La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Rima Pavalko
Title The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in La lumière de l'intellect. La pensée scientifique et philosophique d'Averroès dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Société internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9–12 décembre 1998
Pages 487–492
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Rima Pavalko
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord", 2006
By: Averroes,
Title Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord"
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2006
Publication Place Kampen
Publisher Klement
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Remke Kruk

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Discurso decisivo sobre a harmonia entre religião e a filosofia, 2006
By: Averroes
Title Discurso decisivo sobre a harmonia entre religião e a filosofia
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2006
Publication Place Lisbon
Publisher Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh, 2006
By: Delfina Serrano Ruano, Delfina Serrano Ruano
Title Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Der Islam
Volume 83
Pages 137–156
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Delfina Serrano Ruano , Delfina Serrano Ruano
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla, 2005
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2005
Published in Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas
Pages 853–894
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2005
By: Averroes
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2005
Published in Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology
Pages 309–330
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Discurso decisivo sobre a harmonia entre religião e a filosofia, 2006
By: Averroes
Title Discurso decisivo sobre a harmonia entre religião e a filosofia
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2006
Publication Place Lisbon
Publisher Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord", 2006
By: Averroes,
Title Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord"
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2006
Publication Place Kampen
Publisher Klement
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Remke Kruk

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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L'Islam et la raison. Anthologie de textes juridiques, théologiques et polémiques, 2000
By: Averroes,
Title L'Islam et la raison. Anthologie de textes juridiques, théologiques et polémiques
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2000
Publication Place Paris
Publisher Flammarion
Categories Theology, Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Marc Geoffroy

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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Le Livre du discours décisif, 1996
By: Averroes,
Title Le Livre du discours décisif
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 1996
Publication Place Paris
Publisher Flammarion
Categories Theology, Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Marc Geoffroy

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Pour Averroès, 2000
By: Alain de Libera
Title Pour Averroès
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2000
Published in L'Islam et la raison. Anthologie de textes juridiques, théologiques et polémiques
Pages 9–76
Categories Theology, Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Alain de Libera
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The Decisive Treatise, 2005
By: Averroes
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2005
Published in Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology
Pages 309–330
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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