Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

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Médecins et philosophes: Une histoire, 2019
By: Claire Grignon (Ed.), David Lefebvre (Ed.)
Title Médecins et philosophes: Une histoire
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2019
Publication Place Paris
Publisher CNRS
Categories Medicine, Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Renaissance
Author(s) Claire Grignon , David Lefebvre
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Depuis la séparation entre médecine et philosophie traditionnellement attribuée à Hippocrate, les relations entre ces disciplines ont toujours été intenses et parfois conflictuelles. C’est une histoire de ces rapports que proposent les quinze études réunies dans cet ouvrage, en se centrant sur quelques figures ou moments déterminants: Platon, Aristote, Galien, les écoles empirique et méthodiste, al-Rāzī, Averroès, le XVIe siècle italien, Locke, Kant, Cabanis, les philosophes-médecins de la IIIe République, Canguilhem ou encore Jaspers. Si aujourd’hui la demande adressée à la philosophie par les médecins concerne principalement l’éthique, le dialogue entre les deux disciplines a porté historiquement d’abord sur le statut épistémologique de la médecine : le meilleur médecin est-il nécessairement philosophe ? Que peut apprendre la philosophie de la méthode du médecin ? La médecine est-elle un art du cas singulier, une science ou les deux ? En s’inscrivant dans le temps long, ces études rappellent que l’institutionnalisation actuelle de la philosophie de la médecine s’accompagne parfois d’un oubli des origines historiques de la réflexion sur la médecine. Le contact avec la médecine conduisant aussi la philosophie à se souvenir qu’elle se définit comme un genre de vie, c’est la question de l’amélioration du bien-être et de la santé des hommes qui se pose alors, dans un environnement que l’introduction de techniques thérapeutiques nouvelles modifie en permanence.

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Averroes on Medicine, 2019
By: Joël Chandelier
Title Averroes on Medicine
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 158-176
Categories Medicine, Galen
Author(s) Joël Chandelier
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A general study of themes in Averroes' medical works, which include the famous Colliget and several commentaries on Galen. Topics discussed include his medical epistemology, the role of medicine within the philosophical sciences, and his attitude toward Galen and other medical authorities.

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Philosophy and Medicine in the Formative Period of Islam, 2017
By: Peter Adamson (Ed.), Peter E. Pormann (Ed.)
Title Philosophy and Medicine in the Formative Period of Islam
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2017
Publication Place London
Publisher The Warburg Institute
Series Warburg Institute Colloquia
Volume 31
Categories Medicine, Galen, Tradition and Reception, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Peter Adamson , Peter E. Pormann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Many of the leading philosophers in the Islamic world were doctors, yielding extensive links between philosophy and medicine. The twelve papers in this volume explore these links, focusing on the classical or formative period (up to the eleventh century AD). One central theme is the Arabic reception of the two outstanding figures of Greek medicine, Hippocrates and Galen ? we learn how Hippocrates was made into a mouthpiece for ethical wisdom, and how Galen influenced ideas in ethics and the nature of plant life. Aristotle is also considered, with a study of the reception of his ideas on longevity. Several of the luminaries of philosophy in the early Islamic world are also studied, including Abu Bakr al-Razi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna: all of them deploy medical ideas in their philosophical writings, whether to treat emotional distress as a kind of illness, to explain the function of eyesight, to compare the well-functioning state to the healthy human body, or to draw on anatomical ideas in works on psychology. Conversely, the volume also includes research on the use of philosophical ideas in medical texts, including medical compendia and the works of 'Ali ibn Ridwan. Attention is also given to the connections between medicine and Islamic theology (kalam). As a whole, the book provides both a survey of the kinds of work being done in this relatively unexplored area, and a springboard for further research.

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Was Medical Theory Heterodox in the Latin Middle Ages?. The Plurality Theses of Paul of Venice and the Medical Authorities, Galen, Haly Abbas and Averroes, 2001
By: Graham J. McAleer
Title Was Medical Theory Heterodox in the Latin Middle Ages?. The Plurality Theses of Paul of Venice and the Medical Authorities, Galen, Haly Abbas and Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2001
Journal Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales
Volume 68
Pages 349–370
Categories Medicine, Latin Averroism, Galen
Author(s) Graham J. McAleer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part II: Between Galenism and Aristotelism. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Islamic Theories of Apoplexy (800–1200), 1998
By: Axel Karenberg, Irmgard Hort
Title Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part II: Between Galenism and Aristotelism. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Islamic Theories of Apoplexy (800–1200)
Type Article
Language English
Date 1998
Journal Journal of the History of Neurosciences
Volume 7
Pages 174–185
Categories Medicine, Galen, Aristotle
Author(s) Axel Karenberg , Irmgard Hort
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes on Medicine, 2019
By: Joël Chandelier
Title Averroes on Medicine
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 158-176
Categories Medicine, Galen
Author(s) Joël Chandelier
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A general study of themes in Averroes' medical works, which include the famous Colliget and several commentaries on Galen. Topics discussed include his medical epistemology, the role of medicine within the philosophical sciences, and his attitude toward Galen and other medical authorities.

