Tradition und Fortschreibung bei Ibn Rušd. Eine rechtsschulübergreifende Analyse zu Kauf- und Tauschgeschäften im islamischen Recht, 2020
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Tradition und Fortschreibung bei Ibn Rušd. Eine rechtsschulübergreifende Analyse zu Kauf- und Tauschgeschäften im islamischen Recht
Type Monograph
Language German
Date 2020
Publication Place Baden-Baden
Publisher Nomos
Series Theologie, Bildung, Ethik und Recht des Islam
Volume 4
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This study portrays the unique philosophical approach of Ibn Rušd to systematising Islamic law flexibly in order to solve the problems Muslims experience in daily life. His approach allows for a new perspective in the discourse on how to update Islamic law for contemporary times and how norms are qualified as being Islamic. Taking the prohibition of usury as an example, this study scrutinises Ibn Rušd’s approach and compares it with others from Muslim legal scholarship. For this purpose, the introduction and the chapter on usury in his juristic work Bidāyat al-mujtahid have been translated and commented on, with his approach analysed and the sources that he consulted identified.

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Gersonides’ Afterlife: Studies on the Reception of Levi ben Gerson’s Philosophical, Halakhic and Scientific Oeuvre in the 14th through 20th Centuries, 2020
By: Ofer Elior (Ed.), Gad Freudenthal (Ed.), David Wirmer (Ed.)
Title Gersonides’ Afterlife: Studies on the Reception of Levi ben Gerson’s Philosophical, Halakhic and Scientific Oeuvre in the 14th through 20th Centuries
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2020
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Studies in Jewish History and Culture
Volume 62
Categories Gersonides, Law, Science, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Ofer Elior , Gad Freudenthal , David Wirmer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Gersonides’ Afterlife is the first full-scale treatment of the reception of one of the greatest scientific minds of medieval Judaism: Gersonides (1288–1344). An outstanding representative of the Hebrew Jewish culture that then flourished in southern France, Gersonides wrote on mathematics, logic, astronomy, astrology, physical science, metaphysics and theology, and commented on almost the entire bible. His strong-minded attempt to integrate these different areas of study into a unitary system of thought was deeply rooted in the Aristotelian tradition and yet innovative in many respects, and thus elicited diverse and often impassionate reactions. For the first time, the twenty-one papers collected here describe Gersonides’ impact in all fields of his activity and the reactions from his contemporaries up to present-day religious Zionism.

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Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays, 2019
By: Peter Adamson (Ed.), Matteo Di Giovanni (Ed.)
Title Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place Cambridge
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Categories Logic, Natural Philosophy, Psychology, Metaphysics, Law, Medicine, Ethics
Author(s) Peter Adamson , Matteo Di Giovanni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, 2019
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Oxford Journal of Law and Religion
Volume 8
Issue 1
Pages 174–205
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to the Sunnī legal tradition, legal norms should be derived from the authoritative texts of the Qurʾān and Sunna. However, how exactly to derive such norms remains unclear, when no reference can be found to the matter at hand within these sources. The use of maqāṣid at this point might be a viable solution. Little attention, however, is paid to alternative approaches like the one of Ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd (d 595/1198), which is based on philosophical ethics. Ibn Rushd derives ‘legal precepts’ through analysing the most prominent legal verdicts of Islamic law that were passed by various madhhab. These precepts not only enabled scholars to resolve new legal problems by using ijtihād, they also shed new light on existing legal challenges. This article will analyse Ibn Rushd’s legal hermeneutics in his Bidāyat al-mujtahid by looking at the passages concerning sales of ritually pure (ṭāhir) goods and interest (ribā).

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Splitting the Process and the Result: Philosophy from a Legal Perspective in Averroes’ Decisive Treatise, 2019
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Splitting the Process and the Result: Philosophy from a Legal Perspective in Averroes’ Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World
Pages 129–144
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”, 2019
By: Jaan S. Islam
Title The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 43–65
Categories Politics, Law, Commentary, Plato
Author(s) Jaan S. Islam
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is an analysis of the political thought of Ibn Rushd and its significance for the current conflict in Islamic political thought between liberal, secular and conservative Islamist thinkers over the meaning of the “virtuous society” and how it can be implemented. It is argued that the thought of Ibn Rushd offers a concept of the virtuous society that reconciles secular law and religious Sharī‘a law. The article analyzes Ibn Rushd’s Commentary on Plato’s Republic, and assesses it as potentially being able to reconcile the philosophical conflict between logically discerned law and revealed law. It is contended that the separation between “religious” and “political” (i.e., philosophical) domains often attributed to Ibn Rushd does not fully consider the entirety of Ibn Rushd’s writings and interprets his works without regard for their historical and religious contextual significance.

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Averroes on Juridical Reasoning, 2019
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroes on Juridical Reasoning
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 45–63
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Rhetoric
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An investigation of Averroes' theory of reasoning in law, showing that his legal epistemology is deeply indebted to the Aristotelian tradition and, in particular, to al-Fārābī’s understanding of analogical reasoning which was in turn based on the idea of an exemplum (mithāl), taken from Aristotle’s logical works and especially the Rhetoric.

