Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, 2019
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Oxford Journal of Law and Religion
Volume 8
Issue 1
Pages 174–205
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to the Sunnī legal tradition, legal norms should be derived from the authoritative texts of the Qurʾān and Sunna. However, how exactly to derive such norms remains unclear, when no reference can be found to the matter at hand within these sources. The use of maqāṣid at this point might be a viable solution. Little attention, however, is paid to alternative approaches like the one of Ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd (d 595/1198), which is based on philosophical ethics. Ibn Rushd derives ‘legal precepts’ through analysing the most prominent legal verdicts of Islamic law that were passed by various madhhab. These precepts not only enabled scholars to resolve new legal problems by using ijtihād, they also shed new light on existing legal challenges. This article will analyse Ibn Rushd’s legal hermeneutics in his Bidāyat al-mujtahid by looking at the passages concerning sales of ritually pure (ṭāhir) goods and interest (ribā).

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"2036","_score":null,"_source":{"id":2036,"authors_free":[{"id":2476,"entry_id":2036,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1615,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Ang\u00e8le Kremer Marietti","free_first_name":"Ang\u00e8le","free_last_name":"Kremer Marietti","norm_person":{"id":1615,"first_name":"Ang\u00e8le","last_name":"Kremer Marietti","full_name":"Ang\u00e8le Kremer Marietti","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/133757242","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/108823722","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Ang\u00e8le Kremer Marietti"}}],"entry_title":"La pens\u00e9e libre d'Averro\u00e8s","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"La pens\u00e9e libre d'Averro\u00e8s"},"abstract":"With \u201cLa pens\u00e9e libre d\u2019Averro\u00e8s\u201d, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averro\u00e8s\u2019 thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averro\u00e8s) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch\u2019s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd\u2019s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as \u201cReflect, you have a vision\u201d (59.2) and \u201cthey give thought to the creation of heaven and earth\u201d (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of \u201cnatural intelligence\u201d and \u201creligious integrity\u201d must begin to study philosophy. Averro\u00e8s thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averro\u00e8s\u2019s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur\u2019an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or \u201csense\u201d -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the \u201clawgiver\u201d. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.","btype":3,"date":"2013","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":1615,"full_name":"Ang\u00e8le Kremer Marietti","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":2036,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Analecta Husserliana","volume":"114","issue":null,"pages":"371-382"}},"sort":[2013]}

Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi, 2012
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi
Type Article
Language French
Date 2012
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 64
Pages 239-259
Categories Law
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd, 2008
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd
Type Article
Language French
Date 2008
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 61
Pages 581–587
Categories Law
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh, 2006
By: Delfina Serrano Ruano, Delfina Serrano Ruano
Title Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Der Islam
Volume 83
Pages 137–156
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Delfina Serrano Ruano , Delfina Serrano Ruano
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes como muftí, 2003
By: Juan Martos Quesada
Title Averroes como muftí
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval. Miscellanea Mediaevalia en honor de Joaquin Lomba Fuentes
Volume 10
Pages 119–126
Categories Law
Author(s) Juan Martos Quesada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper is about the activity of Averroes as mufti, the role of this occupation in the legal word in al-Andalus; also, about the confusión between Averroes and his grandfather in the donation offetuas and, finally, the legal features of Averroes.

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Zwischen nomos und scharīʿa. Staatsverständnis und Staatsvision bei Averroes anhand seines Kommentars zu Platons Staat, 2002
By: Michael Jainzik
Title Zwischen nomos und scharīʿa. Staatsverständnis und Staatsvision bei Averroes anhand seines Kommentars zu Platons Staat
Type Article
Language German
Date 2002
Journal Concilium medii aevi. Zeitschrift für Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit
Volume 5
Pages 143–186
Categories Politics, Law
Author(s) Michael Jainzik
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes como muftí, 2003
By: Juan Martos Quesada
Title Averroes como muftí
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2003
Journal Revista española de filosofía medieval. Miscellanea Mediaevalia en honor de Joaquin Lomba Fuentes
Volume 10
Pages 119–126
Categories Law
Author(s) Juan Martos Quesada
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper is about the activity of Averroes as mufti, the role of this occupation in the legal word in al-Andalus; also, about the confusión between Averroes and his grandfather in the donation offetuas and, finally, the legal features of Averroes.

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Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi, 2012
By: Ziad Bou Akl
Title Averroès à propos de la définition de l'acte légal: le miracle comme levier d'adhésion à la Loi
Type Article
Language French
Date 2012
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 64
Pages 239-259
Categories Law
Author(s) Ziad Bou Akl
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, 2019
By: Serdar Kurnaz
Title Ibn Rushd’s Legal Hermeneutics and Moral Theory for a “Living Sharīʿa”. An Alternative Approach to Islamic Law in Ibn Rushd’s Bidāyat al-Mujtahid
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Oxford Journal of Law and Religion
Volume 8
Issue 1
Pages 174–205
Categories Law
Author(s) Serdar Kurnaz
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
According to the Sunnī legal tradition, legal norms should be derived from the authoritative texts of the Qurʾān and Sunna. However, how exactly to derive such norms remains unclear, when no reference can be found to the matter at hand within these sources. The use of maqāṣid at this point might be a viable solution. Little attention, however, is paid to alternative approaches like the one of Ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd (d 595/1198), which is based on philosophical ethics. Ibn Rushd derives ‘legal precepts’ through analysing the most prominent legal verdicts of Islamic law that were passed by various madhhab. These precepts not only enabled scholars to resolve new legal problems by using ijtihād, they also shed new light on existing legal challenges. This article will analyse Ibn Rushd’s legal hermeneutics in his Bidāyat al-mujtahid by looking at the passages concerning sales of ritually pure (ṭāhir) goods and interest (ribā).

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd, 2008
By: Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Title Les lois religieuses (al-sharāʾiʿ) dans l'économie du savoir selon Ibn Rušd
Type Article
Language French
Date 2008
Journal Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 61
Pages 581–587
Categories Law
Author(s) Abdelali Elamrani-Jamal
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise, 2006
By: Daniel Heller-Roazen
Title Philosophy before the Law. Averroës's Decisive Treatise
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Critical Inquiry
Volume 32
Issue 3
Pages 412–442
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Daniel Heller-Roazen
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh, 2006
By: Delfina Serrano Ruano, Delfina Serrano Ruano
Title Why Did the Scholars of al-Andalus Distrust al-Ghazālī?. Ibn Rushd al-Jadd's Fatwā on Awliyā' Allāh
Type Article
Language English
Date 2006
Journal Der Islam
Volume 83
Pages 137–156
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Delfina Serrano Ruano , Delfina Serrano Ruano
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Zwischen nomos und scharīʿa. Staatsverständnis und Staatsvision bei Averroes anhand seines Kommentars zu Platons Staat, 2002
By: Michael Jainzik
Title Zwischen nomos und scharīʿa. Staatsverständnis und Staatsvision bei Averroes anhand seines Kommentars zu Platons Staat
Type Article
Language German
Date 2002
Journal Concilium medii aevi. Zeitschrift für Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit
Volume 5
Pages 143–186
Categories Politics, Law
Author(s) Michael Jainzik
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