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Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine, 2020
By: Yu Hoki
Title Ibn Rushd’s Criticism of the Theory of the Inherence of the Specific Property (khāssa) in Medicine
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Volume 57
Issue 1
Pages 33–48
Categories Medicine, Galen, Avicenna, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yu Hoki
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In Medieval Arabic medical texts, a specific property (khāṣṣa) is thought to be one of the effects of a medicine, and effective in a specific humor or organ. This property is mainly mentioned to explain two phenomena, purgative medicines' attraction of a certain humor and theriacas strengthening of human innate heat. Galen had advocated the theory that the faculty of attracting a specific material inheres in a medical substance as its nature (referred to as the theory of inherence). The same view can be seen in the texts of Islamic philosopher-physicians such as Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037). On the other hand, Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) perceived the defects of this theory and criticised it. This article examines his criticism of the theory of inherence in his discussions about purgative medicines and theriacas. Ibn Rushd says that using the theory of inheritance, we cannot explain the phenomenon that when someone takes more than one dose of purgative medicine, it attracts not only the specific humor, but all of the humors. He then proposes the alternative theory that the specific property originates in the proportions of the qualities in the attracting and the attracted materials. From this perspective, he insists that the object of attraction varies according to the amount of the heat in the medicine. As for theriaca, Ibn Rushd criticises the theory of inherence as seen in the writings of Ibn Sīnā Ibn Sīnā claims that theriaca's specific property is generated from its substance, i.e. the combination of form with matter, not the mixture of the four qualities. But according to Ibn Rushd, with this explanation, it is impossible to explain the body's various responses to theriaca. Therefore he maintains that one must explain its specific property in terms of the four qualities. To conclude, Ibn Rushd considers his theory to be more capable of explaining various phenomena than the theory of inherence is.

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Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part II: Between Galenism and Aristotelism. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Islamic Theories of Apoplexy (800–1200), 1998
By: Axel Karenberg, Irmgard Hort
Title Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part II: Between Galenism and Aristotelism. Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Islamic Theories of Apoplexy (800–1200)
Type Article
Language English
Date 1998
Journal Journal of the History of Neurosciences
Volume 7
Pages 174–185
Categories Medicine, Galen, Aristotle
Author(s) Axel Karenberg , Irmgard Hort
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Médecins et philosophes: Une histoire, 2019
By: Claire Grignon (Ed.), David Lefebvre (Ed.)
Title Médecins et philosophes: Une histoire
Type Edited Book
Language undefined
Date 2019
Publication Place Paris
Publisher CNRS
Categories Medicine, Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Renaissance
Author(s) Claire Grignon , David Lefebvre
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Depuis la séparation entre médecine et philosophie traditionnellement attribuée à Hippocrate, les relations entre ces disciplines ont toujours été intenses et parfois conflictuelles. C’est une histoire de ces rapports que proposent les quinze études réunies dans cet ouvrage, en se centrant sur quelques figures ou moments déterminants: Platon, Aristote, Galien, les écoles empirique et méthodiste, al-Rāzī, Averroès, le XVIe siècle italien, Locke, Kant, Cabanis, les philosophes-médecins de la IIIe République, Canguilhem ou encore Jaspers. Si aujourd’hui la demande adressée à la philosophie par les médecins concerne principalement l’éthique, le dialogue entre les deux disciplines a porté historiquement d’abord sur le statut épistémologique de la médecine : le meilleur médecin est-il nécessairement philosophe ? Que peut apprendre la philosophie de la méthode du médecin ? La médecine est-elle un art du cas singulier, une science ou les deux ? En s’inscrivant dans le temps long, ces études rappellent que l’institutionnalisation actuelle de la philosophie de la médecine s’accompagne parfois d’un oubli des origines historiques de la réflexion sur la médecine. Le contact avec la médecine conduisant aussi la philosophie à se souvenir qu’elle se définit comme un genre de vie, c’est la question de l’amélioration du bien-être et de la santé des hommes qui se pose alors, dans un environnement que l’introduction de techniques thérapeutiques nouvelles modifie en permanence.

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Philosophy and Medicine in the Formative Period of Islam, 2017
By: Peter Adamson (Ed.), Peter E. Pormann (Ed.)
Title Philosophy and Medicine in the Formative Period of Islam
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2017
Publication Place London
Publisher The Warburg Institute
Series Warburg Institute Colloquia
Volume 31
Categories Medicine, Galen, Tradition and Reception, al-Fārābī, Avicenna
Author(s) Peter Adamson , Peter E. Pormann
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Many of the leading philosophers in the Islamic world were doctors, yielding extensive links between philosophy and medicine. The twelve papers in this volume explore these links, focusing on the classical or formative period (up to the eleventh century AD). One central theme is the Arabic reception of the two outstanding figures of Greek medicine, Hippocrates and Galen ? we learn how Hippocrates was made into a mouthpiece for ethical wisdom, and how Galen influenced ideas in ethics and the nature of plant life. Aristotle is also considered, with a study of the reception of his ideas on longevity. Several of the luminaries of philosophy in the early Islamic world are also studied, including Abu Bakr al-Razi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna: all of them deploy medical ideas in their philosophical writings, whether to treat emotional distress as a kind of illness, to explain the function of eyesight, to compare the well-functioning state to the healthy human body, or to draw on anatomical ideas in works on psychology. Conversely, the volume also includes research on the use of philosophical ideas in medical texts, including medical compendia and the works of 'Ali ibn Ridwan. Attention is also given to the connections between medicine and Islamic theology (kalam). As a whole, the book provides both a survey of the kinds of work being done in this relatively unexplored area, and a springboard for further research.

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Was Medical Theory Heterodox in the Latin Middle Ages?. The Plurality Theses of Paul of Venice and the Medical Authorities, Galen, Haly Abbas and Averroes, 2001
By: Graham J. McAleer
Title Was Medical Theory Heterodox in the Latin Middle Ages?. The Plurality Theses of Paul of Venice and the Medical Authorities, Galen, Haly Abbas and Averroes
Type Article
Language English
Date 2001
Journal Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales
Volume 68
Pages 349–370
Categories Medicine, Latin Averroism, Galen
Author(s) Graham J. McAleer
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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