāl" de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2014
Journal Estudios de Asia y Africa
Volume 49
Issue Nr. 1 (153)
Pages 99-133
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Epistemology
Author(s) Luis Xavier López-Farjeat
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Un tema controvertido en el pensamiento de Averroes es la relación entre filosofía y religión. Averroes se ocupa de ella de manera sumamente original en el Faṣl al-maqāl. En este artículo propondré una ruta de interpretación ligeramente distinta de la que otros intérpretes de este tratado han aportado. Sostendré que puede ser leído como un tratado de argumentación donde Averroes se ocupa no únicamente de mostrar la armonía entre la ley religiosa y la filosofía, sino también de esbozar una teoría de la argumentación sumamente flexible que le sirve para definir el estatuto epistémico de las creencias religiosas. A controversial matter in Averroes' thought is the relationship between philosophy and religion. Averroes deals with this issue in an original fashion within the text of Faṣl al-maqāl. In this paper I propose a slightly different interpretation from that of other interpreters of this treatise. I argue that it can be read as a treatise on argumentation where Averroes not only proves the harmony between religious law and philosophy, but also outlines an extremely flexible theory of argumentation which serves to define the epistemic status of religious beliefs.

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مدخل لقطيعة ابستمولوجية مع الفكر الرشدي: دراسة تحليلية للمحتوى المعرفي والمضمون الإيديولوجي في الفلسفة العربية الإسلامية, 2020
By: Bouazza Sahel
Title مدخل لقطيعة ابستمولوجية مع الفكر الرشدي: دراسة تحليلية للمحتوى المعرفي والمضمون الإيديولوجي في الفلسفة العربية الإسلامية
Transcription Madkhal li-qaṭī'h ibistumūlūjīyyah m' al-fikr al-Rushdy: dirāsah taḥlīlīyyah li-l-muḥtūa al-mu'rify wa al-maḍmūn al-īdīūlūjy fi al-falsafah al-arabiyya al-ilslamiyya
Type Monograph
Language Arabic
Date 2020
Publication Place Kenitra
Publisher dār al-Qarawīyīn
Categories Epistemology, Surveys
Author(s) Bouazza Sahel
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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アヴェロエス研究 - 二重真理説, 1982
By: Chisato Tanaka
Title アヴェロエス研究 - 二重真理説
Translation Averroes Research - The Double-Truth-Theory
Type Article
Language Japanese
Date 1982
Journal Kinki Daigaku Kyōyōbu Kenkyū Kiyō
Volume 13
Issue 3
Pages 157-172
Categories Law, Epistemology, Theology
Author(s) Chisato Tanaka
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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