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Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law, 2019
By: Feriel Bouhafa
Title Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 64–80
Categories Law, Rhetoric
Author(s) Feriel Bouhafa
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of “philosophy of law” in Averroes, showing that he assimilates the methods and epistemic status of juridical reasoning to those of rhetoric, so that legal proofs are akin to cases of rhetorical persuasion. Since legal conviction is thus always merely probable, Averroes is able to develop a notion of law as evolving and needing constant correction, as befits a system of norms that applies to changing human circumstance.

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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Rhetoric in the Court: Averroes on Testimonial Witnessing and Oaths, 2018
By: Feriel Bouhafa
Title Rhetoric in the Court: Averroes on Testimonial Witnessing and Oaths
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Commenting on Aristotle’s Rhetoric from Antiquity to the Present / Commenter la Rhétorique d’Aristote, de l’Antiquité à la période contemporaine
Pages 64–88
Categories Commentary, Law
Author(s) Feriel Bouhafa
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Looking at the reception of Aristotle’s Rhetoric in the Arabic tradition, particularly Averroes’ Middle commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric (Talḫīṣ al-ḫaṭāba), I discern the impact of the Islamic legal context on the commentator’s reading of Aristotle’s theory of rhetoric. Placing Averroes’ interpretive enterprise within the context of Islamic governance has already been highlighted, particularly the role of Islamic law in his conception of the political role of rhetoric. Such attention to Islamic law, however, has often been conceived in a theoretical fashion, without attesting to the concrete and epistemological basis of legal practices of the courts. Focusing on Averroes’ discussion of the role of rhetoric in the judicial discourse, I address the impact of Islamic legal procedures known as the rules of evidence: witnesses and oaths and their modus operandi in the court, in shaping Averroes’ conception of the political role of rhetoric. Accounting for Islamic rules of evidence, I argue that Averroes ascribes a practical role to rhetoric in the court in order to establish a consensus in the implementation of justice. In so doing, Averroes oversteps his role as commentator and rather draws from his own practical concerns over the implementation of justice in the court as a legal practitioner: the Qāḍī of Cordova.

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Irrtum - Error - Erreur, 2018
By: Andreas Speer (Ed.), Maxime Mauriège (Ed.)
Title Irrtum - Error - Erreur
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2018
Publication Place Berlin; Boston
Publisher De Gruyter
Series Miscellanea Mediaevalia
Volume 40
Categories Science, Medicine, Psychology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Andreas Speer , Maxime Mauriège
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The volume is a comprehensive evaluation of epistemic, practical, veridical issues from the perspective of every kind of failure, disruption, or confusion that comes under the general rubric of “error.” The analysis is not limited to the element of negativity, but rather, an inquiry about the extent that error can be transformed into a starting point or precondition for successful epistemic practices.

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Análisis, commentario y crítica de Bidayat al-Mujtahid de Ibn Rushd, 1992
By: Hassan El Shabei
Title Análisis, commentario y crítica de Bidayat al-Mujtahid de Ibn Rushd
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 1992
Journal Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts (Cairo University)
Volume [52] 54
Pages 19–33
Categories Law
Author(s) Hassan El Shabei
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Averroes como muftí, 2003
By: Juan Martos Quesada
Title Averroes como muftí
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval. Miscellanea Mediaevalia en honor de Joaquin Lomba Fuentes
Volume 10
Pages 119–126
Categories Law
Author(s) Juan Martos Quesada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper is about the activity of Averroes as mufti, the role of this occupation in the legal word in al-Andalus; also, about the confusión between Averroes and his grandfather in the donation offetuas and, finally, the legal features of Averroes.

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Averroes como muftí, 2011
By: Juan Martos Quesada

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Averroes on Juridical Reasoning, 2019
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroes on Juridical Reasoning
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 45–63
Categories Law, al-Fārābī, Aristotle, Rhetoric
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An investigation of Averroes' theory of reasoning in law, showing that his legal epistemology is deeply indebted to the Aristotelian tradition and, in particular, to al-Fārābī’s understanding of analogical reasoning which was in turn based on the idea of an exemplum (mithāl), taken from Aristotle’s logical works and especially the Rhetoric.

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Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza, 2015
By: Joaquín García-Huidobro
Title Averroes y las cosas justas per naturaleza
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Anales del seminario de historia de la filosofía
Volume 32
Issue 2
Pages 393–413
Categories Aristotle, Law
Author(s) Joaquín García-Huidobro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
En su comentario a la Ética a Nicómaco, Averroes se ocupó del pasaje donde Aristóteles distingue entre las cosas que son justas por naturaleza y aquéllas que lo son en virtud de la ley (V, 7 1134b18-1135a5). Su comentario es particularmente breve, pero plantea algunas dificultades importantes, como su alusión a un derecho naturale legale, que, según Leo Strauss, vendría a ser simplemente un derecho positivo de aceptación general. En este artículo se busca caracterizar lo justo natural y lo justo positivo en el comentario de Averroes y mostrar el alcance de la variación de los criterios propios de la justicia positiva.

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Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law, 2019
By: Feriel Bouhafa
Title Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 64–80
Categories Law, Rhetoric
Author(s) Feriel Bouhafa
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of “philosophy of law” in Averroes, showing that he assimilates the methods and epistemic status of juridical reasoning to those of rhetoric, so that legal proofs are akin to cases of rhetorical persuasion. Since legal conviction is thus always merely probable, Averroes is able to develop a notion of law as evolving and needing constant correction, as befits a system of norms that applies to changing human circumstance.

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